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CEYLON.

[Area, 25,865 square miles; population, 3,477,094.] An island in the Indian Ocean. Area, 25,365 square miles; population (1899), 377,094. The government consists of a governor, aided by an executive council of 5 members and a legislative council of 17 members, including the members of the executive council, 4 other officeholders, and 8 unofficial members and representatives of different races and classes in the community. The island is divided into nine provinces, presided over by government agents, who, with their assistants and subordinate heacimen, are the channel of communication between the government and the natives. Justice is administered by a police and district courts and a supreme court, through laws based upon the Roman-Dutch law, modified by colonial ordinances. The Britis, troops number 2,006, with a local volunteer force of 1,170. Principal sources of revenue are customs, excise tax, licenses, stamps, port and harbor dues, and a tax upon salt.

1899. · Public revenue ........

.....-pounds sterling.. 1,727,543 Public expenditure ..........

........do.... 1,663, 197 Imports (including bullion and specie)..

.......do....

7,466, 157 Exports (including bullion and specie)....

...do... 6,771, 794 Imports from the United Kingdom .......

2, 103, 680 Exports to the United Kingdomn.

.....do.... 4,071, 743 Total tonnage of vessels entered and cleared

.......tons.. 7,439, 205 Post-offices, 1898........

...number.. 364 Telegraph lines, 1900..

......miles.. 2, 266 Paper money in circulation, 1900..

......rupees., 14, 237, 450 Savings-bank deposits..

.......do... 4,910, 230

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CYPRUS.

(Area, 3,584 square miles; population, 227,900.}

An island in the Mediterranean, 60 miles off the coast of Asia Minor. The government is administered, under the colonial office, by a high commissioner, assisted by an executive council of 4 members, and a legislative council composed of 18 members, 6 being official and 12 elected. The island is divided into three electoral districts, each returning 1 Mohammedan and 3 Christian members. There are six administrative districts, each represented by a commissioner, and having a court of law presided over by an English barrister, assisted by two native judges, one a Christian and one Mohammedan. There is also a supreme court for the whole island, consisting of two English judges. Revenue is derived chiefly from customs duties, excise, stamps, taxes on immovable property, and a salt monopoly,

1900. Customs revenue, 1896–97 ...........

............... pounds sterling... 30, 571 Total revenue, 1897.....

......do.... 200, 638 Total expenditure .......

......do.... 131, 682 Total imports, 1899 ......

.....do..., 289, 962 Imports from the United Kingdom

....do.... 82, 411 Total exports, 1896 ..........

...do.... 264, 851 Exports to United Kingdom..

......do.... 55, 632
Telegraph lines ...

.....miles..
Letters delivered:
Local .......

...number.. 338, 387
Foreign ....

..............do.... 289, 397 Public debt......

.......... None.

HONGKONG.

[Area, 29 square miles; population, including military and naval, 254,400.]

An island off the southeastern coast of China, ceded to Great Britain in 1841. It is a military and naval station for the protection of British commerce, and the center of a vast trade in many kinds of produce. There being no custom-house there are no oficial returns of the value of the imports and exports, but only mercantile estimates, which put the actual trade of the colony at over £20,000,000 per annum. In the year 1899 the shipping entering the port amounted to 6,720,769 tons. Hongkong is a Crown colony, its government being administered by a governor appointed by the home government, aided by an executive council of 8 members, together with a legislative council of 14 members. The revenue is derived chiefly from land, taxes, and licenses, and an opium monopoly, which together more than cover the expenses of administration. Justice is administered by a supreme court, a police magistrate's court, and a marine magistrate's court.

1899. Revenue ......

...............dollars.. 3,610, 142 Expenditure .......

.........do.... 3, 162, 791 Estimated imports and exports ....

...pounds sterling... 25,000,000 Imports from the United Kingdom

...do.... 2,688, 609 Exports to the United Kingdom...

........do.... 883, 126 Total tonnage entered ...

...tons.. 6,720, 769 Bank notes in circulation, 1898..

.......dollars.. 10, 121, 597 Coin in circulation, 1894........

....... do.... 23, 199, 612

BRITISH INDIA.

[Area, British India, 903,908; native States, 655,695; total, 1,559,603 square miles. Population, British India, 222,025,357; States, 65,097,993; total, 287,123,350.]

