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subsidy of £6,000, and the expenses £5,952. Of the subsidy of £6,000 per annum granted by the legislature, only a sum of £82 17s. 6d. was paid in 1897, in consequence of the failure of the company to comply with the provisions of act 51 of 1896. It belonged to the Barbados Railway Company, Limited, but was, on June 15, 1898, purchased by the Foreign American and General Trust Company, Limited, for the sum of £50,000. No subsidy was paid during the year 1898. The whole line has been reconstructed. ! There is telephonic communication between the police stations by 35 miles of line, which cost £1,465 and is open to public use.

The Barbados Telephone Company, Limited, a private company, has a total of 470 services, with a total length of line in use of about 600 miles. i The Royal Mail steamers arrive in and leave Barbados every alternate week from and to England. There is also fortnightly communication with all the West Indies by these steamers. The usual length of the voyage from England to Barbados is eleven days.

Bermuda.—There are no railways in the colony. There are 94 miles of colonial and 15 miles of military roads. The telegraphs are worked by the military authorities and comprise 15 miles of cable and 36 miles of land line. The total cost of construction was £4,388. The receipts in 1899 were £22, and the expenditures £291. There is also a private telephone company, which has about 240 subscribers and upward of 700 miles of wire in line.

British Guiana.—The three rivers, Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice, are navigable for 90, 35, and 150 miles, respectively. Beyond these distances, owing to the nature of the country, they abound in cataracts and waterfalls. There is a good network of roads, and there are small canals in connection with the Demerara River. There is a railway from Georgetown to Rossignol, Berbice, 60} miles in length, owned by the Demerara Railway Company, Limited. Its receipts for the year ended March 31, 1900, were £33,463, its expenses £22,108. The line was constructed at a total cost of £591,149. A railway 18} miles in length, connecting the Upper Demerara and Upper Essequibo rivers, leading to the interior and affording access to the gold diggings, has been open since the beginning of 1897, whilst the Demerara Railway Company have constructed a line on the west coast, connecting Vreedenhoop with Greenwich Park, about 15 miles in length. The postal-telegraph system comprises about 476 miles of line, with 17 cables, covering a distance of 894 miles. It is connected with a cable to Trinidad, and thus with Europe and the United States.

British Honduras.—There are no railways or telegraphs in the colony, and the easiest communication is by water along the coast. There is regular communication every seven days by mail steamers with New Orleans and Puerto Cortez, every three weeks with New York and Jamaica, and about every six weeks with Liverpool and Colon.

Dominion of Canada.—The length of railways actually constructed in the Dominion aggregated on June 30, 1899, 17,358 miles.

There are 33,074 miles of telegraph line and 81,266 miles of wire in operation in Canada, of which 2,990, including cables, are owned and operated by the Dominion Government; 4,830,501 messages were sent in 1899.

There are six important systems of Government canals, affording, with the St. Lawrence River connections, magnificent inland communications. The total length of canals in operation is 2624 miles, but the aggregate length of inland navigation rendered available by them is 3,000 miles, the St. Lawrence alone having a length of 2,384 miles. The receipts in 1899 were $369,044, and the working expenses, including repairs, $482,941. Seventy-six and a half million dollars have been expended on the construction of these canals, including the amount expended on the Sault Ste. Marie Canal to connect Lakes Superior and Huron, which was opened in the season of 1895.

Cape of Good Hope. -The railways of the colony consisted originally of three separate systems, the Western, Midland, and Eastern, having their starting points on the seaboard at Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, and East London, respectively. The Western and Midland systems are connected by a junction at De Aar (500 miles from Cape Town and 330 from Port Elizabeth), and are carried forward thence as one trunk line to Kimberley, the center of the diamond fields (647 miles from Cape Town and 486 miles from Port Elizabeth). This line was opened in 1885. From Kimberley the line is now extended northward to Vryburg (127 miles north of Kimberley), where the Cape Government line ends, and is carried on by the Rhodesia Railway Company to Bulawayo, 1,361 miles from Cape Town and 1,199 miles from Port Elizabeth. A further northward extension toward the Zambesia is in progress. From Naauwpoort, 270 miles from Port Elizabeth, on the Port Elizabeth-De Aar line, the Midland system runs via Colesburg to the borders of the Orange River colony (329 miles from Port Elizabeth), at Norvals Point, whence the line is continued through the Orange River colony to Bloemfontein (opened in December, 1890), and on to Johannesburg (714 miles from Port Elizabeth), and Pretoria (741 miles from Port Elizabeth), both in the Transvaal.

