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Essential requisites for continued existence,

An organ of memory,

Possibility of action in the present,
Principle of Continuity-

Illustrated by reference to astronomy,
Breach of the principle illustrated,

Extension to other faculties of man,
Application of this principle to Christian miracles-

Erroneous position of old divines,
Such opposed to the genius of Christianity,

New method of explanation,
Application of this principle to the doctrines of the extreme

scientific school-
The visible universe will probably come to an end in

transformable energy,
It must have been developed out of the invisible,
THE UNIVERSE,–
Similar errors committed by the extreme schools of

theology and science,
Application of this principle to Immortality,

Three conceivable suppositions,
These reduced to two,
Future course of our argument,
The problem may be profitably discussed,

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Definition of the term ' Physical Universe,'
It contains something else besides matter or stuff,
Grounds of our belief in an external universe,
These in accordance with our definition of the laws of

the universe (Art. 54), Meaning of conservation,

95 102 96 103

97 106

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99-100 108

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Article Page [Use and Abuse of the Term Force,]

97 104 Conservation of Momentum,

97 105 Conservation of Moment of Momentum, Conservation of Vis Viva,

97 107 Definition of Energy,

98-99 108 Newton's second interpretation of his Third Law, . Friction changes work into heat, Historical sketch of the theory of energy,

. 102-103 Transformability of energy constitutes its use,

104 115 Case where energy is useless, Historical Sketch of Second Law of Thermodynamus

* Carnot's perfect heat-engine, *Sir W. Thomson's definition of absolute temperature, *107 118 *Melting point of ice lowered by pressure,

*108 *Sir W. Thomson's rectification of Carnot's reasoning,

*109-*110 * Professor J. Clerk-Maxwell's demons,

*111-*113 122 Degradation of energy, Future of the physical universe,

. 114-115 126 Pasi of the physical universe,

116 128

105 116

*106 117

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114 126

CHAPTER IV.

MATTER AND ETHER.

118 130

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Inquiry regarding structure and material of the universe, 117 129
Various hypotheses regarding matter-
(1.) Greek notion of the Atom,
Speculations of Lucretius,

119-130 131 (2.) Theory of Boscovich (centres of force),

131 137 (3.) Theory of infinite divisibility, .

132 138 (4.) Vortex-atom theory,

133-134 139 Remarks on these theories,

135-136 141 Relative quantity of matter associated with energy, 137-138 142 Universal gravitationIs a weak force,

139 144

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Two ways of accounting for it,

Le Sage's hypothesis,
The Ethereal medium-

Its principal properties apparently incongruous,
Analogy of Professor Stokes,
Distortion and displacement of ether,
Inferior limit of its density,
Its supposed imperfect transparency,

Remarks on ether,
Remarks on the speculations of this chapter,
Modification of the vortex-ring hypothesis,
Possible disappearance of the visible universe,

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143 148 144 149 145 149 146 150 147 151

148 153 149-150 154 151-152 155

153 157

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CHAPTER V.

DEVELOPMENT.

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Nature of inquiry stated,
Chemical development,

Changes in lists of elementary substances,
Prout's speculations,
Experiments of M. Stas,
Family groups,

Mr. Lockyer's speculations,
Globe development,

Hypothesis of Kant and Laplace,
Tendency to aggregation of mass,
Process cannot have been going on for ever,

160 163 161-162 164

Peculiarity of products developed inorganically,
Life development,

Morphological and physiological species,
Species regarded physiologically,
Position of a certain class of theologians,
Tendency to minor variations,
Artificial selection,

163 166
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165 168

166 170 167 171 168 172

169 174

Natural selection, .
Unproved point in the Darwinian hypothesis,
Remarks of Mr. Darwin,
Development of the Darwinian hypothesis,
Mr. Wallace's views,
Professor Huxley's remarks,
Position assumed by the authors,

Article Pago 170 175 171 175 172 177 173 177 174 178 175 178 176 179

CHAPTER VI.

SPECULATIONS AS TO POSSIBILITY OF SUPERIOR INTELLI

GENCES IN THE VISIBLE UNIVERSE.

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177 1887 178 181 179 182

Position of life in the present physical universe,
Two kinds of equilibrium,
Two kinds of machines or material systems, .
Two respects in which a living being resembles a machine,

180 183 A living being resembles a delicately constructed machine,

181 185 The delicacy is due to chemical instability,

182 186 Delicacy of construction derived from the sun's rays,

183 186 Delicacy of construction in atmospheric changes,

184 187 Worship of powers of nature-mediæval superstitions, 185 189 Theory which attributes a soul to the un rse, Real point at issue stated,

187 190 Man presents the highest order of the present visible universe, 188 191 The same idea pervades the Old Testament, .

189 192 And it likewise pervades the New Testament,

190-191 193

186 190

CHAPTER VII.

THE UNSEEN UNIVERSE.

Decadence of the visible universe,
Its arrangements apparently wasteful,
Explanation of this,
Memory of the universe,

192-193 195

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248 250

Angelic intelligences, .

249 251

Remarks cn God's providential government,

250-252 253

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