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the Appalachian Mountains. This country is nearly in the form of a circle. Historians differ as to the origin of the name. erally believed that the Shawnees gave the name, Kentucky, which
“the dark and bloody ground,” to the country in which they waged such fierce warfare and sustained such fearful losses during their brief residence.
Florida. — In the contest between the European nations for the possession of America, Spain, France, and England each claimed Tennessee. Spain included it in her province of Florida.
New France.-France explored a portion of the State, established trading posts at Memphis, Nashville, and other points, and included Tennessee in her province of New France.
Louisiana.—When France reörganized the form of government for her American possessions, Tennessee was included in her province of Louisiana, so named in honor of Louis, Le Grand.
ENGLISH COLONIAL NAMES. Virginia. - From 1584, when Sir Walter Raleigh began the colonization of America, to 1663, Tennessee was a part of the colony of Virginia — a period of seventy-nine years.
Carolina.—When Virginia was divided in 1663, Tennessee became a part of Carolina, and so remained until 1693-a period of thirty years.
North Carolina. — When Carolina was divided into two provinces, Tennessee became a part of North Carolina, and so remained until 1790. During this period its settlement by Europeans began. Previous to 1763, Tennessee had not been settled by the whites, and was almost unknown to them, although successively included within the charter limits of the English colonies above named, and also claimed by Spain and France. After the “First. Treaty of Paris,” in 1763, the title of England was established by treaty, and a flood of immigrants began to pour in. These settlers established independent communities, and gave new names to different portions of the State.
Watauga.-Settlers in the eastern portion of the State from Virginia and North Carolina, in 1772 organized an independent gov
ernment, and adopted the famous “ Articles of the Watauga Associa. tion.” This was the first written constitution adopted west of the Appalachian Mountains, and the first constitution made by native Americans.
NAMES OF TENNESSEE AS A PART OF THE UNITED
Washington County.-The settlers of Watauga had emigrated west mainly to escape the rule of the British colonial governors. They were uncertain whether their new home was within the charter limits of Virginia or North Carolina. They availed themselves of this uncertainty and of their remoteness from the seats of government to hold aloof from either colony. When the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, in 1775, afforded the prospect for freedom from British rule, the hearts of the Watauga settlers turned to their old friends and neighbors who were fighting the battles of the Revolution on the Atlantic coast. They tendered their sympathy and aid. They organized themselves into a military district called Washington, which was the first geographical division named in honor of the Father of his Country. Having discovered that they were located within the charter limits of North Carolina, they applied for recognition from that State. In compliance with this petition, the Legis
, lature of North Carolina, in 1777, erected the county of Washington, with the boundaries which now include the State of Tennessee.
Cumberland. - In 1780 the settlers on the banks of Cumberland River organized an independent government under articles of agreement, entitled the “Cumberland Compact.” Fortunately this Compact has been preserved, and is a model of government suited to pioneer life. The middle portion of the State was popularly called Cumberland for many years.
Frankland, or Franklin. – In 1784 the eastern portion of the State attempted to form an independent government. Historians differ as to the name. Judge Haywood, “the father of Tennessee history,” calls it Frankland (the land of the free). Later historians call it Franklin. It is certain that the convention which assembled at Greeneville, November 14, 1785, adopted the name Franklin. The “State of Franklin" came to an end in 1788.
Southwest Territory.-In December, 1789, the Legislature of North Carolina passed the act ceding Tennessee to the United States. February 25, 1790, the deed of cession was presented to
Congress and was accepted April 2, 1790. An act for the government of the territory was passed by Congress May 26, 1790. The territory was styled in legislation “The Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio"; but was popularly called the Southwest Territory. William Blount was appointed governor, and Knoxville was the Territorial capital. For a period of six years Tennessee remained in territorial apprenticeship.
Tennessee.-In 1796 the Southwest Territory became a State, being the first State erected out of United States territory. The beautiful name, Tennessee, is said to have been proposed by Andrew Jackson. Let us hope that it will be the last of our many names, and let us echo the memorable prayer of Blackstone and Father Paul, Esto perpetua.
Divisions of the Subject.-Our history is thus divided into two parts, as follows:
The history of Tennessee from the earliest times to the date of its admission as a State of the Union, June 1, 1796. Part I embraces three divisions :
(1) Aboriginal History; including sketches of the Indian tribes who resided within the limits of the State, or were connected with its history.
(2) History of the Colonial Relations, extending from 1584, when the English colonial system began, to 1763, when the First Treaty of Paris established the claims of England; and including the colonial relations of Tennessee to foreign claimants, and to the English government, and as part successively of Virginia, of Carolina, and of North Carolina.
(3) The History of the Settlement of the Country by the whites to the date of its admission as a State.
The history of Tennessee from its admission into the Union, 1796, to the present time. This part is also treated in three divisions:
(1) Tennessee under the Constitution of 1796.
THE HISTORY OF TENNESSEE FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE DATE OF ITS ADMISSION
AS A STATE, JUNE I, 1796.