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Logic and mental philosophy (ancient and modern).-Logic will include both deductive and inductive logic. Mental philosophy will include psychology and metaphysics.
Political science.—The examinations will not be confined to analytical jurisprudence, early institutions, and theory of legislation, but may embrace comparative politics, the history of political theories, etc.
Candidates will be expected to show a knowledge of original authorities.
REGULATIONS FOR ADMISSION TO THE INDIAN POLICE FORCE THROUGH A COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION IN LONDON ON JUNE 25, 1901.
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I. Date of examination.—The examination will be conducted by the civil service commission. It will be simultaneous with and in the same subjects and papers as the examination for the Indian forest department, except that in the police examination German is not an obligatory subject, and botany is no longer included in the list of subjects.
Place of examination.—Candidates may undergo the written part of their examination in London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, or at any of the provincial centers at which the simultaneous examination of candidates for admission to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, is to be held. A list of the probable centers may be obtained from the civil service commissioners at any time after January, 1901. The oral and practical parts of the examination will be held in London only.
*Examination fee.—A fee of £2 is required from candidates examined in London, but when the written examination is conducted elsewhere than in London, the fee is £3. Candidates examined at a college or school will probably be required to pay a local fee (in order to defray the expenses of superintendence), as to which they should obtain early information from the college or school authorities. The fee payable to the civil service commissioners must be paid by means of stamps of the specified amount. Instructions on this point will be issued to candidates about ten days before the examination.
II. Number of appointments.—The number of candidates to be selected will be 17, viz: For Madras 4, Bombay 4, Bengal 2, Northwestern Provinces and Oudh 4, Punjab 2, and Central Provinces 1.
III. Conditions of eligibility.—Candidates must be British born or naturalized British subjects. They must, without exception on any ground, be above 19 and under 21 years of age on the 1st of June, 1901. They must be unmarried, and if they marry before reaching India they will forfeit their appointments.
IV. Documents to be furnished by candidates.—Candidates must notify their wish to compete at the examination to the secretary, judicial and public department, India office, on or before May 1, 1901, sending at the same time
(a) Information as to their names and parentage, certificates (or other satisfactory evidence) of the date of their birth, and the written consent of parent or guardian to their candidature.
(6) A statement of the places at which they have been educated, accompanied by satisfactory testimonials of good conduct during the last four years.
(c) An intimation of their wishes as to the province or provinces in which they would prefer to serve, and of any special reasons
for such predicloramination.—Within the five Web
to their physique and capacity madays notice of the
V. Medical examination.— Within the five weeks preceding the literary examination candidates will be required to undergo a strict examination by a medical board at the India office as to their physique and capacity for active outdoor work in the plains of India. The medical board meets on Tuesdays at 1 o'clock, and candidates are required to give some days' notice of their intention to appear for examination.
VI. Subjects of examination.—Those candidates only who are passed by the medical board will be allowed to undergo the literary examination before the civil service commissioners. The subjects as classified and the marks assigned to each are given below.
Marks. 3,000 2,000
1. Mathematics (I) including arithmetic
All the subjects of class 1 may be taken up.
500 500 500
Marks. 7. Mathematics (II).
2,000 8. German or French ....
2,000 9. Latin .............
2,000 10. Greek .............
2,000 11. English history ...
2,000 12. Chemistry and heat.
2,000 13. Physics.....
2, 000 14. Physiography and geology .....
.. 2,000 Only two of the subjects of Class II may be taken up, and if one of these subjects is a modern language it must be different from the modern language selected in Class I.
Candidates must obtain such an aggregate of marks in the examination as a whole as may indicate, in the judgment of the civilservice commissioners, a competent amount of general proficiency.
VII. Appointment of probationers.—The secretary of state will nominate as probationers such competitors as attain the highest aggregate of marks (provided they obtain the minimum aggregate referred to above and satisfy the requisite conditions in other respects),
VIII. Riding test.-Selected candidates will be examined by the civil service commissioners as to their ability to ride, and will be required to produce—
(a) A certificate from the civil service commissioners that they are able to ride well and to perform journeys on horseback, or (6) A certificate from the civil service commissioners of minimum proficiency in riding.