British India comprises that part of the Indian peninsula directly or indirectly under British rule, and includes, in the general term, certain countries beyond that area which are under the control or protection of the governor-general. In the more limited sense of the term, British India applies to the districts under direct British administration, excluding native States, and in the statements which follow the term includes only the districts under direct British control and administration. The executive authority is vested in a governor-general, commonly termed viceroy, who is appointed by the Crown and acts under the orders of the secretary of state for India, who is a member of the home (British) Government and conducts Indian business in England. The secretary of state for India is assisted by a council of not less than ten members, the major part of whom must have served or resided ten years in India and not have left India more than ten years previous to the date of their appointment. The governor-general, termed viceroy, who is appointed by the Crown or secretary of state, is assisted in his administration in India by an executive council of seven members, governors of provinces and lieutenant-governors becoming ex-officio members of the council when it meets within their provinces. All acts of the supreme government in India run in the name of “The governor-general in council," but the governor-general has the power of overruling the opinions of the majority of his council. The council when it meets for purposes of legislation consists of the above members and “additional members for making laws and regulations,” and there are similar legislative councils in the chief provinces. In addition to the viceroy, or governor-general, the governors of Madras, Bombay, and the commander in chief, the ordinary members of councils of the governor-general, and the governors of Madras and Bombay, and the governors of the presidency high courts are appointed by the Crown or home secretary of state. The appointment of lieutenant-governor is made by the governor-general, subject to the approval of the secretary of state.

The business of the government of India is divided into departments of finance and commerce, home affairs, revenue, agriculture, military administration, legislation, public works, and foreign affairs. Each department is under the charge of a secretary, and is also the special care of a member of the supreme council. Separate high courts have been established for the various provinces. British India is now divided into thirteen local governments and administrations, which enjoy a large measure of financial and administrative independence. The unit of administration throughout British India is the district, at the head of which is an executive officer called collector magistrate, or deputy commissioner, as the case may be. He has entire control, and is responsible to the governor of the province. The total number of these districts is at present 247. The chief justices of the courts of the provinces are former residents of England, but many of the judges and members of the lawmaking councils are natives. Appellate and original jurisdiction is exercised in the supreme courts by 72 judges of chief courts, with jurisdiction over the whole province; 124 judges, with jurisdiction beyond one district; 492 judges of chief courts in a district; 1,208 subordinate district judges, and 7,565 judges of lesser courts.

Revenues are collected principally from lands, salt, opium, excise, customs, stamps, and provincial rates, the importance being in the order named. The most important source of income is the land revenue, which is levied according to an assessment on estates or holdings fixed periodically at intervals of from twelve to thirty years. In permanently settled tracts the land revenue falls at a rate of about one-third of a rupee per acre of cultivated land, and represents, on an average, about one-fifth of the rental, or one-twenty-fourth of the gross value of the produce.

The total length of railways open in India March 31, 1901, was 25,035 miles. Nearly one-half of this mileage was State lines worked by companies, and one-fourth State lines worked by the State, about one-tenth being lines owned by native States and worked by companies or State railway agency. The total capital expended on the State railways in India to the end of 1899 was 1,808,431,230 rupees; on State lines leased to companies, 443,002,150 rupees; on guaranteed railways, 523,116,640; total, including other lines, 3,111,685,620 rupees. The total miles of roads maintained by public authority is 152,073. The irrigation canals are over 1,000 miles in length, with nearly 10,000 miles of distributaries.

1900. Revenue, 1899..........

.....rupees.. 1,014, 266, 930 Expenditure, 1899 ......

......do.... 974, 653, 830 Imports of merchandise ......

....do... 707, 118, 634 Exports of merchandise ....

...do.... 1,089, 761, 873 Imports from the United Kingdom ...

487,531, 911 Exports to the United Kingdom.......

do.... 308,838, 872 Number of educational institutions, 1

........

149, 948 Number of pupils in attendance..

.......... 4, 357, 821
Army expenditure .....

..rupees.. 223,534, 500
Army establishment:
Number of Europeans ...,

74. 238
Number of natives .........

...........

140, 540 Land cultivated, 1899 ............

..........acres.. 196, 487,658 Total tonnage of vessels entered, 1897

..........

4, 470, 348 Total tonnage of British vessels entered, 1897

----------- 3, 650, 004 Railway lines in operation .................

.......miles..

25, 035 Telegraph lines in operation, 1899...

.......miles of wire..

160, 650

51, 769 Number of paid messages sent, 1899..

..............miles of line.. 5,448, 600 Number of telegraph offices, 1899

1, 719 Number of post-offices, 1899 ........

........

29, 122 Number of letters delivered, 1899 ...

431,012, 691 Number of newspapers delivered, 1899 .....

32, 122, 502 No. 9- 36

do....

........

The following table shows the items of revenue and expenditure for 1896–97 (revised estimate) and 1900–1901 (budget estimate), stated in rupees:1

[From The Statesman's Year-Book.]

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Rupees.

