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SENEGAL.

The colony of Senegal occupies the coast region between the Sahara and the river Gambia, extending about 900 miles inland to the boundary of the military territories, within the bend of the Niger. Its area is now about 200,000 square miles, with a population of about 3,200,000. The colony is administered by a civil governor and represented in the French Parliament by one deputy. Imports of Senegal, 1899

francs.. 50,059, 834 Exports, 1899.....

..do.... 23, 546, 425 Imports from France, 1899..

.do.... 30, 702, 516 Exports to France, 1899.

..do.... 17,927, 210 Local budget, 1900...

..do.... 4, 454, 611 Expenditure of France (1901 budget)

.do.... 1, 154, 960 Debts, 1899..

.do.... 4, 315, 613 Vessels entered

.tons.. 71, 706 Railways, 1898...

miles..

246 Telegraph lines, 1898.

.do...

574

MILITARY TERRITORIES.

These territories comprise an area of about 700,000 square miles, extending east of Senegal into the Sahara as far south as the Lake Chad and east to the border of the Egyptian Sudan. The estimated population is 4,000,000. The annual expenditure of France, according to the budget estimate of 1901, was 13,650,446 francs.

FRENCH GUINEA.

This colony lies on the coast south of Senegal and Portuguese Guinea. Its area is about 95,000 square miles, and the population is estimated at about 2,200,000. The country is administered by a governor and divided into administrative circles and one protectorate.

Francs.
Imports, 1900.....

15, 441, 710
Exports, 1900....

9, 461, 496 Imports from France, 1900...

3,980,004 Exports to France, 1900

747, 373 Local budget, 1900

2, 870,000 IVORY COAST AND DAHOMEY. The Ivory Coast, with an area of about 125,000 square miles and a population estimated at 2,500,000, is administered by a governor.

Francs.
Imports, 1899....

6, 379, 886
Exports, 1899....

5, 863, 255 Imports from France, 1899..

1, 453, 575 Exports to France, 1899

2,605, 440 Local budget, 1900..

1, 403,000 Dahomey, between the German Tago-Land and the British Niger Territories, has only about 70 miles of coast, but opens out northward into a wide hinterland. It is administered by a governor with an administrative council. Its area is about 60,000 square miles, with an estimated population of 1,000,000.

Francs.
Imports, 1899..

12, 348, 971
Exports, 1899....

12, 720, 190 Imports from France, 1899...

1, 804, 463 Exports to France, 1899...

3,433, 705 Local budget, 1900...

2, 200, 000

MADAGASCAR.

[Area, 228,000 square miles; population, 2,500,000.] The third largest island in the world, regarding Australia as a continent, is situated off the southeastern coast of Africa and has an area of 228,000 square miles and a population estimated at 2,500,000. The government is administered by a governor-general and an administrative council, which rule the island, the queen having been deposed in 1897 and deported to the island of Réunion, and thence to Algiers. The revenues are collected from customs, licenses, sales of land, land taxes, and a small poll tax. Christian missions have been active in the island, and about 450,000 of the natives are Protestants and 50,000 Roman Catholics. The capital, Antananarivo, has a population of 260,000. The French governor-general rules the whole island through residents and vice-residents in the villages, two of the provinces being still under martial law: Expenditure (local budget), 1900....

francs.. 13, 772,000 French budget (Madagascar and dependencies), 1901

.do.... 31, 602, 449 Imports, 1899....

.do.... 27,916, 614 Exports, 1899.

.do.... 8,046, 408 Imports from France, 1899

.do.... 24, 377, 357 Exports to France, 1899

..do.... 4,838, 292 Colonial troops (natives and European).

...number..

16, 896

TUNIS.

[Area, 51,000 square miles; population, 1,900,000.] Tunis is a French protectorate on the north coast of Africa, having an area of 51,000 square miles and a population estimated at 1,900,000, of which number 26,600 are French, over one-half of these military. The government is nominally administered by Bey Sidi Ali, but under the direction of the French minister-resident, with two secretaries, who practically administer the government of the country under the direction of the French foreign office, which has a special “Bureau des Affaires Tunisiennes." French judges have superseded the consular courts, and the French administration has been confirmed by the conventions with all the European powers. The corps of occupation numbers about 19,460 men, the cost of its maintenance being borne by the French Government. Revenue (estimates for 1901)..

..francs.. 39, 237, 154 Expenditures (estimates for 1901)...

...do.... 39, 122, 435 Debt, 1884 ..

.. pounds sterling.. 5,702, 000 Imports, 1899

.francs.. 55, 778, 241 Exports.

..do.... 49, 433, 460 Imports from France.

..do.... 34, 263, 933 Exports to France ...

..do.... 26, 714, 110 Vessels entered ...

..tons.. 2,433, 841 French vessels entered

...do.... 1, 254, 943 Railways in operation

...miles..

883 Railways belonging to the state.

..do....

866 Telegraph lines in operation...

..do....

2, 328 Post-offices, 1898....

...number..

300 Letters transmitted, internal service..

...do.... 5, 122, 296 Letters transmitted, external service..

..do.... 10, 292, 752

AMERICA.

The French possessions in America consist of French Guiana, Martinique, St. Pierre and Miquelon, and Guadeloupe and dependencies, their total area being but 48,000 square miles with a population of 384,000.