In the latter case they will be subjected, on their arrival in India, to such further tests in riding as may be prescribed by their Government, and will not be appointed assistant superintendents of police until they shall have passed such tests to the satisfaction of their Government.
IX. Allotment to provinces. -Selected candidates who have successfully passed the above-mentioned tests will be allotted, as probationers, to the various provinces upon a consideration of all the circumstances, including their own wishes; but the requirements of the public service will rank before every other consideration. The allotment will also be subject to the right of the government of India to make transfers, if necessary.
X. Departure for India.—The probationers will be required to start for India not later than October, 1901, so as to arrive in the course of November. Failure to embark in time will, in the absence of satisfactory explanation, lead to forfeiture of appointment. Free passages to India will be provided by the India office..
XI. Salary during probation. On arrival in India probationers will receive an initial salary of Rs. 250 a month during their period of probation.
XII. Period of probationi. Probationers will be required to qualify by passing the necessary departmental examinations (as well as the riding test, if necessary, see Rule VIII) within two years of their arrival in India.
XIII. Liability of probationers to removal.-- Any probationer who may fail to pass the prescribed examinations within two years, or be found unfit for police duties, will be liable to removal from the service. Any probationer so removed from the service will be furnished with a free passage to England, provided he utilizes such passage within three months from the date of such removal.
XIV. Salary after probation.—When probationers have passed the qualifying examinations (as well as the riding test) they will, if otherwise approved, be appointed assistant superintendents. of police, and their salary will be raised to Rs. 300 a month.
XV. Leave and pension.-Officers joining the Indian police under these conditions will find the leave rules which apply to them in Chapter XIII, and the pension rules in Part. IV of the “Civil-service regulations." Abstracts of the regulations referred to will be found in the following pages.
XVI. Articles of agreement.-Probationers will be required to sign articles of agreement describing the terms and conditions of their appointment prior to embarkation for India.
Mathematics (I).—The extent of the examination will be as follows: Arithmetic; algebra up to and including the binomial theorem, the theory and use of logarithms; Euclid, Books: I to IV and VI; plane trigonometry up to and including solution of triangles and mensuration.
Mathematics (II).-Further questions on the syllabus of mathematics (I): Elementary solid geometry, including Euclid, Book XI, propositions 1 to 21, Euclid, Book XII, propositions 1 and 2, geometrical conic sections, the elementary properties common to the ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola; dynamics and statics, uniform and uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, uniform circular motion, motion of projectiles (not requiring a knowledge of the parabola), equilibrium of forces in one plane and of parallel forces; the center of mass, and the construction and use of the simpler machines.
Latin.—Passages selected from the authors usually read in schools will be set for translation into English. Passages from English authors will be given for translation into Latin prose and verse, but candidates will be allowed in the place of verse composition to answer questions of a simple character, which will test whether they possess a fundamental knowledge of the grammar of the language and such elementary acquaintance with Roman history as is required for the intelligent study of the books they have read:
Greek.—Passages will be set for translation into English from the authors: usually read in schools, and in other respects the examination will proced on the same lines as in Latin.
French.—Translations of unseen passages from French into English, and from English into French; the passages for translation will be taken mainly from standard authors, and a few simple questions may be asked on the passages set, as to the structure and character of the language, and allusions of obvious and general interest. The viva voce examination will include dictation. Three hundred marks will be allotted to colloquial knowledge of the language.
German.-The passages for translation will be taken mainly from standard authors, and in other respects the examination will proceed on the same lines as in French.
English: composition.-Candidates will be tested by precis writing as well as by an essay. The standard of positive merit will be looked for in logical arrangement of thought, and in accuracy and propriety of expression, but large deductions of marks will be made for faults of writing and spelling.