Land revenue..
Opium ..
Salt .....
Stamps.........
Excise ...
Provincial rates....
Customs.....
Assessed taxes
Forests..
Registration ..........
Tribute .....
Interest ............:
Post-office, telegraph, and mint
Civil departments.
Miscellaneous........
Railways.....
Irrigation ...
Buildings and roads
Military departments......

Rupees.
258, 012,000
66,057,000
88, 187,000
48, 475,000
57, 909,000
37, 718,000
47, 299,000
19, 540,000
18, 656,000
4, 221, 000
9, 261, 000
9,069, 000
36, 994, 000
17, 629,500

8, 180,000
246, 964, 000
36, 228, 000

6, 627,000 10, 359,000

Rupees.
271, 180,000 || Interest.
68, 397,000 || Refunds, compensations, etc.....
87, 676,000 Charges of collection.....
49, 011, 000 || Post-office, telegraph, and mint....
57,290,000 || Civil salaries, etc ....
39, 196,000 | Miscellaneous civil charges ..
47,013, 000 Famine relief and insurance.
19, 597, 000 Railway construction ....
17,833,000 Railway revenue account
4,402, 000 Irrigation....
9, 277,000 Buildings and roads........
9, 460,000 || Army......
35, 963, 000 il Defense works....
17,663, 000
8,161,500

Total ............:::::
256, 973, 000 Expenditure from provincial balances..
36, 094, 000

6, 657, 500

10,563,500
1,052, 337,500 Total expenditure charged against revenue.

29, 317,500 18,894, 000 93, 118, 500 29,581, 000 161, 733,500 60, 778, 500 31, 094, 500

36, 000 247, 091, 000

33, 626,500 61, 961, 500 225, 443, 500

3,000

Rupees.
29, 427,500
18, 657,000
96, 200,000
31, 666, 000
166, 342, 000
59, 011, 000
50, 525, 000

1,278,000 264, 253, 500 34,507,500 62, 442,000 243, 881,500

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i Value of rupee 32.3 cents.

[In the above statements the native feudatory states are not included. They may, however, be properly considered as within the British "sphere of influence,” The Statesman's Year-Book, published in London, including them in its table of area and population of the British Empire, while Whitaker's Almanack, also published in London, reporting them as “subject to the control of the supreme (British) government, which is exercised in varying degree, being, generally speaking, governed by native princes, ministers, or councils, with the help and under the advice of a political officer of the supreme government.” The British Statistical Abstract for the Colonial and Other Possessions of the United Kingdom gives their area at 595,167 square miles, with a population of 66,050,479, according to the census of 1891.]

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.

[Area, 1,542 square miles; population, 1899, 604,916.]

A British possession on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, the name being derived from the Straits of Malacca, on which the settlements are situated. The settlements include Singapore, Penang, or Prince of Wales Island, the province of Wellesley, and Malacca. The bulk of the population consists of Chinese and Malays. The government consists of a governor, appointed by the Crown, assisted by an executive council of 8 members and a legislative council of 9 official and 7 unofficial members, also appointed by the Crown. Two additional unofficial members are appointed by the chamber of commerce at Singapore and Penang. The resident councilors of Penang and Malacca have seats in both councils. The law of the colony is the common and statute law of England, qualified by Indian acts and local ordinances. The supreme court consists of the chief justice and 3 associate justices, a court of appeal, and a vice-admiralty court in Singapore and Penang; also magistrates' courts in each settlement. Revenues are collected from licenses, port and harbor dues, land revenues, and stamps. The ports are wholly free from duties on imports and exports. The garrison consists of 1 battalion of infantry, 2 batteries of European artillery, half a company of fortress engineers, and a company of Malay submarine miners; also an armed police force of 38 officers and 1,888 men, and a battery of volunteer artillery of 105 men. The commerce centered at Singapore is largely a transit trade, passing thence to eastern Asia and Oceania. The Malay Federated States of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and Pahang, with an area of 26,500 square miles and a population in 1891 of 418,527, are also under the general charge of the governor-general of the Straits Settlements.

1899. Total receipts ..............

.....dollars.. 5, 200, 025 Total expenditures......

.......do.... 5,061, 013 Imports (exclusive of coasting traffic)...

.......do..., 283, 939, 452 Exports (exclusive of coasting traffic)...

......do... 239, 054, 727 Imports from United Kingdom......

......do.... 29, 389, 082 Exports to United Kingdom.........

.......do.... 47,015, 148 Total tonnage of vessels entered....

-...tons.. 6,595, 075 NOTE.—The Mexican silver dollar is the standard coin. The British standard dollar and the Hongkong dollar are also legal tender.