The Eastern system extends from East London, through Queen's Town, to Aliwal North, adjacent to the Basutoland and Orange River colony frontiers. It was opened in 1885, and in May, 1892, it was extended to join the railway within the Free State at Springfontein, so forming a direct line to Bloemfontein and Johannesburg.

There is now through railway communication from the railways of the Cape Colony to Durban, Natal, and Lorenzo Marquez (Delagoa Bay), as well as to various important centers in the Transvaal. The line, 334 miles long, through the Free State to the Vaal River, was taken over by the Free State on January 30, 1897, in terms of the convention under which the construction was arranged.

Total railways open June 30, 1900: (a) Belonging to and worked by Government, 1,990 miles; (6) Owned by private companies, but worked by Government, 653 miles; (c) Lines owned and worked by private companies, 224 miles; total, 2,867 miles. There were about 289 miles under construction in the colony for private companies June 30, 1900, including the Somerset East-King William's ] line, which will probably become a Government line.

Ceylon.-Great efforts have been made to keep pace with the growing requirements of the colony. The telephone has been introduced in Colombo, and the principal towns are connected by the telegraph, which is connected with the Indian telegraph system; 1,161 miles are open in Ceylon. There are 297 miles of railway, all owned and worked by the government.

The lines of railway are distributed thus: Colombo to Kandy, 741 miles; Kandy and Matale, 178 miles; Peradeniya Junction to Banderawela, 914 miles; Mahara Quarry and Mahara Point, 11 miles; Fort Junction and Wharf, 11 miles; Maradana Junction to Galle, 714 miles; Galle and Matara, 263 miles; Polgahawelle and Kurunegala, 13 miles. The total cost of construction up to December 31, 1899, charged in accounts was Rs. 57,936,837. The receipts during 1899 were Rs. 7,658,887, and expenditures, Rs. 4,104,354. Of metaled roads there are 2,509 miles; graveled and natural road, 625 and 460 miles, respectively; of canals, 152.27 miles. The maintenance of 3,594 miles of road cost, in 1899, Rs. 1,410,805, or an average of Rs. 393 per mile. This is exclusive of roads within municipal limits, and of minor roads which are not in the charge of the department of public works. Every male between the ages of 18 and 55 is bound

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to perform six days' labor in the year on the roads, or to contribute a rupee and a half (2 rupees in the town of Colombo) by way of commutation. The road committees collect the commutation, but the amount derived from this source is inconsiderable as compared with the outlay. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in the restoration of the ancient irrigation tanks and the construction of new waterworks. The amount expended on irrigation in 1898 was Rs. 306,633.

Cyprus.—There is no railway or navigable waterway in the island, but roads between all important places are now maintained. Proposals for a railway connecting certain important centers are now, however, under consideration. There are no Government telegraphs, but the Eastern Telegraph Company and the Imperial Ottaman Telegraph Administration work about 240 miles of land line in connection with their cable.

Hongkong.There is telegraphic communication with nearly the whole world by a cable to Shanghai (and thence to Japan and Russia) and two cables to Singapore via Saigon and Hué, respectively; and there is very extensive steam communication with Europe, America, and Australia.

In addition to the regular mail lines of the Peninsular and Orient Steam Navigation Company and the Messageries Maritimes, which convey the European mails weekly, the Pacific Mail Steam Navigation Company have a fortnightly service via Yokohoma, Japan, to San Francisco, and the Eastern and Australian Mail Steam Company and the China Navigation Company have a frequent service to the Australian colonies. The Norddeutsche Lloyd and the Austrian Lloyd steamers go to and from Europe monthly, and the Canadian Pacific Mail Company have a three-weekly service to Europe via Vancouver and the Canadian Pacific Railway; also the Portland line of steamers have a monthly service to Portland, Oreg., touching at Japanese ports and Victoria, British Columbia. Letters from England reach Hongkong in about thirty-one days. There is daily steam communication between Hongkong, Macao, and Canton, and almost daily with Swatow, Amoy, Foo Chow,

ere are no railways but a cable tramway from the city to the higher levels, opened in 1888, and no internal telegraph communication except for police and military purposes.

Natal.—There are 1,3374 miles of government telegraphs, constructed at a cost of about £121,754, and the earnings for the year 1899 were £26,623 (exclusive of the value of government messages, £16,366), and the expenses, £30,971.