Candidates are also warned that, for similar faults in the use of the English language, similar deductions will be made from the marks obtained in other subjects.
Geometrical drawing.- Practical plane geometry; the construction of scales; and the elements of solid geometry, and of simple orthographic projection. Great importance will be attached to neatness and exactness of drawing.
Geography.—Simple questions in descriptive and general geography
English history.—The general paper in this subject will be confined to events subsequent to the Norman Conquest. It will test whether the candidates are accurately acquainted with the facts of English history, and also possess an intelligent knowledge of the meaning of the facts. The paper on the special period will be confined to distinctly modern history. It will require from the candidates more minute knowledge than the general paper.
Natural science subjects.—The standard of examination in these subjects will be such as may be reasonably expected from the education given at schools possessing appliances for practical instruction, such as a laboratory, etc. A considerable portion of the marks will be given for proficiency shown in the practical part of the examination. A knowledge of the metric system will be expected.
Chemistry.-The laws of chemical combination and decomposition, and the preparation, classification, and properties of the principal metallic and nonmetallic elements, and of such of their compounds as are treated of in inorganic chemistry. In the practical part of the examination only the more ordinary apparatus and the less dangerous reagents will be supplied, and no candidate will be allowed to bring his own apparatus or reagents.
Heat.—The elementary portion of the subject.
Physics. the element or reagenary apparaich of the na
ology.-Chieflement, portion of 12 als and the compounosition, andi, Akhlaboratorn as may be
SIR JOHN STRACHEY ON THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE.
Sir John Strachey in his work, India, says: “Although the highest offices of control are necessarily held by Englishmen, by far the greater part of the actual administration is in native hands. Excluding the 765 offices held by members of the covenanted service, and excluding also all posts of minor importance, nearly all of which are held by natives, there are about 2,600 persons in the superior branches of the executive and judicial services, and among them are only about 30 Europeans. These are facts which are often ignored in discussing the question of the admission of natives to a larger share of public employment. Notwithsta demands for improved administration, the strength of the covenanted service recruited in England has been reduced in the last twenty years by more than 32 per cent, and further gradual reduction is in progress. During the same period the number of natives employed in the executive and judicial services has gone on constantly increasing, and with exceptions so rare that they deserve no consideration they now hold all offices other than those held by the comparatively small body of men appointed in England. Under orders passed in 1879 by the government of Lord Lytton no person other than a native of India can be appointed to any post in the executive or judicial service carrying a salary of 200 rupees a month and upward without the previous sanction of the governor-general in council. These orders are still in force, and how completely they have been carried out is shown by the fact just stated that these branches of the service are practically manned entirely by natives of India.
THE NATIVE OFFICERS.
“The organization of our great and highly efficient native civil service is one of the most successful of the achievements of the British Government in India. Native officers manage most of the business connected with all branches of the revenue and with the multifarious interests inland. Natives dispose of the greater part of the magisterial work. The duties of the civil courts, excepting the courts of appeal, are almost entirely trusted to native judges. A native judge sits on the bench in each of the high courts. For many years past native judges have exercised jurisdiction in all classes of civil cases-over natives and Europeans alike. It is my belief that as a rule their work is quite as good as that of the English judges. Thirty years ago the native civil service was badly paid, comparatively inefficient, and not always trustworthy. In these respects there has been a great change. Nothing in the recent history of India has been more remarkable than the improvement that has taken place in the standard of morality among the higher classes of the native officials. Much of this has certainly been due to the fact that their position and salaries are far better than they were and that temptations to corruption have been removed, but it can not be doubted that much has been due to their better education. Another powerful cause has been in silent and constant operation. The native officials have had before them, through a long course of years, the example of the irreproachable integrity of the Englishman employed in the higher ranks of the public service. Living in an atmosphere of official uprightness has made native judges and magistrates upright also.
SALARIES PAID TO NATIVES.
“The salaries given to natives in posts of importance are very liberal, and they certainly do not err on the side of being too small. With possibly the exception of England, there is no country in Europe in which judicial and executive officers receive salaries equal to those given in the native civil service of India.
