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maintain that nature always teems with life, wherever living beings can be placed, may therefore speculate with freedom on the possibility of independent worlds; some existing in different parts of space, others pervading each other unseen and unknown, in the same space, and others again to which space may not be a necessary mode of existence.'

203. It may now be desirable to reply by anticipation to certain objections which are likely to be made to the theory we have proposed. Let us divide these into three categories—religious, theological, and scientific.

Objection First (Religious).—It may be said to us, 'Who are you who are wise beyond what is written? Are ye of them to whom it was said of old, "Eritis sicut Deus scientes bonum et malum"? Beware of the words of the great Apostle of the Gentiles :— Φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοὶ ἐμωράνθησαν.

Reply. As we have already said (Art. 50), we do not write for those who are so assured of the truth of their religion that they are unable to entertain the smallest objection to it. We write for honest inquirers for honest doubters, it may be ;-who desire to know what science, when allowed perfect liberty of thought, and loyally followed, has to say upon those points which so much concern us all. We are content in this work to view the universe from the physical standpoint; you may therefore perchance esteem us of the earth earthy; nevertheless we think that our strength lies in keeping up a communication with those verities which we all acknowledge.

204. Objection Second (Theological).—Your idea of the spiritual universe is analogous to that of Sweden

borg, and we must therefore dismiss it as untrue, inasmuch as we cannot recognise the assumption of the spiritual body until after the resurrection.

Reply. All that we have done is to remove the scientific objection to a future state, supposed to be furnished by the principle of Continuity. We know nothing about the laws of this state, and conceive it to be quite possible, if otherwise likely, that the soul may remain veiled or in abeyance until the resurrection. We maintain only that we are logically constrained to admit the existence of some frame or organ which is not of this earth, and which survives dissolution-if we regard the principle of Continuity and the doctrine of a future state as both true. Besides, the analogy of Paul, in which the body of the believer at death is compared to a seed put into the ground, not only implies some sort of continuity, but also expresses his belief in a present spiritual body. There is, says the apostle (observe, not there shall be), a spiritual body. Again the same apostle tells us (2 Corinthians v. 1), 'That if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.'

205. Objection Third (Theological).—Your argument will apply to the brute creation as well as to man; now we cannot recognise the immortality of the brutes.

Reply-As before stated, we know nothing about the laws of the invisible universe, except that it is related by bonds of some kind, possibly of energy, to the present. All we have attempted has been to remove an objection to the doctrine of immortality

which has been wrongly put forth as scientific, or at least as consistent with scientific knowledge.

206. Objection Fourth (Theological).-The reasoning you adopt being founded on the law of continuity, seems to imply the development of man's frame from those of the inferior animals, and therefore by implication contradicts the scriptural account of the creation and fall of man.

Reply. We cannot perceive that our reasoning is in the least degree inconsistent with the account of man's origin given in Scripture. This account implies no doubt a peculiar operation of the invisible universe, but our reasoning compels us to look in this direction for the origin of certain occurrences. Whether the production of man has been the occasion for a peculiar interposition of the unseen it is not within our province to discuss. We can only say that we see no reason from our principles to question the view which asserts that man was made by a peculiar operation out of a pre-existent universe.

207. Objection Fifth (Theological).—The resurrection consistent with your theory could not be a resurrection of the same particles as were laid in the grave, and in this respect it would be dissimilar to that of Christ.

Reply.-A dissimilarity between the two exists under any theory, for the body of Christ did not experience corruption, while the bodies of believers in Christ are manifestly dissolved by death.

[We make the following suggestion with much hesitation.

What we have to say is founded upon an exceedingly able work by Edward White, entitled Life in

Christ, which has recently been published, and from which we extract the following passage (page 263):—

'But the Saviour was Divine. As man, identified with human nature, He died, and His death became a sin-offering; as God He could not die. As man He was made "under the law;" as God He was above the law laid on creatures. . . . He arose, therefore, as the Divine Conqueror of death, "God over all, blessed for evermore," and was thus "declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by His resurrection from the dead."-Rom. i. 4. He rose, not "in the likeness of sinful flesh;" not "under the law," but in the charracter of the "Lord from heaven," our Lord and our God:"not in the image of the "son of Adam," but as the "Son of the Highest," having delivered us from wrath by the death of His humanity, to endow us with immortality through the life of His Divinity. He was no longer "the man of sorrows," but The First and The Last and The Living One; no longer crowned with thorns, and clothed in a peasant's robe, but wearing the diadem of the Lord of the Universe, and shining with the supereminent splendours of the Godhead.'

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If then Christ died as man, and was reanimated in virtue of His divinity, the analogy between Christ, who is the head, and believers, who are His body, will be complete if we suppose that each believer dies as a man, but is raised up by virtue of the divinity of Christ, and inasmuch as the Head is not present here in His glorified bodily form, so it cannot be supposed that His members should at present assume that form.

But when Christ appears again upon earth we are told that His members being raised in what is termed the first resurrection will then accompany Him.

And judging from S. Matthew (chap. xxvii. verse 52), something of this kind, but of a partial nature,

took place when Christ locally appeared, after His resurrection, in Jerusalem.

In fine, the true analogy between Christ and the believer should prevent us from supposing that while Christ is absent in His glorified body believers should nevertheless assume theirs.

Now this delay implies the corruption of the believer's body, and renders us unable to believe that the very same particles will be raised again as in the case of Christ. But surely no one can suppose, that if moral and spiritual identity is secured, the mere material particles can be of any consequence.]

208. Objection Sixth (Scientific).—If the general principles on which all material organisms are constructed are the same throughout the world, is not this an argument by analogy that all such organisms have a similar relation to the universe? On what principle then can immortality be assumed to be possible for men while it is denied to brutes?

Reply. When we speak of the general principles on which all organisms are constructed being the same, we mean that certain chemical and physical laws apply both to man and the brute creation. Gravitation and chemical affinity are the same for both. There must also be a similarity in tangible substance, inasmuch as both co-exist in the same visible world. In fine, there must be many points in which man is very similar in construction to the lower animals. Thus each possesses nerves-each has what may be termed delicacy of construction-the frame of each possesses materials which will burn in the fire In fine, not only do strong similarities exist between all animals, but there are also strong similarities be

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