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readers, in view of the fact that the United States is now forming a colonial service, to know what salaries are paid to some of the officials in the British tropical colonies. In British Guiana, which contains a population of 300,000, the salaries of some of the higher officials are: Governor, $24,000; chief justice, $9,700; attorney-general, $7,300; colonial. secretary, $7,300; immigration agent-general, $7,300. In Ceylon the salaries are (calculated at 3 rupees to the dollar): Governor, $27,000; chief justice, $8,300; attorney-general, $6,000, and colonial secretary, $8,000. It may be thought that these salaries are large, but it should be remembered that smaller salaries would fail to attract to the service men of the high standard so necessary to successful administration. Again, although a high salary will not keep a dishonest man from following his evil inclinations, the Government is enabled by the offer of high salaries to secure a wide field of selection amongst a class of men who are constitutionally high-minded and honest; but the lowest possible ground, that of pure self-interest, it will be readily perceived that the advantages of belonging to the service are so great that few men will be foolish enough to risk their career on the slender chance of their malpractices remaining undiscovered. One can not but be struck in traveling in the British colonies by the absolute confidence placed by all classes in the honesty of the public servants. In most of the colonies, and more especially those enjoying representative institutions, the acts of public servants are i subjected to the most detailed criticism; but although I have heard occasional accusations of incompetence or laziness I have not heard, i even from the most violent critics, any suggestion that a public servant was corrupt. It seems to me that had England achieved nothing else, she might rest satisfied with having supplied her dependencies with such a class of public servants as have bred the belief in the many races under her flag that the public funds are devoted to public purposes only, and that the most powerful planter, the wealthiest merchant, is no more in the eyes of the law than the humblest cooly or the meanest peasant. It is useless, however, for me to convey any adequate impression of the excellence of the British colonial service. Only those who have lived in contact with these administrative systems can appreciate the sterling qualities of the men who are devoting their lives to the cause of good government."


Mr. C. P. Lucas, in his introduction to the 1891 edition of Lewis's Government of Dependencies, says on this subject: “The system of official patronage is year by year contracted rather than extended. The civil service is recruited by open competition in India and some of the large Crown colonies. In the self-governing colonies the governors alone are appointed from England, and the wishes of the colonists, whether well-founded or not, are respected in making the appointments. It can not be seriously maintained that the standard of public life at home suffers from the fact that a certain number of posts in the smaller colonies are still in the gift of the secretary of state. * * * The evil of appointment of natives of the dominant country to offices in the col their qualifications now exists but only in a very slight degree, and in order to counteract it the principle of open competition has been adopted in regard to India and the eastern colonies. On the other hand, the introduction of this principle has tended to the perpetuation of another of the evils mentioned, namely, the exclusion of natives of the colony from offices in their own country. Most foreign or colonial possessions of European nations have two classes of native-born residents, a colored race and Europeans who have been born and bred in the colony, while a further class is formed by the intermixture of the two. Under the old Spanish system one of the evils most complained of was that Spanish creoles were excluded from offices in favor of Spaniards sent out from Spain. This last-named evil does not exist in the British Empire, for where the English colonial element is strong—that is, in the self-governing colonies—the whole patronage, with the exception of the appointment of the governor, has been taken away from the home Government and handed over to the colonies. In the case of India, on the other hand, it is mainly a question between Indians and Englishmen sent out from England, and here the tendency of open competition which gives no preference to either race is, as a matter of fact, to exclude the native Indian. Earnest attempts have been made to modify the system so as to prevent such exclusion, but the broad fact remains that if the most approved principle for selecting the best men is adopted in its entirety, it results in almost unadulterated European rule."