There are 5911 miles of railway open, all constructed and worked by the government, with the exception of the North Coast Extension beyond Verulam (50 miles), which was constructed by the Natal-Zululand Railway Company, and is worked by the government on behalf of that company in accordance with a working agreement.

Newfoundland.—There is a railway from St. Johns to Harbour Grace, 84 milos in length, the property of the government. The total approximate cost of construction was $2,500,000. A branch line has been constructed by the government connecting with Placentia. Its length is 27 miles, and it was built at a cost of $525,000. The railway to the Exploits River, a distance of 200 miles, is now complete, at a cost of $3,120,000. The line from Exploits, via Bay of Islands and Bay St. George to Port aux Basques (a distance of 285 miles, approximately) is also complete, the cost being $4,446,000. Branch lines to Brigus, Tilton, Carbonear, and Burnt Bay are now completed. The total length of these lines is about 33 miles. The transinsular railway now being completed, regular connection is made with the Continent three times a week, the intervening strait being crossed in the first-class passenger steamer Bruce, which makes the passage in six hours. About 750 miles of postal and 1,700 miles of district roads are maintained. There are 1,314 miles of telegraph open, and cables start for Europe (at Hearts Content) and America (at Placentia). There is a fortnightly mail service (except in February, March, and April) with Liverpool by the Allan Line, and at irregular intervals by other steamers.

New Zealand.--As in most of the colonies, all the more important public works of New Zealand are in the hands of the government d other public bodies, comparatively few having been undertaken by companies. The initiation of public works in New Zealand is coeval with the founding of the colony. In the early days they simply kept pace with the spread of settlement, but in 1870 a great impetus was given to the progress of the country by the inauguration of the “Public works policy," which provided for carrying out works in advance of settlement, and for immigration.

The first public works initiated were roads, many thousands of miles having been constructed in all directions. Some of the main roads through sparsely settled districts were made and are still maintained by the government, but the ordinary main roads are under the control of the counties, and the district roads under local boards. Nearly all the larger rivers on the main roads in both islands are bridged. A few, however, have ferries worked by the current.

At the end of the last financial year, March 21, 1900, there were 2,104 miles of government and 167 miles of private railways in operation in New Zealand, and 111 miles of government under construction; but 79 miles of private lines have since been taken over by the government.

The expenditure on the 2,104 miles of Government railways has been £16,703,887, or an average of £7,839 a mile. This includes all charges connected with construction and equipment of the lines.

The revenue from the government railways for the years 1899–1900 was £1,623,891, and the working expenses, £1,052,358. The balance of £571,533 is equal to a return of £3 8s. 5d. per cent on the capital invested. The gauge throughout is 3 feet 6 inches. Of telegraphs there are now 6,910 miles of land lines, and 19,228 miles of wire, constructed at a cost of £856,057. The cable tramways are practically on the same system as those in San Francisco.

Northern Nigeria.—There are stations at Brass and Bonny, and cable communications with Lagos, and thus with Europe. A telegraph line was constructed in 1897-98 from Lagos to Jebba, and has been extended to Lokoja, from which point it has been carried up the Benue to Ahwaneja. Regular steamers arrive and depart from Liverpool and the west coast of Africa every three weeks. Communication in the Niger Basin is mainly by the steamers of the Niger Company.

Basutoland.—There are no navigable waterways, the rivers being low in winter and flooded generally in summer. The usual mode of conveyance is by ox wagon or light cart.

The roads in the country are now in good condition for any kind of transport, but the periodical rains, draining down from the high watersheds, seriously damage them. There are no railways in the country.

Rhodesia.—Public roads in Rhodesia have been made to the extent of 2,734 miles, and there were under construction 360 miles of main roads and 500 miles of cross roads in mining districts. Telegraph lines, including police telephone lines, and the African Transcontinental Telegraph line, to the extent of 3,451 miles of line and 5,005 miles of wire, have been erected.

· The African Transcontinental Telegraph Company has constructed a telegraph line from Umtali to Mashonaland, to Kituta, at the south end of Lake Tanganyika, the length of the line being 1,225 miles. A branch line, 123 miles long, from Domira Bay, Lake Nyasa, io Fort Jameson, in M'Peseni's country, the headquarters of the admini

The Bechuanaland Railway reached Bulawayo on October 19, 1897, and was formally opened on November 4. An extension of the Beira Railway from Umtali reached Salisbury on May 1, 1899, and was formally opened on May 22. This places Salisbury in direct communication with the sea, over a line 382 miles in length. On July 8, 1900, the widering of the gauge of the Beira railway to 3 feet 6 inches, the standard gauge of South Africa, was completed. A line is now being built to connect Salisbury with Bulawayo. The first 100 miles from Salisbury will probably be completed by the end of 1900, and the whole of the line in the course of 1901. Its length will be about 290 miles.