“Salaries depend upon the service to which a man belongs, and are not affected by questions of nationality. Thus, in the imperial service recruited in England the rules regarding pay, leave, and pension are the same for all members, whether they are European or native. In the provincial services, recruited in India, the conditions of service are fixed on independent grounds. They are regulated in both cases by consideration of the terms necessary to secure the desired qualifications. * * *
NO DISTINCTION OF RACE.
“Since 1836 no distinctions of race have been recognized in the civil courts throughout India. At the present time native judges preside over the great majority of the courts; excepting the higher appellate tribunals, almost the whole administration of civil justice is in their hands. They exercise jurisdiction in all classes of civil cases over natives and Europeans alike, and no word of objection on the part of the latter is ever heard. The Lord Chancellor did not give the native judges too high a character when he said in the House of Lords in 1883, as the result of his experience of Indian cases appealed to the Privy Council, that 'in respect of integrity, of learning, of knowledge, of the soundness and satisfactory character of their judgments arrived at, the judgments of the native judges were quite as good as those of the English. I think that the highest authorities in India would go even further and courts, the native judgments are the better of the two. In disposing of business of this sort superior knowledge of the language and habits of the people gives to the native many advantages over the Englishman. * *
QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR THE CIVIL SERVICE IN THE DUTCH EAST INDIES.
The care exercised by the Netherlands Government in its colonial civil service is illustrated by the following statement from Ireland's “Tropical Colonization":
"Nowhere, except perhaps in the British Indian civil service, is as much care taken in the selection of officials as in the Dutch East Indies. All appointments to the higher administrative posts in Java follow a rigid examination in the history, geography, and ethnology of the Dutch East Indies, the political and social institutions of the natives, and in the Malay and Javanese languages. The officials who are to be charged with the administration of justice must hold the degree of doctor of laws from one of the Dutch universities, and in addition pass examinations in Mussulman law and local common law. The salaries of these officials are large, ranging from about $15,000 a year for the directors to about $6,000 for the residents. Admirable as is the European service in the Dutch East Indies, it is not until we turn to the organization of the native staff that we observe in its highest form the colonizing genius of Holland. When the Dutch occupied Java at the beginning of the seventeenth century they found the island divided up into a number of kingdoms or principalities, each of them governed by a native ruler who held his position as being head of the reigning family. In dividing the island into twenty-two administrative districts the Dutch followed as far as possible the boundaries of the petty native States, and whilst taking away the substance of authority from the native rulers allowed them to retain its outward semblance. Thus the regent who is at the head of each regency is generally the same man who, in the event of the Dutch authority never having been established, would have been the native prince of that district. But he is a paid servant of the Dutch Government and really under the control of the Dutch resident. The natives are not allowed to perceive that such control exists, for the regent maintains great state, and when a resident visits the regency he takes great care to show the greatest deference to the regent. He gives his orders in the forms of recommendations, and this method which would be considered absurd amongst us carries the highest significance among the Javanese, since he is known as the “elder brother,” and in the Javanese family the eldest brother is, in the absence of the father, the head of the family and respected as such by the younger brothers. The regent, although he has only the semblance of power, makes up for it by enjoying all those extraordinary forms which catch the crowd, for he retains his rank and can surround himself with all the luxury of an Asiatic court. An important feature of the Dutch rule in the East Indies is that no attempt has been made to force the Dutch language upon the natives. All Dutch officials must be proficient in the native dialects and justice is administered either in Malay or Javanese. If the highest objects of a government is to make a country tranquil and prosperous then the Dutch have governed better than any other European nation which has undertaken the government of tropical dependencies.”
RULES GOVERNING ADMISSION TO THE CIVIL SERVICE IN JAVA.
The following rules relating to the grand examination for official service in the Dutch East Indies, show the high qualifications and careful preparation required:
ARTICLE 1. The examination for officials is divided into two parts, of which the second is competitive.