Java, says M. Le Clercq, “is administered by a hierarchy of officials constituting a select body. Having passed first through the school of Delft or the University of Leyden, which are, so to speak, the nurseries of colonial administrators of the civil branch, they then undergo a special examination either in Holland or Batavia, the programme of which is fixed by the minister of colonies. This programme varies according to the service for which application is made. For the higher posts it is necessary to take the "great examination of functionaries" (groot ambtenaars examen), which bears on matters mainly technical and comprises principally the history, geography, and ethnography of the Dutch Indies, the civil and religious laws, the political institutions and the customs of the natives, and the Malayan and Javanese languages. The examination is practically made up of two successive ones separated generally by an interval of two years, the second examination embracing the same subjects as the first, but going deeper and more extensively into the subjects. The candidates for judicial functions must be doctors of law, and, moreover, pass a technical examination in the Malayan and Javanese languages, the Moslem law and the customs of the Dutch Indies, the public law and colonial institutions. The vacancies are annually filled by the minister of colonies, who, after consulting with the government of the colony, publishes in the official gazette the number of candidates who are permitted to report to the governor-general to be appointed either for administrative or judiciary positions. The final choice is then made according to the standing obtained in the examination. The chosen candidates are entitled besides first-class passage to an allowance to cover the cost of equipment, and after their arrival at the Indies to a provisional compensation pending their definite appointment, for they are not immediately given important places, but have first to discharge a preparatory service under a comptroller or assistant resident, who initiates them into the practice of colonial affairs. The salaries of the civil officials are fixed either by the King or the governor-general. These salaries are at least treble the amount paid for positions of similar grade in the mother country and a pension guarantees to them a secure retreat after an assured career. The members of the India council, I think, are paid 36,000 florins (or over $14,000), the provincial governors, 20,000 florins (over $8,000); the residents, from 12,000 to 18,000 florins (or from $4,800 to $7,200); the assistant residents receive 7,000 florins (or $2,800); the residential secretaries, 4,000 to 6,000 florins (or from $1,600 to $2,400); comptrollers, 3,600 to 4,000 (or $1,450 to $1,600). There is not a justice of the peace or court sheriff, however modest, that does not get a better salary than our highest magistrate. In the large cities of the colony, as, for instance, Batavia or Soerabaja, a lawyer of good standing makes at least 50,000 florins (over $20,000). As is seen, the official body that presides over the destinies of Java is skillfully organized, carefully selected, and liberally compensated. It is constituted, so to say, of the cream of the youth in the motherland. Owing to the severe selection to which it is subject, it is possibly the most perfect colonial service in the world.


Sir John Strachey, in his work, India, 1894, already referred to, says: “It was long ago laid down as a maxim in regard to the employment of European officers in the more important branches of the public service in India, that the first selection shall not be made in that country, but shall rest with the authorities in England, while after the first selection those authorities shall exercise no interference. The distribution of offices and all questions of appointment and promotion are left absolutely to the governments in India itself. “It is a historical fact' (I am quoting from an official paper) 'that the observance of this wholesome rule has more than anything else conduced to the purity of Indian patronage and to its general freedom from party and political bias.' * * * The first appointments to the covenanted service were employed by the directors of the East Indian Company by nomination. In that year the nomination system was abolished and the service thrown open to competition of all British subjects. In 1854 regulations for the competitive examinations were prepared, the main object being to secure for the Indian civil service young men who had received the best, the most liberal, the most finished education that this country affords. The scheme of examination was accordingly made to embrace most of the subjects of the honor schools of the universities of Great Britian and Ireland. The limits of age for candidates have varied. Since 1892 they have been from 21 to 23. Successful candidates remain for one year on probation, at the end of which time they have to pass a special examination on subjects connected with the duties they will have to perform in India. Candidates who are found to have a competent knowledge of these subjects then receive their appointments to the civil service in India; candidates are encouraged by the grant of a special allowance of £100 to pass their year of probation at one of the universities or colleges approved by the secretary of state. No one now doubts that this competitive system has been successful in its results. No country has ever possessed a more admirable body of puplic servants than the civil service of India, and in this term I must include not only its covenanted member, but those of its other branches. Although the competitive examinations are open to all classes of British subjects, the number of natives of India who have been successful in obtaining appointments has been small.


