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Cuba-Continued.

Page.

Assault upon the American Chargé d'Affaires_.

268

Proposal of France, Germany, and Great Britain to arbitrate with

Cuba certain insurrectionary claims of their nationals arising

prior to 1898

276

Naval station at Guantánamo--

293

Visit of the Secretary of State to Cuba--

297

Raising of the wreck of the U. S. S. Maine--

304

Zapata swamp concession---

309

Denmark:

Imposition in the United States of an inheritance tax on nonresident

Danish heirs; application of article 7 of the treaty of 1826 be-

tween Denmark and the United States---

Death of King Frederik VIII and accession of King Christian X-

333

Presentation of a park to the Danish Government by American citi-

zens of Danish descent.---

335

Dominican Republic:

Message of the President, Don Eladio Victoria, to the Congress-

339

Political affairs: border warfare with Haiti; maintenance of the

status quo; insurrection; resignation of President Victoria ; election

of President Adolfo Nouel; good offices of the United States -- 340

Arbitration of boundary dispute between the Dominican Republic and

Haiti; good offices of the United States.

380

Visit of the Secretary of State to the Dominican Republic-

387

Ecuador:

Political affairs: insurrection; closure of ports; measures to protect

American interests; request for asylum at American Legation and

Consulate; attitude of the United States; succession of Provisional

Presidents Freile Zaldumbide and Baquerizo Moreno; election and

inauguration of President Plaza_-

391

Claims of the Guayaquil & Quito Railway Co. against Ecuador;

attitude of the United States; proposal of Ecuador to arbitrate_- 412

Sanitation of Guayaquil; proposal by Ecuador of a convention with

the United States; visit to Guayaquil of a United States inspection

commission

422

Attacks on Chinese citizens; good offices of the United States--- 434

France:

Presentation by France to the United States of a bust of “La France"

at the Champlain celebration --

439

Arrangement between the United States and France for reciprocal

protection in China of literary and artistic property (see China)-- 175

Germany :

Wireless telegraph convention between the United States and other

Powers

444

Great Britain :

Panama Canal tolls; exemption of vessels in the coastwise trade of

the United States from payment of tolls, and other features of the

Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912; objections thereto of the

British Government..

467

North Atlantic coast fisheries arbitration; agreement between the

United States and Great Britain adopting, with certain modifica-

tions, the rules and method of procedure recommended in the award

of 1910..

489

Arbitration of pecuniary claims..

494

Wreck of the British vessel Titanic; consular disposition of effects of

the deceased; recognition of the services of Captain Rostron.--- 494

Death of Mr. Whitelaw Reid, American Ambassador to Great Britain.. 497

Greece:

War with Turkey. (See Turkey.)

Guatemala :

Financial affairs; demand of Great Britain for restitution of the

coffee revenues; proposal of a new bond issue; good offices of the

United States --

500

Visit of the Secretary of State to Guatemala-

511

Haiti:

Message of President Jean Jacques Leconte to the Congress; report

of the Minister for Foreign Affairs---

521
Haiti-Continued.

Page.

Abrogation of the right of Syrians to trade in Haiti; rights of Amer-

ican citizens of Syrian birth.-

523

Visit of the Secretary of State to Haiti..

511

Death of President Leconte and recognition by the United States of

President Auguste

517

Honduras:

Financial affairs; proposed loan convention between Honduras and

the United States; proposed loan contracts; good oflices of the

United States; arbitration proposal

519

Extradition convention between the United States and Honduras---- 619

Visit of the Secretary of State to Honduras.

624

Italy :

Termination of the war between Italy and Turkey; sovereignty of

Italy over Libya; extraterritorial rights of the Cnited States--- 632

Japan :

Death of Emperor Mutsuhito; accession to the throne of Emperor

Yoshihito

634

Land laws of Chosen; validity of consular registration of title----- 612

Abandonment of the proposed international exposition at Tokyo----- 617

Liberia :

Message of the President to the Legislature..

6-19

Disturbances on the Anglo-Liberian frontier.