An opportunity shall be given, both in Holland and the Dutch Indies, to pass the first part on and after the year 1894, and to pass the second part on and after the year 1896.
ARTICLE 2. The first part of the examination for officials shall cover the following subjects: 1. The geography of the Dutch Indies.
2. The Dutch Indian codes of law.
Only those persons shall be admitted to this part of the grand examination for officials who have passed one of the following examinations:
(a) One of the examinations for obtaining a certificate of fitness to pursue the studies of a university, or one of the examinations held by the faculties of a Dutch university.
(6) The final examination of one of the high schools with a five years' course, or of the State Agricultural School, or of the Polytechnic School, as provided in the law on secondary education.
(c) The examination taken by persons who have followed the preparatory course at the State Agricultural School, as provided by the royal ordinance of January 9, 1891, No. 10 (Indisch Staatsblad, No. Î04).
(d) The final examination of a high school, with a five years' course in the Dutch Indies.
Any person who shall have already offered himself twice for this part of the examination and has been rejected, or for any reason except grounds deemed legitimate by the Government has failed to appear or has withdrawn himself, shall not be admitted to it again.
Those who have already offered themselves for the first part of the grand examinations for officials more than once without obtaining a diploma, before this ordinance goes into effect, shall be admitted once more to this part of the examination.
ARTICLE 3. The second part of the grand examination for officials shall cover, in every case, the following six subjects, which ar6 therefore termed "required subjects:”
1. The history of the Dutch Indies.
Those who wish to do so can, at the second part of the grand examination for officials, also pass an examination in any other native language of the Dutch Indies in which an examination can, in the opinion of the minister of the colonies or of the governor-general, be given with security.
Each language shall be marked at the examination as a separate subject.
Those persons who have passed one of the examinations mentioned in the second paragraph of article 2, and can proye to the satisfaction of the minister of the colonies in Holland, and of the governor-general in the Dutch Indies, that they prepared themselves for the grand examination for officials for service in the Indies, without having an opportunity to pass it in 1893, shall be admitted to the second half of the said examination.
The grand examination for officials shall begin every year in Holland on the third Monday of the month of June, in the Dutch Indies at a time to be appointed by the governor-general. It shall be announced twice in the official newspaper about two months beforehand.
Within one month after the first announcement all persons who wish to enter the examination must give written notice thereof, in Holland to the department of the colonies, in the Dutch Indies to the secretary-general.
They must state therein which part of the examination they wish to enter, and, if it is the second part of the examination, whether they wish to be examined in any native languages besides Malay and Javanese. : At the same time they must deposit the evidence that they are qualified, in accordance with the provision of articles 2 and 3, to enter that part of the examination for which they offer themselves.
(Those persons who are under any obligations to serve in the navy or in the army in the Netherlands or in the East or West Indies must, in order to be admitted to the second part of the examination, show that they have completed the service or deposit the evidence of an honorable discharge. If they fail to do so, their request to be admitted to the second part of the examination will receive no attention and will not be delivered to the examining commission.)
(The same action will be taken in the case of requests to be admitted to the second part of the examination on the part of persons who, on account of their nationality, can not be appointed to the civil service in the Dutch Indies.)
(These last two paragraphs were repealed by the ordinance of February 3, 1899.)
ÀRTICLE 7. Both parts of the grand examination for officials shall be held in public, in accordance with a regulation and programme to be made by the minister of the colonies.
Each candidate shall be given a mark for every subject in which he is examined. . The question whether a candidate has or has not passed the second part of the examination shall be determined according to the marks obtained in the required subjects, in the manner provided in the regulation, without taking into account the examination in the subjects not required.
REGULATIONS FOR THE GRAND EXAMINATION FOR OFFICIALS FOR SERVICE IN THE INDIES.
ARTICLE 1. The commission for holding the grand examination for officials shall pay careful attention to the provisions made in the rules concerning the said examination, annexed to the Royal Ordinance of July 20, 1893, No. 29.