“It is a common but complete mistake to suppose that the greater part of the civil administration in India is maintained in the hands of Englishmen and that natives are excluded from important posts. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The number of Englishmen in the civil service is so small that it is not the least extraordinary fact connected with our Indian dominion that we should be able with such a handful of men to control the administration of so vast an empire. Roughly speaking, it may be said that including military officers and others, less than 1,000 Englishmen are employed in the government of 221,000,000 people and in the partial control of 67,000,000 more. In British India there is about one English civil officer to every 300,000 of native population and every 1,200 square miles. Although the highest offices of control are necessarily held by Englishmen, by far the greater part of the administration is in native hands. Excluding the 765 offices held by members of the covenanted service and excluding also all posts of minor importance, nearly all of which are held by natives, there are about 2,600 persons in the superior branches of the executive and judicial services, and among them there are only about thirty Europeans. Notwithstanding the constantly increasing demand for improved administration the strength of the covenanted service recruited in England has been reduced in the last thirty years by more than 22 per cent, and further gradual reduction is in progress. During the same period the number of natives employed in the executive and judicial services has gone on constantly increasing, and with exceptions so rare that they deserve no consideration they now hold all offices other than those held by the comparatively small body of men appointed in England. Native officers manage most of the business connected with all branches of the revenue and with the multifarious interests in land; natives dispose of the greater part of the magisterial work; the duties of the civil courts, excepting the courts of appeal, are almost entirely intrusted to native judges; a native judge sits on the bench in each of the high courts, and for many years past native judges have exercised jurisdiction in all classes of civil cases over natives and Europeans alike. Nothing in the recent history of England has been more remarkable than the improvement in the standard of morality in the higher classes of native officials, much of which has been due to the fact that their position and salaries are far better than they were and that temptations to corruption have been removed.


“The salaries given to natives in posts of importance are very liberal, and with possibly the exception of England there is no country in Europe in which judicial and executive officers receive salaries equal to those given in the native civil service of India. In Bengal a native high court judge receives 50,000 rupees a year (value of rupee about 33 cents). The salaries of native subordinate judges range from 7,200 to 12,000 rupees and those of the munsifs, the lowest class of judges, from 3,000 to 4,800. In France the salaries of the higher judicial and executive officers are smaller than those given to natives in India. A great majority of the prefects in France who hold offices second in importance to hardly any in the country receive less than deputy magistrates of higher grades in Bengal."


Sir George Chesney, in his Indian Polity, describing the share of the natives in the civil service of India, especially in its higher grades, says: “The development of the native civil service to its present position has taken place in comparatively recent times. The great increase in the cost of the civil administration which has occurred during this period is due mainly to the creation of new offices required by the needs of improved administration, to be held by Indians only, and to an advance in the rates of salary paid to the Indian members of the service, which are now sensibly higher than the rates obtaining in the indigenous civil services of France, Germany, and other European countries. * * *


"The monopoly, not of the civil service, but of Englishmen to appointments in that service, was put an end to by the introduction in 1854 of the competitive test for admission. That test, however, was imposed wholly in view of its substitution for nomination as the means of maintaining the supply of Englishmen. That Indians would come to England in large numbers to take part in the competition appears not to have been contemplated by the authors of the scheme. At any rate the opening has in fact been taken advantage of to

No. 9- 11,

only a very limited extent, and so far as it has occurred the result has been to substitute for those whom it was designed to secure, young Englishmen of superior ability and education, a class of Indians having these qualifications also, but drawn mainly from one country of India and from one class of that country, and in no proper sense representative of the people of India generally. * * *

"In 1886: the whole subject of the constitution of the civil service, outside the covenanted service, was referred to a strong commission presided over by a distinguished public servant, Sir Charles Atchison, then lieutenant-governor of the Punjab, and composed of fifteen members, English and Indian, representing many phases of opinion and much diversity of interests. The commission, after visiting various parts of India and taking a great quantity of evidence, submitted their report in the spring of 1888, which was referred to the secretary of state with the opinions and recommendations on it of Lord Dufferin's government in the autumn of that year. The final conclusions and orders of the secretary of state in council on the whole case were embodied in a dispatch to the government of Lord Lansdowne, of September, 1889, to the following effect:

""Heretofore, as has been explained, the administrative and judicial staff of the public service (omitting the special and technical branches, public works, telegraph, education, etc.) had been divided into two parts; one the small covenanted civil service; the other the whole body of public servants, whoj. down to the humblest clerk, were dealt with under the general title of the uncovenanted service. The salaries of these, who outnumber the covenanted service in the proportion of some hundred's: to one, were determined by the office held in each case, but they were all placed under the same conditions as to leave, length of service for pension, and other general regulations. This organization, if such it could be called, was altogether anomalous and out of date, and is to be replaced by a new system. In every province the civil employees are to be divided into two bodies, a subordinate civil service, comprising the holders of clerical and minor offices, and a provincial civil service, to embrace the class engaged on executive and administrative duties. To these last, to be styled the Bengal civil service, Madras civil service, and so on, admission will be obtained under tests to be laid down by the government of the province (subject to confirmation by the higher authorities) and also by promotions of deserving members of the subordinate civil service. Further, which is the important point in this connection, the members of these provincial services are to be eligible for any of the offices heretofore reserved for the covenanted service. The advancement will be gradual. The secretary of state anticipates, and the opinion will be shared by everyone acquainted with India, that while men fit for promotion to the higher judicial posts will soon be forthcoming to the extent required, the development in any considerable number of Indian officials qualified to take executive charge of districts can be looked for only by degrees. Meanwhile, the recruitment of the civil service in England is to be so regulated that it may suffice eventually to fill only five-sixths the posts now held by it. * * * With that change it may be said that the road is now fully open to the Indian which leads to the highest offices of state."


The following official announcement for an open competitive examination for admission to the civil service of India in August, 1901, with the regulations attached thereto, indicates the high training required of those entering or proposing to enter the Indian civil service:


An open competitive examination for admission to the civil service of India will be held in London, under the subjoined regulations, commencing on the 1st of August, 1901.

The number of persons to be selected at this examination will be announced hereafter.

No person will be admitted to compete from whom the secretary, civil service commission, has not received, on or before the 1st of July, 1901, an application on the prescribed form, accompanied by a list of the subjects in which the candidate desires to be examined.

The order for admission to the examination will be posted on the 18th of July, 1901, to the address given on the form of application. It will contain instructions as to the time and place at which candidates will be required to attend and as to the manner in which the fee (£6 sterling) is to be paid. (Civil service commission, August, 1900.)


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The following regulations, made by the secretary of state for India in council, are liable to alterations from year to year:

1. An examination for admission to the civil service of India, open to all qualified persons, will be held in London in August of each year. The date of the examination and the number of appointments to be made for each province will be announced beforehand by the civil service commissioners..

2. No person will be deemed qualified who shall not satisfy the civil service commissioners(a) That he is a natural-born subject of Her Majesty.

10.) That he had attained the age of 21 and had not attained the age of 23 on the first day of the year in which the examination is heid. (N, B.-In the case of natives of India it will be necessary for a candidate to obtain a certificate of age and nationality signed, should he be a resident in British India, by the secretary to government of the province or the commissioner of the division within which his family resides, or, should he reside in a Native State, by the highest political officer credited to the State in which his family resides.)

(c) That he has no disease, constitutional affection, or bodily infirmity unfitting him, or likely to unfit him, for the civil service of India.

(a) That he is of good moral character.

3. Should the evidence upon the above points be prima facie satisfactory to the civil service commissioners, the candidate, on payment of the prescribed fee, will be admitted to the examination. The commissioners may, however, in their discretion, at any time prior to the grant of the certificate of qualification hereinafter referred to, institute such further inquiries as they may deem necessary, and if the result of such inquiries in the case of any candidate should be unstiefactory to them in any of the above respects he will be ineligible for admission to the civil service of India, and if already selected, will be removed from the position of a probationer. 94. The open competitive examination will take place only in the following branches of knowledge:

Marks. English composition..... ...............................................................