Telegraphic communication continues to be rapidly established. On March 31, 1900, 71 telegraph offices were opened.
Straits Settlements.-Over 50 lines of seagoing steamers touch at Singapore.

There is telegraphic communication by submarine cables (3) from Penang to Madras, Malacca, and Singapore; and from Singapore (2) to Saigon and Hué, and thence to Hongkong, Japan, and Russia. There is also a government telegraph line from Penang to Province Wellesley, and thence to Perak, Selangor, Sungei Ujong, and Malacca. There are 20 miles of telegraph line in connection with the cables, and there are 722 miles of telephone line. A railway 23 miles long to connect Prai, in Province Wellesley, with the Perak railway system is now in course of construction, of which 7 miles are already open for traffic. This railway is being constructed and worked by the government of the Federated Malay States. A railway 157 miles long from the town of Singapore to Rianji on the Straits of Johore is being constructed by the colonial government. In Penang there are 9 miles of tramway open, constructed and worked by a private firm; the motive power is steam.

In the Federated Malay States railway construction has made, and is making, rapid progress.

The following lines are open for traffic: In Perak, from Port Weld, via Taiping, the capital, to Ulu, Sa'Petang, 17 miles, and from Teluk, Anson, to Enggor, 50 miles; an extension to Taiping and Prai, and from Tapah to Tanjong, Malim, are under construction. In Selangor, from Kwala Klang, the chief port, to Kwala Lumpor, the capital, 27 miles; and from thence to Kwala Kubu, 384 miles, with a small branch line from Kwala, Lumpor to Kajang, 9 miles. In Sungai Unjong, from Port Dickson to Seremban, the capital, 21 miles.

The following lines are under construction by Selangor: From Kwala Kubu to Tanjong, Malim, 15 miles; and from Kajang to Seremban.

An important line has been surveyed to connect the east and west States of the peninsula. If constructed it will probably run from Kwala Kubu, via Raub, to Kwala Lipis, in Pahang, a distance of 80 miles. There is, however, no prospect of this work being undertaken in the immediate future. It is estimated that the railway extensions now projected and under course of construction, which will connect Port Dickson, in Negri Sembilan, with Kwala Prai, on the mainland opposite Penang, will be completed by the year 1902. A short section from Buckit Martajan to Penang is already open for traffic, and connected with Penang by steam ferry.

Trinidad and Tobago.--Communication between Port of Spain and San Fernando is maintained by means of the Gulf steamers, which ply three times a week, and by the railway, The Gulf steamers proceed as far as Cedros, in the southwestern part of the island, a total distance of 60 miles from Port of Spain.

The railway from Port of Spain to Arima (16 miles) was opened in 1876.

The total length of line opened is about 80% miles, all constructed and worked by the government. The total receipts from the railways, tramways, and telegraphs during 1899 were £78,335, and the expenditure was £55,422. This last amount does not include the annual appropriation for interest and sinking fund, which in 1898 amounted to £106,380.

Turks and Caicos islands.—There is steamship connection between England and Turks Island once a month, and between New York and Turks Island every two or three weeks. The length of the voyage between England and Turks Island is about fourteen days via New York, and eighteen days via Halifax and Jamaica. There are no railways or telegraph lines in the colony. Cable communication with Bermuda and Jamaica was established by the Direct West India Cable Company in January, 1898, the station being fixed at Grand Turk.

Cochin China. There are in the colony 51 miles of railway (Saïgon to Mytho). In 1900 contracts were made for the construction of railways from Saïgon to Tam-Linh and from Tam-Linh to Dji-Ring. There are 2,276 miles of telegraph line, with 3,840 miles of wire and 85 telegraph offices. Telegrams (1896), 321,536. There are 95 post-offices.