AFRICA.

BASUTOLAND.

[Area, 10,293 square miles; population, 250,000.]

Basutoland lies upon the northeast of Cape Colony, South Africa. It is governed by a resident commissioner, under the direction of the high commissioner for South Africa, the latter possessing legislative authority, which is exercised by proclamation. This colony is divided into 7 districts for fiscal and governmental purposes, each district being subdivided into wards, presided over by hereditary

chiefs. The currency is exclusively British, but exchange is largely conducted by barter. The revenue is produced by the sale of licenses and by a native hut tax (20 shillings per annum), the post-offices, and an annual contribution of £18,000 from the Cape Colony government.

1900. Revenue ........

...................... pounds sterling.. 69, 769 Expenditure

..........do.... 59, 492 Population ..

.... 250,000 Imports (dutiable only)..

..pounds sterling.. 85,527 Exports....

.......do.... 133, 864

...

BECHUANALAND.

[Area, 386,200 square miles; population, estimated at 100,500.]

A protectorate, adjacent to the Transvaal, Cape Colony, and Rhodesia. The government is administered by the British high commissioner of Cape Colony, who has the power of making laws by proclamation for the protectorate, where he is represented by a resident commissioner and two assistant commissioners. The population is almost entirely native, belonging to three principal tribes, whose chiefs rule their own people as formerly, but under the protection of the Crown, represented by a resident commissioner with assistants acting under the high commissioner of the Cape Colony. The revenue is collected from a hut tax by the chiefs, and customs duties on imports. Railroads and telegraph lines are in operation and being extended.

1899. Revenue .......

.......pounds sterling.. 47,511 Expenditure ...

........do.... 88, 448 Railways ........

...miles.. 586

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CAPE COLONY.

[Area, 227,151 square miles; population, 2,265,500.] A colony of South Africa, belonging to the class known as the responsible-government colonies, having a constitution and a legislative council which enacts the laws. The governor is named by the Crown, and by virtue of his office is commander in chief of the forces within the colony. His council consists of a prime minister, a treasurer, colonial secretary, attorney-general, commissioner of public works, and secretary of agriculture. The colony is divided into 77 divisions, and its dependencies into 30 districts, with a civil commissioner in each division, who is also a resident magistrate. There is in each of these divisions, except three, a council, composed of 6 elected members, who have charge of roads, boundaries, beacons, and other matters of this character. The 97 municipalities are governed by mayors, or chairmen and councilors. The legislature consists of a legislative council of 23 members, elected for seven years, and a house of assembly of 95 members, elected for five years. These are elected by voters who must have a house property of the value of £75 or a salary of £50, and be able to sign their names and state in writing their occupations and addresses. Justice is administered by a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and 8 associate justices, who hold sessions at Cape Town, and circuit courts in various districts. The Roman-Dutch law, modified by colonial statutes, forms the great bulk of the laws of the colony. Revenues are chiefly from customs, excise, and land taxes. The colony has a public debt of £31,409,755; about two-thirds of this sum is expended on railways, the remainder on harbors, public roads, etc. There are over 8,000 miles of roads in the colony proper, 1,990 miles of government railway completed, 500 miles under construction, and 6,619 miles of telegraph line.

1899. Revenue .......

......-pounds sterling.. 8,781, 212 Expenditure......

.......do..., 8, 190, 124 Imports of merchandise ..

...do.... 14, 561, 373 Exports of colonial produce.....

..do.... 22, 831, 386 Imports from the United Kingdom..

..do.... 9, 911, 503 Exports to the United Kingdom ....

.do.... 22, 647, 719 Government railways..

..miles.. 1,990 Private railways ....

......do.... 400 Telegraph lines open....

...do.... 7,360 Telegraph messages sent .-....

.number.. 2,582, 451 Letters, newspapers, and cards posted...

.......do.... 33, 952, 027 Total tonnage of vessels entered....

....tons.. 3, 324, 147 Total tonnage of British vessels entered ..........

....do.... 3, 175, 855

BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA PROTECTORATE.

[Area, 42,217 square miles; population, 900,650.] A territory in Central Africa, lying on the southern and western shores of Lake Nyassa and extending toward the Zambezi; proclaimed a British protectorate in 1891. The protectorate comprises the eastern portion of British Central Africa, and is administered directly through the foreign office of the Imperial Government by a resident commissioner and consul-general. The protectorate is divided into 12 administrative stations, in which regulations are enforced by officers appointed by the representatives of the Imperial Government. The army necessary to maintain order amounts to 1,285 men, mostly native troops, commanded by English officers. Area of the protectorate........

........square miles.. 42, 217 Population ..................