500 Sanskrit language and literature...

500 Arabic language and literature... **********************

500 Greek language and literature..

750 Latin language and literature ...

750 English language and literature (including special period named by the commissioners) 1.....


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Marks. French language and literature (including special period named by the commissioners)

500 German language and literature (including special period named by the commissioners)? ....

500 Mathematics (pure and applied) ........................

900 Advanced mathematical subjects (pure and applied) ...... Natural science, i. e., any number not exceeding three of the following subjects:

(N. B.-Some changes may possibly be made under this head (natural science) for the examination to be held in 1902.) Elementary chemistry and elementary physics..

(N. B.—This subject may not be taken up by those who offer either higher chemistry or higher physics.) Higher chemistry..

600 Higher physics ..

600 Geology

600 Botany .........•• Zoology .....

600 Greek history (ancient, including constitution)

400 Roman history (ancient, including constitution).....

400 English history..

500 General modern history (one of the periods specified in the syllabus issued by the commissioners

500 Logic and mental philosophy (ancient and modern).....

400 Moral philosophy (ancient and modern)...... ..........

400 Political economy and economic history.....

500 Political science (including analytical jurisprudence, the early history of institutions, and theory of legislation)......

500 Roman law.........---.-;;iiiish law


500 English law. (Under the head of "English law” shall be included the following subjects, viz: (1) Law of contracts; (2) law of

shall be included the following * evidence; (3) law of the constitution; (4) criminal law; (5) law of real property; and of these five subjects, candidates shall be at liberty to offer any four, but not more than four) ..

....... 500 5. The merit of the persons examined will be estimated by marks; and the number set opposite to each branch in the preceding regulation denotes the greatest number of marks that can be obtained in respect of it.

6. The marks assigned to candidates in each branch will be subject to such deduction as the civil service commissioners may deem necessary in order to secure that no credit be allowed for merely superficial knowledge.

7. The examination will be conducted on paper and viva voce, as may be deemed necessary.

8. The marks obtained by each candidate, in respect of each of the branches in which he shall have been examined, will be added up and the names of the several candidates who shall have obtained, after the deduction above mentioned, a greater aggregate number of marks than any of the remaining candidates will be set forth in order of merit, and such candidates shall be deemed to be selected candidates for the civil service of India, provided they appear to be in other respects duly qualified. Should any of the selected candidates become disqualified, the secretary of state for India will determine whether the vacancy thus created shall be filled up or not. In the former case the candidate next in order of merit and in other respects duly qualified shall be deemed to be a selected candidate. A candidate entitled to be deemed a selected candidate, but declining to accept the nomination as such which may be offered to him, will be disqualified for any subsequent competition.

9. Selected candidates, before proceeding to India, will be on probation for one year, at the end of which time they will be examined, with a view of testing their progress in the following subjects: Complusory:

Marks. 1. Indian penal code ...

250 2. Code of criminal procedure..

250 3. The Indian evidence act ........

4. The principal vernacular language of the province to which the candidate is assigned. Optional. Not more than two of the following subjects: 1. The code of civil procedure and the Indian contract act.....

400 2. Hindu and Mohammadan law.

450 3. Sanskrit .......

400 4. Arabic....

400 5. Persian .

400 6. History of British India ....

350 7. Chinese (for candidates assigned to the province of Burma only) ........

- --

................ 400 In this examination, as in the open competition, the merit of the candidates examined will be estimated by marks (which will be subject to deductions in the same way as the marks assigned at the open competition), and the number set opposite to each subject denotes the greatest number of marks that can be obtained in respect of it. The examination will be conducted on paper and vica voce, as may be deemed necessary. This examination will be held at the close of the year of probation, and will be called the "Final examination.”

If any candidate is prevented by sickness or any other adequate cause from attending such examination, the commissioners may, with the concurrence of the secretary of state for India, in council, allow him to appear at the final examination to be held in the following year, or at a special examination.