6.72

Reorganization of the Liberian Frontier Force under American officers. 062

Financial affairs; conclusion of the refunding loan of 1912; constitu-

tion of the customs receivership------

667

Luxemburg:

Death of Grand Duke William Alexander and accession to the throne

of Grand Duchess Marie Adelaide----

702

Mexico :

Messages of the President, Francisco I. Madero, to the Congress - 706

Political affairs.--Revolution : Measures taken by the United States

to prevent breach of neutrality laws and to protect American life

and property in Mexico---

708

Measures to prevent firing across the boundary line by Mexican troops- 878

Permission for Mexican troops to pass over American soil.

888

Closure of the port of Vera Cruz.-

900

Display of the American flag by American consular officers in Mexico- 903

Presentation of a statue of George Washington to Mexico by Ameri-

can citizens residing in Mexico.---

905

Taxation of foreigners by insurrectionary forces exercising de facto

authority---

907

Discrimination against American citizens employed on Mexican rail-

roads

910

The rights of asylum and of temporary refuge.

921

Protection of Chinese subjects in Mexico by American diplomatic and

consular officers; temporary refuge granted; waiver of Exclusion

Act -----

926

Claims of American citizens against Mexico for damages arising from

revolutionary disturbances

929

Montenegro:
War with Turkey (see Turkey)-----

1311

Dlorocco:

Relation of American protégés to the French authorities at Fez; good

offices of the British Consul in the case of Mohammed ben Lehsen

el Filaly

987

Nicaragua:

Constitution of Nicaragua, promulgated January 12, 1912_

993

Political affairs; revolutionary plots; the Mena insurrection ; breach

of the Dawson Agreements and of the Washington Conventions;

measures taken by the United States for protecting life and prop-

erty of foreigners; arrest and detention of Mena; election by direct

popular vote of Adolfo Díaz as Constitutional President from Janu-

ary 1, 1913

1012

Financial affairs; loan convention between Vicaragua and the Unitei

States submitted to the Senate, ratified by Nicaragua; loans to

Nicaragua by American bankers; good oflices of the United States.. 1071

!

Nicaragua-Continued.

Page.

Naturalization convention between the United States and Nicaragua-. 1105

Visit of the Secretary of State to Nicaragua..

1109

Relief of famine in Nicaragua----

1127

Panama:

Panama Canal tolls; objections of Great Britain to exemption of ves-

sels in the U. S. coastwise trade. (See Great Britain.)

Supervision of elections by the United States---

1133

Inauguration of President Porras.--.

1165

Railway concessions to foreigners and their relation to the Canal;

attitude of the United States--

1167

Wireless telegraph installation in Panama; treaty rights of the

United States

1206

Visit of the Secretary of State to the Republics of Central America

and the Caribbean Sea.-

1240

Assault on American citizens in Panama.

1250

Reinstatement of police officers dismissed at request of the United

States.-

1261

Paraguay :

Political affairs: insurrection of February-March, 1911; coup d'état

of July, 1911; various insurrections November 1911 to May 1912;

presidential successions of Gondra, Jara, Rojas, Peña, Navero, and

Schaerer; recognition of President Schaerer by the United States.- 1205

Peru:

Settlement of boundary dispute between Bolivia and Peru_-

1279

Sanitation of Iquitos; employment of American engineers; good offices

of the United States.---

1280

Russia :

Extension by Russia of the three-mile limit of territorial waters to

twelve miles for customs purposes and control of fisheries---

1237

Salvador:

Political disturbances; attitude of the United States.

1310

Visit of the Secretary of State to Salvador---

1328

The coat of arms and the flag of Salvador---

1339

Servia :

War with Turkey (see Turkey)----

1341

Turkey:

War between Turkey and Montenegro, Servia, Bulgaria, and Greece;

protection of American interests; good offices of neutral powers.. 1311

Venezuela :

Visit of the Secretary of State to Venezuela--

1355

International conferences and congresses held in the United States:

Ninth International Red Cross Conference_-

1365

Twelfth International Congress of Navigation_.

1365

Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry-

136.)

International Conference on Mine Explosions.

1365

Ninth International Congress of Hygiene and Demography-

1365

MESSAGE.

