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tion of arms from the United States, it will not hesitate to take
CHARLES E. HUGHES
The Consul at Aden (Davis) to the Secretary of State
ADEN, November 7, 1922.
[Received December 1.] SIR: I have the honor to refer to the Department's Instruction dated June 10, 1922, File No. 884.113/6, instructing this Consulate to transmit any additional information regarding the shipment of American arms and ammunition lying at Aden, and any attempt to forward it to the authorities in Abyssinia, and to report that 34 cases of cartridges and 8 cases containing guns, were permitted by the Aden authorities to be shipped to Abyssinia.
They left for Djibouti, November 3, 1922, at 6 P. M. on the British cruiser Crocus, accompanied by Paulos Manamano, the Abyssinian representative, who in 1921 visited the United States and made the purchase. The Crocus likewise carried His Highness Ras Tafari and his party, who had just made a short but formal visit to Aden.
Whether or not the arms and ammunition will be permitted to reach Abyssinia from Djibouti without trouble, it is impossible to say. The representative, Paulos Manamano, seemed to be quite confident in regard to this point, however. He indicated that it was his belief, that the French and Italians had concurred in the arrangement and that from now on, no further trouble would be experienced. I have [etc.]
NEGOTIATIONS TO ENSURE BY TREATY THE RIGHTS OF THE UNITED
STATES IN TERRITORIES UNDER FRENCH MANDATE:
Syria and the Lebanon
8902.01/65 : Telegram
The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France (Herrick)
WASHINGTON, May 19, 1922–5 p. m. 159. Telegram of May 18 from Grew & states that he is advised that France may try to oppose Palestine Mandate, the basis for this opposition being that French have not been able to reach agreement with the United States concerning Syria.
The following is submitted, in view of the foregoing, for your guidance should French Foreign Office bring up this question:
The French stated in their reply of December 22 to our memorandum concerning A and B mandates that this matter would be dealt with in a later communication, as the status of the territories in the Near East had not been legally defined. (See Department's instruction No. 1094 of December 29.*)
The British answered the August memorandum in similar terms but followed up their communication at once with detailed consideration of the Palestine Mandate. Balfour urgently pressed this matter when he was in America. There followed an exchange of notes with the result that a general agreement was reached as to the terms on which the Palestine Mandate would be recognized by the United States.
The Department is entirely ready to proceed to the consideration of the Mandate for Syria, but the French Government has not attempted to come to an agreement as the British did with regard to Palestine. It is the view of the Department that properly it is for France to take the initiative in bringing up this matter.
* See also subjects under Morocco, p. 720.
The Ambassador in France (Herrick) to the Secretary of State
Paris, May 26, 1922—1 p.m.
[Received May 26—8:48 a. m.] 215. Reference to Department's telegram 159 of May 19. In conversation at Foreign Office today question of Syrian mandate was brought up. I was told that at early date our Government would receive proposals.
Mention was made of Palestine mandate, but there was not the least indication that French Government might raise opposition.
The Ambassador in France (Herrick) to the Secretary of State
PARIS, June 30, 1922.
[Received July 11.] Sir: With reference to my telegram No. 269, June 30th, 4 P.M.,5 I have the honor to transmit herewith copy and translation of the proposed texts of the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon and the Franco-American Treaty in regard thereto. A copy and translation of the accompanying Foreign Office Note are likewise forwarded. I have [etc.]
MYRON T. HERRICK
The French Minister for Foreign Affairs (Poincaré) to the Ameri
can Ambassador (Herrick)
MR. AMBASSADOR: By the memorandum of August 9, 1921,9 Your Excellency was good enough to set forth the views of the Government of the United States with regard to the mandates to be established over certain territories which, by the terms of the peace treaties, cease to be under the sovereignty of the enemy powers. With regard to those territories which belonged to the Ottoman Empire, the American Government recalled that the Allied Powers were in a position to dispose of them only because of the victory obtained in common over Germany. It expressed the desire, consequently,
See telegram no. 377, Aug. 7, 1921, to the Ambassador in France, Foreign Relations, 1921, vol I, p. 922.
that no disposal, establishing a differential treatment to the detriment of the United States or contrary to the principle of commercial equality, should be set down in the terms of the mandate. It indicated at the same time the provisions of drafts of mandate which appeared to it necessary to modify with this in view.