10. The selected candidates will also be tested during their probation as to their proficiency in riding. The examinations in riding will be held as follows:

(1) Shortly after the result of the open competitive examination has been declared, or at such time or times as the commissioners may appoint during the course of the probationary year.

(2) Again, at the time of the final examination, candidates who may fully satisfy the commissioners of their ability to ride well and to perform journeys on horseback, shall receive a certificate, which shall entitle them to be credited with 200 or 100 marks, according to the degree of proficiency displayed, to be added to their marks in the final examination.

(3) Candidates who fail to obtain this certificate, but who gain a certificate of minimum proficiency in riding, will be allowed to proceed' to India, but will be subjected on their arrival to such further tests in riding as may be prescribed by their Government, and shall receive no increase to their initial salary until they have passed such tests to the satisfaction of the Government. A candidate who fails at the end of the year of probation to gain at least the certificate of minimum proficiency in riding will be liable to have his name removed from the list of selected candidates.

11. The selected candidates who, on examination, shall be found to have a competent knowledge of the subjects specified in regulation 9. and who have satisfied the civil service commissioners of their eligibility in respect of nationality, age, health, character, conduct during the period of probation, and ability to ride, shall be certified by the said commissioners to be entitled to be appointed to the civil service of India, provided they shall comply with the regulations in force at the time for that service,

12. Persons desirous to be admitted as candidates must apply on forms, which may be obtained from "The secretary civil service commission, London, S. W.," at any time after the 1st of December in the year previous to that in which the examination is to be held. The forms must be returned so as to be received at the office of the civil service commissioners on or before 1st of July (or, if

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that date should fall upon a Sunday or public holiday, then on or before the first day thereafter on which their office is open) in the year in which the examination is to be held.

The civil service commissioners are authorized by the secretary of state for India in council to make the following announcements:

(1) Selected candidates will be allotted to the various provinces upon a consideration of all the circumstances, including their own wishes; but the requirements of the public service will rank before every other consideration.

(2) An allowance amounting to £100 will be given to all candidates who pass their probation at one of the universities or colleges which have been approved by the secretary of state, viz, the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, Glasgow, Edinburgh, St. Andrews, and Aberdeen; Victoria University, Manchester; University College, London, and King's College, London, provided such candidates shall have passed the final examination to the satisfaction of the civil service commissioners and shall have conducted themselves well and complied with such rules as may be laid down for the guidance of selected candidates. The whole probation must ordinarily be passed at the same institution. Migration will not be permitted except for special reasons approved by the secretary of state.

(3) The allowance of £100 will not be paid to any selected candidate until he has been certified by the civil service commissioners to be entitled to be appointed to the civil service of India, and every certificated candidate must, before receiving his allowance, give a written undertaking to refund the amount in the event of his failing to proceed to India. - .

(4) All candidates obtaining certificates will be also required to enter into covenants by which, among other things, they will bind themselves to make such payments as, under the rules and regulations for the time being in force, they may be required to make toward their own pensions or for the pensions of their families. The stamps payable on these covenants amount to £1.

(5) The seniority in the civil service of India of the selected candidates will be determined according to the order in which they stand on the list resulting from the combined marks of the open competitive and final examinations.

(6) Selected candidates will be required to report their arrival in India within such period after the grant of their certificate of qualification as the secretary of state may in each case direct.

(7) Candidates rejected at the final examination held in any year will in no case be allowed to present themselves for reexamination.



thors will be looked for lish writers in tin the history of Ep in respect of its

English composition. -An essay to be written on one of several subjects specified by the civil service commissioners on their examination paper.

English language and literature.—The examination will be in two parts. In the one the candidates will be expected to show a general acquaintance with the course of English literature, as represented (mainly) by the following writers in verse and prose, between the reign of Edward III and the accession of Queen Victoria:

Verse: Chaucer, Langland, Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Gray, Collins, Johnson, Goldsmith, Crabbe, Cowper, Campbell, Wordsworth, Scott, Byron, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats.

Prose: Bacon, Sir Thomas Browne, Milton, Cowley, Bunyan, Dryden, Swift, Defor, Addison, Johnson, Burke, Scott, Macaulay (essays and biographies).