Tonkin.-In 1896 there entered 1,407 vessels of 461,454 tons. The Phulang-Thuong-Langson Railway is 64 miles long. In 1900 contracts were made for the construction of railways from Hanoi to Viétry; from Hanoi to Haiphong; from Hanoi to Ninh-Binh; from Hanoi to Vinh; and from Viétry to Lao-Kay. In Anam and Tonkin in 1896 there were 79 post-offices. For commercial purposes the country is almost inaccessible. It can be entered only by the Mekong, which is barred at Khone by rapids. A railway 4 miles in length has been constructed across that island, and by means of it several steam launches have been transported to the upper waters, where they now ply. A telegraph line connects Hué in Anam with the towns on the Mekong, and these with Saïgon.

Algeria.-In 1898 there were 1,815 miles of national roads in Algeria. .

In 1900 there were 2,156 English miles of railway open for traffic; of this, 325 miles was on Tunisian territory. There were also 99 miles of tramway.

The postal and telegraph revenue for 1898 was 4,725,810 francs and the expenditure 3,326,933 francs. There were 573 post-offices. Other postal statistics are included in those of France.

The telegraph of Algeria consisted in 1898 of 7,260 miles of line and 18,496 miles of wire, with 461 offices. Messages (1898), 2,033,740; of which 1,892,633 were internal, 57,358 international,

French Kongo.-In 1898 there entered the ports 103 vessels of 250,009 tons (49 of which were French, of 127,667 tong). The development of the resources of the country is hindered by the want of means of communication, but a railway to connect Libreville and the Kongo is in project.

Madagascar.—Tamatave, the principal seaport of the island, has a commodious harbor, safe during seven or eight months of the year, visited regularly by the steamers of several shipping companies, chiefly French. In 1898, 6,061 vessels of 879,362 tons entered and cleared the ports of Madagascar. Of the tonnage 734,068 was French, 78,053 British, 39,305 German. There are as yet but few roads in Madagascar, in the European sense of the word, and not many wheeled vehicles are employed. Almost all passengers and goods are carried on the shoulders of bearers, except where the rivers or coast lagoons allow the use of canoes; but wagon roads are


being made frona Tamatave to Antandaarivo and also between most of the chief military posts. In 1897 the sum of 2,859,406 francs was spent on roadmaking. The canalization of the lagoons on the east coast has been commenced. A short railway has been constructed from Tamatave to Ivondro, and will ultimately be extended so as, with the canal between the Ivondro and Jaroka rivers, to connect Tamatave with the capital.

There is postal communication throughout the island. An electric telegraph, 180 miles in length, connects Tamatave and the capital, and another connects the capital with Majungà, which, by a cable laid in 1895, is in communication with Mozambique and also connects with the Eastern Telegraph Company. Telegraph lines connect Antananarivo and Fianarantsoa in the interior, with Mananjary on the east coast, passing Vatomandry and Mahanoro.

Réunion.—The chief port, Pointe-des-Galets, is connected by a railway of 83 miles with St. Benoit and St. Pierre. In 1887 this railway was taken over by the state.

French West Africa and the Sahara.—In 1898, 1,011 vessels of 1,372,885 tons visited the ports. In 1898 there were in Senegal 246 miles of railway, 574 miles of telegraph, with 1,022 miles of wire, and 21 telegraph offices. The chief line connects Dakar, St. Louis, and Rufisque (163 miles); that from Kayes to Bafulabé (82 miles) is being extended to Bammuko, on the Niger. There is a river service from St. Louis into the interior as far as Kayes in the rainy season. Dakar is in regular communication with French ports.

In Dahomey there are few roads. A railway is proposed from Ketonu to the Niger. A telegraph line connects Kotonu with Abomey, the Niger and the Senegal.

Tunis.-In the year 1898 there entered the sixteen ports of the regency 11,489 vessels of 2,433,841 tons; of these vessels 1,677 of. 1,254,934 tons were French. The merchant shipping of the regency comprises 403 vessels of from 10 to 150 tons. i Length of railways, 883 miles, of which 866 miles belong to the State. The State lines are worked by an Algerian company. The short lines (about 16 miles in all) connecting Tunis with Goletta and other suburbs belong to the Italian Rubattino Company.

There are 2,328 miles of telegraphs and 4,600 miles of wire; 104 telegraph offices; messages (1898), 664,083. In 1898 four urban telephone systems had 112 miles of line and 126 miles of wire; eleven interurban systems had 320 miles of line and 515 miles of wire. The number of conversations during the year was 303,000. There were in 1898, 300 post-offices; letters sent, internal service, 5,122,296; external, 10,292,752.