ARTICLE 2. In a preliminary session the commission shall inquire whether the candidates have furnished the evidence that, having satisfied the requirements of articles 2 and 3 of the rules annexed to the Royal Ordinance of July 20, 1893, No. 29, they can be admitted io the part of the examination for which they have offered themselves.
For this purpose the commission shall receive in due season the documents which have been sent by the candidates to the department of the colonies or to the secretary-general.
In doubtful cases they shall request the decision of the minister of the colonies or of the governor-general.
The commission shall give notice to those who can not be admitted to the part of the grand examination for officials for which they have offered themselves.
ARTICLE 3. In the preliminary session there shall be formed for each part of the examination, from among the members of the commission, as many subcommittees, of at least two members, as there are subjects to be examined; and to each subcommittee shall be assigned a subject in which it shall examine. The president and secretary may be excused from taking part in these subcommittees.
ARTICLE 4. The president, in consultation with the secretary, shall determine the order of business of the whole commission and of the subcommittees, and, as far as possible, in such a way that the examination of each candidate shall be finished in two days in the case of the first part and in three days in the case of the second part of the examination.
ARTICLE 5. The candidates shall be informed by the secretary in due time of the time and place of their examinations.
ARTICLÈ 6. The first part of the examination shall be oral in every subject, with the exception of the elements of the Malay language and the elements of the Javanese language, in which written examinations shall be given. The oral examination in every subjecte lasts at most three-quarters of an hour, the written examination two hours.
The second part of the examination shall be oral and written in every subject. The oral examination in every subject lasts ati the most half an hour, the written examination two hours.
In each of the subjects, “History of the Dutch Indies,” “Geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies,” “Religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies,” and “Political institutions of the Dutch Indies,” the candidates shall be given in the written Axamination a choice between two questions.
APTICLE 7. Written work handed in to a subcommittee shall be examined by each of its members. As far as possible all thë members of a subcommittee shall be present at the oral examination. In case of temporary hindrance the president shall appoint another men:ber of the commission to take the place of the absent member of the subcommittee.
ARTICLE 8. To each candidate shall be given in every subject in which he is examined a mark from 0 to 10. The mark O means entire ignorance; the marks 1 and 2, betoken bad; 3 and 4, unsatisfactory; 5 and 6, satisfactory; 7 and 8, good; 9 and 10, excellent; always with the understanding that the higher mark indicates a higher degree of knowledge than the lower.
ARTICLE 9. The members of each subcommittee shall try to agree about the marks to be given to the person examined by them. Objections to the mark given can, however, be offered by other members of the commission who have been present at the examination or have looked over the written work.
If the members of a subcommittee can not agree upon a mark to be given, or if a difference of opinion about it exists between them and another member of the commission, the president, after hearing the opinion of the members of the commission who may be supposed to have the best knowledge of the subject, shall endeavor to bring about an agreement of opinion, and if he does not succeed in this he shall decide upon the mark to be given on his own judgment formed upon the opinions given him.
ARTICLE 10. A candidate who has received at the first part of the examination in every subject, or at the second part of the examination in each of the required subjects, the mark 5, or a higher mark, shall be declared, without further discussion, to have passed the examination.
A candidate who has not received at the first part of the examination more than 22 points for all the subjects added together, or a candidate who has not received at the second part more than 27 points for all the required subjects added together, shall be declared not to have passed the examination.
A candidate shall also be rejected who has received in one or more subjects (at the second half required subjects) one of the marks 0, 1, or 2, or in two or more subjects (at the second half required subjects) one of the marks 3 or 4.
(By the original resolution of July 20, 1893, the requirements were for the first part a total of 20 points, for the second a total of 24, and the absence of any marks of 0. The existing requirements were made by a resolution of the minister of the colonies on December 27, 1897.)
In all cases not provided for by the first three paragraphs of this article the commission shall discuss the question whether the candidate can be considered to have passed a satisfactory examination, taking account therein, in the second half of the examination, only of the required subjects. The question shall be decided by vote. In case of a tie the examination shall be considered satisfactory.