To the Senate and House of Representatives:

The foreign relations of the United States actually and potentially affect the state of the Union to a degree not widely realized and hardly surpassed by any other factor in the welfare of the whole Nation. · The position of the United States in the moral, intellectual, and material relations of the family of nations should be a matter of vital interest to every patriotic citizen. The national prosperity and power impose upon us duties which we can not shirk if we are to be true to our ideals. The tremendous growth of the export trade of the United States has already made that trade a very real factor in the industrial and commercial prosperity of the country, With the development of our industries the foreign commerce of the United States must rapidly become a still more essential factor in its economic welfare. Whether we have a far-seeing and wise diplomacy and are not recklessly plunged into unnecessary wars, and whether our foreign policies are based upon an intelligent grasp of present-day world conditions and a clear view of the potentialities of the future, or are governed by a temporary and timid expediency or by narrow views befitting an infant nation, are questions in the alternative consideration of which must convince any thoughtful citizen that no department of national polity offers greater opportunity for promoting the interests of the whole people on the one hand, or greater chance on the other of permanent national injury, than that which deals with the foreign relations of the United States.

The fundamental foreign policies of the United States should be raised high above the conflict of partisanship and wholly dissociated from differences as to domestic policy. In its foreign affairs the United States should present to the world a united front. The intellectual, financial, and industrial interests of the country and the publicist, the wage earner, the farmer, and citizen of whatever occupation must cooperate in a spirit of high patriotism to promote that national solidarity which is indispensable to national efficiency and to the attainment of national ideals.

The relations of the United States with all foreign powers remain upon a sound basis of peace, harmony, and friendship. A greater insistence upon justice to American citizens or interests wherever it may have been denied and a stronger emphasis of the need of mutuality in commercial and other relations have only served to strengthen our friendships with foreign countries by placing those friendships upon a firm foundation of realities as well as aspirations.

Before briefly reviewing the more important events of the last year in our foreign relations, which it is my duty to do as charged with their conduct and because diplomatic affairs are not of a nature to make it appropriate that the Secretary of State make a formal annual report, I desire to touch upon some of the essentials to the safe management of the foreign relations of the United States and to endeavor, also, to define clearly certain concrete policies which are the logical modern corollaries of the undisputed and traditional fundamentals of the foreign policy of the United States.

REORGANIZATION OF TIIE DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

At the beginning of the present administration the United States, having fully entered upon its position as a world power, with the responsibilities thrust upon it by the results of the Spanish-American War, and already engaged in laying the groundwork of a vast foreign trade upon which it should one day become more and more dependent, found itself without the machinery for giving thorough attention to, and taking effective action upon, a mass of intricate business vital to American interests in every country in the world.

The Department of State was an archaic and inadequate machine lacking most of the attributes of the foreign office of any great modern power. With an appropriation made upon my recommendation by the Congress on August 5, 1909, the Department of State was completely reorganized. There were created Divisions of LatinAmerican Affairs and of Far Eastern, Near Eastern, and Western European Affairs. To these divisions were called from the foreign service diplomatic and consular oflicers possessing experience and knowledge gained by actual service in different parts of the world and thus familiar with political and commercial conditions in the regions concerned. The work was highly specialized. The result is that where previously this Government from time to time would emphasize in its foreign relations one or another policy, now American interests in every quarter of the globe are being cultivated with equal assiduity. This principle of politico-geographical division possesses also the good feature of making possible rotation between the officers of the departmental, the diplomatic, and the consular branches of the foreign service, and thus keeps the whole diplomatic and consular establishments under the Department of State in close touch and equally inspired with the aims and policy of the Government. Through the newly created Division of Information the foreign service is kept fully informed of what transpires from day to day in the international relations of the country, and contemporary foreign comment affecting American interests is promptly brought to the attention of the department. The law offices of the department were greatly strengthened. There were added foreign-trade advisers to cooperate with the diplomatic and consular bureaus and the politicogeographical divisions in the innumerable matters where commercial diplomacy or consular work calls for such special knowledge. The same oflicers, together with the rest of the new organization, are ablo at all times to give to American citizens accurate information as to conditions in foreign countries with which they have business and likewise to cooperate more effectively with the Congress and also with the other executive departments.

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