On December 22, 1921,' my predecessor informed Your Excellency that the Government of the Republic, on its part, was quite willing to comply with the views of the United States by a direct agreement guaranteeing to citizens of the United States the enjoyment in the French mandated territories of the same rights and privileges as the nationals of States, members of the League of Nations. He added that, as far as the text of the mandate which France is to exercise in Syria and the Lebanon was especially concerned, a Note would be sent to Your Excellency at a later date informing him of the modifications made in the original text with a view to giving satisfaction to the Government of the United States.
I have the honor to transmit herewith to Your Excellency the text, modified in this manner, which the French Government intends to ask the approval of at the next Council of the League of Nations. As the Government of the United States will notice, the provisions set forth under Articles V, X, XI, XVIII, comply with the desire which it expressed concerning the reestablishment of the capitulations at the time when the mandate shall end, the free expansion of missions, economic liberty and equality in the mandated territory. There is added to this text a draft of a Convention by which the Federal Government, on the one hand, shall give its consent to the exercise by France of this mandate over Syria and the Lebanon, and the French Government, on the other hand, shall guarantee to citizens of the United States the same enjoyments from all points of view of the same rights and privileges in Syria and the Lebanon as the nationals of States, members of the League of Nations.
This draft Convention reproduces, mutatis mutandis, the one which, with regard to Palestine, the British Government communicated to His Excellency the Ambassador of the United States of America at London 8 and to the terms of which I understand the Governments of Washington and London have agreed.
By reason of the advantage it would be to the inhabitants of Syria and the Lebanon to have a prompt definition of the status of their country and in view of the early date of the meeting of the Council of the League of Nations, the Government of the Republic would be happy to know as soon as possible if the Federal Government gives its adhesion to the draft of the Mandate and the draft of the Conven
* Ibid., p. 925. * For text of draft convention regarding Palestine, see p. 282.
tion which are submitted to it. The draft of the Convention will be, in such an event, initialled before the meeting of the Council of the League of Nations fixed for July 10th, its final signature being deferred until the signature of the Peace Treaty with Turkey. Please accept [etc.]
R. POINCARÉ PARIS, June 29, 1922.
Draft Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon
WHEREAS by the peace treaty concluded with the Principal Allied Powers, the Ottoman Empire renounced in favor of the Principal Allied Powers all her rights and titles to the territories of the former Ottoman Empire situated to the south of the southern frontier of Turkey as fixed in the said treaty;
WHEREAS by the said treaty the high contracting powers have agreed that, in accordance with the terms of Article 22, paragraph 4, of the Covenant of the League of Nations, that part of the abovementioned territories known as Syria be constituted an independent state, the administration of which shall be guided by the advice and
elp of a mandatory power, until this state is in a position to govern itself;
WHEREAS the Principal Allied Powers have decided that the mandate for these territories mentioned above comprising Syria and Lebanon should be conferred on the Government of the French Republic, which has accepted it;
WHEREAS the terms of this mandate, which are also defined in the articles below, have been accepted by the Government of the French Republic;
WHEREAS the Government of the French Republic undertakes to exercise this mandate on behalf of the League of Nations, in accordance with the said articles:
THE COUNCIL OF THE LEAGUE OF Nations approves the terms of the mandate for Syria and Lebanon.
The mandatory shall, within a period of three years from the coming into force of this mandate, draw up an organic law for Syria and Lebanon. This organic law shall be prepared in agreement with the native authorities and shall take into consideration the rights, interests and desires of all the peoples inhabiting the mandated territory. The mandatory shall further enact measures
File translation revised.