Guadeloupe and dependencies.—Within the islands traffic is carried on by means of roads and navigable rivers.

Martinique.—Tonnage entered in 1899, 315,509; cleared, 313,840. The island is visited regularly by the steamers of French, British, and American companies. For internal traffic there are subsidized mail coaches; subsidized steamers ply on the coast, visiting neighboring islands. The colony is in telegraphic communication with the rest of the world by the cables of two telegraph companies.

Kamerun.-For the development of the colony a region containing about 34,000 square miles has been conceded to the Northwestern Kamerun Company which has received a charter authorizing it to acquire property, make roads, railways, and canals, and provide steamship lines or other means of communication. The company can promote immigration and prosecute agricultural, mining, industrial, or mercantile enterprises.

German Southwest Africa.-A new harbor is being constructed at Swakopmund, whence a railway and telegraph line to Windhoek are partly constructed. The imperial subsidy for 1900–1901 includes 2,300,000 marks for the continuation of this line, which, in October, 1899, had been carried 80 miles inland.

German East Africa. The resources of the region are still undeveloped, but commercial enterprise is being encouraged by the government which grants subsidies for railways and steamers. The chief seaports are Dar-es-Salaam (population 13,000), Bagamoyo (13,000), Saadani, Pangani, Kilwa (10,000), Lindi, Mikindani, and Tanga (5,000), only a few of which are accessible to ocean-going vessels. A railway from Tanga is open for traffic as far as Pongwe, nearly 10 miles, and is being extended to Karagwe and Nomba. Surveys are being made for a railway from Dar-es-Salaam to Norogo, and a telegraph line is being laid from Dar-es-Salaam to Kilossa. There are in the coast towns 9 telegraph stations and a line connects with Zanzibar.

Kiau-Chau.—The extensive coal fields of Wiehsien and Pashan are less than 100 miles distant; these, by agreement, are to be worked with German capital; and concessions have by the treaty been granted for the construction of railways, one of which will pass through the coal fields to the boundary of the province, and the other to Chin-chao, with a branch to Tsinan. Railway construction is in progress.

Dutch East Indies.--At the end of 1898 the total length of railways (State and private) opened for traffic was about 1,272 English miles; the revenues were 15,759,000 guilders.

There are about 200 post-offices; the number of letters carried in 1898 and 1897 for internal intercourse was 8,672,352 and 7,700,290, while 6,370,780 and 5,359,380 newspapers, samples, etc., for the interior passed through the various post-offices in the Dutch Indies during the same years. In 1898 and 1897, 1,512,289 and 1,495,731 letters were carried for foreign postal intercourse. . There were 6,833 miles of telegraph lines in Dutch India in 1898 with 112 offices; the number of messages was 637,389. In December, 1896, Batavia, Samarang, and Sourabaya were connected by telephone.



All of the successful colonizing governments foster close intercommunication by steamship lines between the home country and the colony, and this is true in a marked degree of England. Specific statements regarding the direct expenditures for maintenance of communication between the colonies and the home country can not be obtained, since the aid given to steamship lines by the home Government is in such form that statements with reference to the distinct colonies or points touched in the various routes would be impossible. In general terms, however, it may be said that the aid granted by the various governments, and especially the English Government, to steamship lines is so adjusted in the selection of mail routes and the fostering of steamship lines and routes to be followed by them as to furnish frequent steamship communication between the home country and the various colonies, and where practicable among the colonies themselves. This will be seen in the statements given on another page, in which the roads, railways, steamship, and postal service in each of the principal colonies of the world are described.

" Among the public services whose concession in form of monopoly grants or subsidies is customary because of the peculiar conditions in which the colonies find themselves at the beginning of their development,” says M. de Lanessan, “I would point out first those relating to the oyersea and river transportation. The subsidies granted by the colony to the service of oversea transportation should

not astonish the people in the mother country, since the latter follows the same methods to some extent. In the present stage of civilization there is no country, however distant and primitive it may be, which, while being in the hands of a European nation, could be deprived of regular communication with the rest of the world; which could go without a postal service, enabling it to forward and receive at fixed periods communications, all of which is necessary for the transaction of public and private affairs. Such a regular service is very seldom

ficiently remunerative so that private people would feel induced to install and maintain it at their risk and peril. Hence the neces for countries which intend to make use of it to cause its establishment and insure its working by privileges and subsidies, which must be the more considerable the less the service itself is profitable.