ARTICLE 11. The rank list of those who have passed the second half of the examination shall be made up from the result of the examination in the six required subjects, with the understanding that a candidate who has received in one or more voluntary subjects a higher mark than he obtained in the Javanese language shall be credited with the highest of these marks, provided the mark in the voluntary subject is not less than 5.
In case of an equality of marks the commission shall determine the order in which the candidates affected shall stand upon the rank list.
The article was given this form above by a resolution of December 27, 1897. In the orginal regulations of July 20, 1893, it read as follows:
“For the purpose of making up the rank list of those who have passed the second half of the examination the marks which are not lower than 5, received in the voluntary subjects, shall be added to the candidates' marks in the six required subjects.
“In case of an equality of marks the order of the rank list shall be regulated by the total of the marks obtained in the required subjects. If these total marks are also the same, the commission shall determine the order in which these candidates shall stand upon the rank list.”
ARTICLE 12. To the report which it makes to the minister of the colonies or to the governor-general the commission shall append
1. For each of the parts of the examination a list whereon shall be stated the names of all the persons examined, the marks given to them in the several subjects, and the total of these marks for each candidate.
2. A rank list of those who have passed the second part of the examination, made up in accordance with the foregoing article.
ARTICLE 13. The commission shall present to the minister of the colonies or to the governor-general the certificates of those who have passed the examination, in order that they may be inspected and delivered by him.
All persons examined, even those who have not passed, shall receive from the secretary of the commission as speedily as possible information of the result of their examination in each subject.
mation in the six required subjects, with the co m me
lese language standing that a alin of the examine
PROGRAMME FOR THE EXAMINATION,
1. The geography of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the situation, the natural features, and the climate of the chief islands and groups of islands of the Indian Archipelago, of the situation of the chief mountains and streams, and of the general lines of the administration subdivisions.
2. The knowledge of the codes of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the chief contents of the general principles of legislation and of the civil code; a grasp of the most important institutions governed by the commercial code, and of the forms of European civil and criminal procedure; knowledge of the chief contents of the internal regulations and of the two penal codes of the Indies.
3. The introduction to the religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies.-A brief survey of the origin and extension of Islam, especially with regard to the Dutch Indies; a knowledge of the chief sects of Islam; a little knowledge of the dogmas of the present orthodox Mohammedans; a little knowlege of the character and historical growth of the Mohammedan law; a little knowledge of the religious and other laws of the Mohammedans in the Dutch Indies..
4. The elements of the Malay language.-The written translation, with the help of a dictionary, of a selection, not difficult, printed in Malay characters.
5. The elements of the Javanese language.—The written translation, with the help of a dictionary, of an easy selection printed in Javanese characters.
1. The history of the Dutch Indies.--Knowledge in broad traits of the fortunes of the chief races that dwell in the Indian Archipelago, and the chief facts which relate to the establishment and extension of the Dutch power in the Archipelago, and more especially of the fortunes of the Dutch Indies since the administration of Marshall Daendels.
2. The geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the chief products of the Dutch Indies; knowledge of the principal traits, customs, the social and economic condition, and the degree of civilization of the chief peoples of the Dutch Indies; some knowledge of the religion and institutions of the non-Mohammedan peoples of the Dutch Indies.
3. The religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the chief institutions of the followers of Islam in the Dutch Indies, studied in connection with the Mohammedan law.
4. The political institutions of the Dutch Indies.-Acquaintance with the chief provisions of the regulations of government and of the other organic laws and general ordinances derived from the constitution and the regulations of the Government; knowledge of the chief provisions relating to administration, justice, accounts, taxes, and the various other branches of the administration; all these, as far as possible, in their origin and development.
5. The Malay language.-Readiness in the written translation of a composition from Dutch into Malay, and in oral translation of a piece of prose from Malay into Dutch; knowledge of the fundamental principles of the language, coupled with a good pronunciation and
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