A minute knowledge of the works of these authors will be looked for in this part of the examination, which will, however, test how far the candidates have studied the chief productions of the greatest English writers in themselves and are acquainted with the leading characteristics of their thought and style, and with the place which each of them occupies in the history of English literature. Candidates will also be expected to show that they have studied in these authors the history of the English language in respect of its vocabulary, syntax, and prosody.

The other part of the examination will relate to one of the periods named below, which will follow each other year by year in the order indicated:

1. (1901), 1600 to 1700 (Shakespeare to Dryden).
2. (1902), 1700 to 1800 (Pope to Cowper).
3. (1903), 1800 to 1832 (nineteenth century writers to the death of Scott).
4. (1904), 1360 to 1600 (Chaucer to Spenser).

The examination in this part will require from candidates a more minute acquaintance with the history of.the English language and literature, as illustrated in the chief works produced in each period, and will be based to a considerable extent, but by no means . exclusively, on certain books specified each year by the commissioners. The names placed under the dates are intended to suggest the general character of the literary development of the period, and consequently the natural limits of the examination. All the works of Shakespeare, for example, will be regarded as falling within the period 1600 to 1700; all the works of Swift within the period 1700 to 1800; all the works of Scott and Wordsworth and all the works of Macaulay within the period 1800 to 1832.

French language and literature.—Translation from French into English, and from English into French; critical questions on the French language and literature.

German language and literature.--As in French.

Latin language and literature.—Translation from Latin into English. Composition in prose and verse, or (as an alternative for verse composition) a Latin essay or letter. Critical questions on the Latin language (including questions on philology) and literature.

Greek language and literature.-Translation from Greek into English. Composition in prose and verse, or (as an alternative for verse composition) a Greek dialogue or oration. Critical questions on the Greek language (including questions on philology) and literature.

* Sanskrit language and literature. - Translations from Sanskrit into English, and from English into Sanskrit. History of Sanskrit literature (including knowledge of such Indian history as bears upon the subject); Sanskrit grammar; Vedic philology.

Arabic language and literature.-Translations as in Sanskrit; history of Arabic literature (including knowledge of such Arabic history as bears upon the subject); Arabic grammar; Arabic prosody:

English history. - General questions on English history from A. D. 800 to A. D. 1848; questions on the constitutional history of England from A. D. 800 to A. D. 1848.

General modern history.-Candidates may, at their choice, be examined in any one of the following periods: (1) From the accession of Charlemagne to the Third Crusade (800 to 1193); (2) from the Third Crusade to the Diet of Worms (1193 to 1521); (3) from the Diet of Worms to the death of Louis XIV (1521 to 1715); (4) from the accession of Louis XV to the French Revolution of 1848 (1715 to 1848).

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Greek history.—Questions on the general history of Greece to the death of Alexander; questions on the constitutional history of Greece during the same period.

Roman history.—Questions on the general history of Rome to the death of Vespasian; questions on the constitutional history of Rome during the same period.

In Greek and Roman history candidates will be expected to show a knowledge of the original authorities.

Mathematics.-Pure mathematics: Algebra, geometry (Euclid and geometrical conic sections), plane trigonometry, plane analytical geometry (less advanced portions), differential calculus (elementary), integral calculus (elementary). Applied mathematics: Statics, dynamics of a particle, hydrostatics, geometrical optics; all treated without the aid of the differential or integral calculus.

Advanced mathematics. —Pure mathematics: Higher algebra, including theory of equations, plane and spherical trigonometry, differential calculus, integral calculus, differential equations, analytical geometry, plane and solid. Applied mathematics: Statics, including attractions, dynamics of a particle, rigid dynamics, hydrodynamics, the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism.

Political economy and economic history.-Candidates will be expected to possess a knowledge of economic theory as treated in the larger text-books; also a knowledge of the existing economic conditions, and of statistical methods as applied to economic inquiries, i together with a general knowledge of the history of industry, land tenure, and economic legislation in the United Kingdom.

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