“It is for this reason that the colony of Indo-China found it necessary for many years to subsidize from its local budget the lines between Saïgon and Bangkok; Saïgon and Singapore; Saïgon and the Philippines, and between the principal ports of Indo-China. Notwithstanding the great sacrifices made for this service, the latter is yet very insufficient and it is owing partly to this insufficiency that the slow progress in the commercial development of our Indo-Chinese possessions is due.

“Cochin-China and Tonkin are even now obliged to subsidize regular river service between the principal localities, for the free, unsubsidized service would not be sufficiently remunerative, at least in some parts of these territories, in order to induce private people to establish independent enterprises, at the same time satisfying all the demands of the administration, the colonies, and the natives.

“Apart from the service rendered in the transportation of mail, passengers, and merchandise, the river traffic in these two countries played an important rôle in their general development. The subsidized companies being assured of certain fixed profits for a sufficiently great number of years, found it advantageous to establish on the spot plants necessary for the repair, partial and total construction, of the vessels. In Tonkin the Société des Correspondances Fluviales succeeded in constructing in its yards at Haiphong, first, its hulls, then its machinery, and has now acquired the outfit to construct, on account of private individuals and the Government, small steam vessels, which were formerly bought at Hongkong. In Cochin-China the Société des Messageries Fluviales has likewise established considerable shipyards. The shipbuilding industry, then, which has been introduced both in Tonkin and Cochin-China, is due to the contracts made with the navigation companies."


In a few of the colonies of the world, notably India and Ceylon, irrigation works of great value have been constructed by the colonial governments. While these have been costly, the expense has been entirely borne from colonial funds or from loans which are borne by the colonial government, and the cost has been many times repaid by the increased production of the irrigated areas. It has been estimated that the value of a single year's crop produced in the irrigated sections of India in excess of that which would have been produced without irrigation more than equals the entire cost of the irrigating system.

Sir John Strachey, in his “India,” put the cost of the Indian irrigating works up to that time at 320,000,000 rupees (present exchange value of rupee about 33 cents), and adds that the estimated value of the produce of the lands irrigated by works constructed by the government was in 1892 more than 550,000,000 rupees. These works after their construction are not only self-supporting through the charges made for the water distributed, but produce in addition to the annual expenditures a net return of about 53 per cent on their cost. In Ceylon the colonial government has recently taken up the work of reconstruction of ancient irrigation tanks and the construction of new irrigating works, and by this process it is expected that large additions will be made to the productive area of the island. The irrigating system of India is described by Sir John Strachey as follows:

“In India the very existence of the people depends upon the regular occurrence of the periodical rains, and when they fail through a wide tract of country, and, still worse, when they fail in successive years, the consequences are terrible. The greater part of India is liable periodically to this danger, but the country is so vast that it never happens that all parts of it suffer at the same time. Improvements in the economic condition of the people, and especially more diversity of occupation, can alone bring complete safeguards and render general famine, in its extremest form, through a great tract of country impossible. But this must be a long and gradual process. Meanwhile it has been found by experience that although the entire prevention of famines, the most destructive of all calamities, is beyond the power of any government, we can do much to mitigate them by removing obstacles which hinder commercial intercourse, and which diminish the productiveness of the land. The instruments by which we can do this are roads, railways, and canals. * * *


“In northern India, even in good seasons, artificial irrigation is a necessity for the successful cultivation of many of the more valuable crops, and when there is a general failure of the periodical rains there is no other means by which drought and scarcity can be prevented. A large portion of northern India is now protected by canals of greater magnitude than exist in any other country of the world. * * *


"Little of the old irrigation works of our predecessors is retained in the existing canals. Practically all of these have been made by ourselves, and the often repeated statement, prompted, I believe, by that strange inclination to depreciate their own achievements which often besets Englishmen, that the old canals have been more profitable than those constructed by ourselves has not the least foundation of truth.

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"The most important of these works in the northwestern provinces are those which distribute the water of the Ganges and Jumna. In the winter and spring, before the Ganges has been swollen by the melting of snow in the Himalaya, and when water is urgently required for agricultural operations, nearly the whole visible stream of the great river at Hardwar, where it ieaves the mountains, is thrown into an artificial channel. The works on the first 20 miles of its course are in a high degree remarkable, for the canal intercepts the drainage of the lower Himalaya, and has to be carried across rivers which often become furious torrents, bringing down enormous floods. These obstacles have been overcome by various methods, with a skill of which our Indian engineers may well be proud: One

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