..... 900, 650 Revenue ........

..... pounds sterling.. 31, 314 Importë, 1899....

........do... 99, 290 Exports, 1899.....

.......do.... 35, 263 Post-offices ......

20

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BRITISH EAST AFRICA,

[Area, 1,000,000 square miles; population, 2,500,000.] British East Africa, under the immediate control of the foreign office, consists of a large area on the mainland of eastern Africa (including the East Africa protectorate and Uganda protectorate), the area being estimated at more than 1,000,000 square miles. The East Africa protectorate, which extends from the Umba to the Juba River and inland to the borders of Uganda, is under the control of a commissioner and the consul-general, appointed by the Crown, and is divided for purposes of administration into four provinces, each

estimated at 2,500,000, including 25,000 Asiatic and 450 Europeans and Eurasians. The territory is held on a fifty years' lease from the Sultan of Zanzibar. A large portion of the territory is almost unexplored.

The Uganda protectorate is administered by a special commissioner and commander in chief, but the native son of Mwanga nominally reigns. Uganda proper lies on the northwest shore of Lake Victoria, about 600 miles from the nearest point on the east coast of Africa, on the equator, and 600 miles west of the east coast of Africa. The total population of the protectorate is estimated at 2,500,000, and of Uganda proper, 300,000. A railroad is being constructed to connect Uganda with the coast of Mombosa, the capital of the East Africa protectorate.

The Zanzibar protectorate is administered through an agent and consul-general, appointed by the Crown. The present Sultan, who was installed in 1896, rules over the native population. The city of Zanzibar, which has a population of about 30,000, was declared a free port in February, 1892, and remained so until October, 1899, when a 5 per cent ad valorem duty was imposed on imports. The revenues are mostly derived from customs dues and a tax on produce.

1899.
.....pounds.. 69, 400
......rupees.. 6,642, 000
........do.... 1, 825,000

East Africa protectorate:

Customs revenue ...
Imports, 1900..

Exports, 1900...
Zanzibar:

Imports...................
Exports.
Imports from British India..
Imports from Great Britain..
Exports to British India ....
Exports to Great Britain ....
Total tonnage entering the port ...

......................pounds sterling.. 1,596, 606

......do..., 1,513, 407
......do.... 491, 548
......do... 146, 143
......do.... 129, 896
......do.... 116, 964
.......tons.. 324, 961

MAURITIUS.

[Area, 705 square miles; population, 379,659.]

An island in the Indian Ocean, 500 miles east of Madagascar. The area is 705 English square miles and the population 379,659, of which two-thirds were natives, of African, Chinese, and mixed races. The government is administered by a governor appointed by the Crown, aided by an executive council consisting of the military commander, colonial secretary, procureur-general, receiver-general, auditor-general, and 2 elected members of the council of government who are ex-officio members. There is also a council of government consisting of the governor and 27 members, 10 being elected, 8 ex officio, and 9 nominated by the governor. A constitution was granted in 1885, introducing an elective element into the legislature by which 10 members are elected. The principal sources of revenue are customs dues, licenses, permits, and railway traffic.

1899. Total revenue .......

......rupees.. 9,066, 313 Total expenditure.

........do.... 8,407,082 Public debt .......

£1, 192, 184 Paper money in circulation, 1897

..rupees., 3, 114, 250 Total imports of merchandise .....

......do.... 19,096, 212 Total exports of merchandise ......

......do.... 24, 745, 029 Imports from the United Kingdom...

.......do... 7,403, 991 Exports to the United Kingdom .....

.....do.... 1,743, 225 Total tonnage of vessels entered

..tons.. 377, 369 Length of railway ......

......miles..

105 Revenue from railway ......

.....rupees.. 1,876, 302 Expenditure on railway, 1896...

.......do.... 1, 254, 133 Letters, newspapers, etc., delivered through post-offices

....number.. 2, 875, 360 Deposits in government savings bank .....

..............rupees.. 2,885, 942

NATAL.

[Area, 35,019 square miles; population, 1891, 902,365.]

A colony of South Africa, formerly part of the Cape of Good Hope Settlement, but granted a charter of constitution in 1856, modified in 1875, 1879, and 1893. The province of Zululand was annexed in December, 1897. By the present constitution legislative authority resides in the Queen, a legislative council, and the legislative assembly. The governor is appointed by the Crown, and he in turn appoints the ministers, and, with their advice, the members of the legislative council. The legislative council consists of 12 members. who must be property owners, and who hold their seats for ten years, the president of the council being appointed by the governor. The legislative assembly consists of 37 members, chosen by the electors. No money bill can pass unless recommended to the assembly

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