FRENCH GUIANA.

[Area, 46,850 square miles; population, 22,700.] French Guiana is a colony on the north coast of South America, containing a population of 22,700, in addition to a few mountain tribes. Population of the penitentiaries and the liberated convicts, about 7,000. The government is administered by a governor, with a privy council of 7 members, a council-general and municipal councils, and is represented in the Chambers by 1 deputy. The land is poorly cultivated and the trade insignificant.

Francs.
Local budget, 1900....

2, 498, 439
Total expenditure of France, budget of 1901....

...... 6,857, 057 Expenditure of France for penal establishment..

5,585, 700

MARTINIQUE.

(Area, 381 square miles; population, 190,000.] Martinique is an island of the West Indies, having an area of 381 square miles and an estimated population of 190,000. The government is administered by a governor and municipal councils, with elected general council chosen from the 32 communes into which the island is subdivided. The colony is represented in the Chambers by a senator and 2 deputies.

Francs.
Imports, 1896

22, 885, 505
Exports, 1896

21, 431, 026 Imports from France, 1896

9, 376, 000 Exports to France, 1896 ....

19,726, 000 Local budget of 1897 ....

5, 369,000 Expenditures of France, 1898

2,638,000 Debt (annuity)...

95, 000

GUADELOUPE AND DEPENDENCIES.

[Area, 688 square miles; population, 167,100.] Two islands situated in the Lesser Antilles, having a united area of 583 square miles, making, with the 5 smaller islands which are dependencies, a total area of 868 square miles; population in 1894, 167,100. The government is administered by a governor and an elected council, and is represented in the Chambers by a senator and 2 deputies.

Francs.
Imports, 1899

27,004, 526
Exports, 1899...

26, 603, 147 Imports from France, 1899...

12, 693, 838 Exports to France, 1899

24, 212, 270 Revenue and expenditures balanced at (1900).

5, 729, 793 Expenditures of France (1901 budget estimate).

2, 270, 758

ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON.

[Area, 93 square miles; population, 6,250.]

These are the largest of 2 small groups close to the south coast of Newfoundland, having a combined area of 93 square miles and a population of 65,250. The government is administered by a governor with a council-general and municipal councils.

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Imports, 1899...
Exports, 1899..
Imports from France.
Exports to France.
Vessels entered, 1898 .
Local budget for 1900
Expenditure of France (budget of 1901)..

francs.. 12, 895, 329

do... 15, 418, 467 ..do.... 7,490, 385 ..do.... 11, 868, 590 ..tons..

48,580 .francs.. 475, 708 ..do....

259, 178

AUSTRALASIA AND OCEANIA.

The French colonies and dependencies in Australasia and Oceania include New Caledonia, which is a French penal colony, with a number of island dependencies lying adjacent, and the Society Islands and neighboring groups known as the “French Establishments in Oceania."

NEW CALEDONIA AND DEPENDENCIES.

1899.

[Area, 7,700 square miles; population about 53,000.] New Caledonia is a French penal colony in the South Pacific about 800 miles east of Australia, having an area of 7,700 square miles and a population of 52,756, of which about 10,000 belong to the penal class. The government is in the hands of a governor with a councilgeneral, municipal councils, and commissions. Imports.

francs.. 10,958, 198 Exports.

..do... 8, 913, 197 Imports from France.

..do.... 6, 275, 796 Exports to France

..do.... 3, 480, 392 Vessels entered, 1900

..tons.. 177, 657 Local budget....

.francs. 3, 407, 876 Expenditures of France (including penal establishment), 1901 budget...

.do... 6, 341, 838 Expenditures of France for penal establishment, 1901 budget..

..do.... 3,480, 700

SOCIETY ISLANDS.

[Area, 650 square miles; population, 12,000.] These are a group of islands in Oceania officially known as the “French Establishments in Oceania.” They consist of the Society Islands and others lying to the northwest; the Marquesas, Tuamotu, Gambier, and Tubuai groups. There is a governor for all the establishments in Oceania, with a council for consultation, There is also a general council elected by universal suffrage.

1899. Total imports

.francs.. 2, 861, 433 Total exports...

..do..., 3, 528, 433 Vessels entered

..tons..

22, 105

NETHERLANDS.

The colonial possessions of the Netherlands are located in the East and West Indies, and embrace a total area of 783,000 square miles and a population of about 35,000,000, or nearly seven times that of the mother country,

ASIA.

DUTCH EAST INDIES.

[Area, 736,400 square miles; population, 34,090,000.] A group of islands in Oceania, including Java, most of Sumatra, the Celebes, the Molucca Archipelago, the Riau-Lingga Archipelago, and others, having an area of 736,400 square miles and a population of 34,090,000, of which number 63,000 are Europeans and persons assimilated to them. The government is represented by a governor-general, who represents not only the executive power of the government, but has the authority to pass laws and regulations for the administration of the colony, subject to regulations and control of the Netherlands Government. In this he is required to adhere to the constitutional principles on which the Dutch Indies are governed, and which are laid down in the “Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India,” established in 1854. The governor is assisted by a council of five members, partly of a legislative, partly of an advisory character. The islands are divided into provinces or residences, which are governed by a resident, assisted by several assistant residents, and a number of subordinate officials called “contrôleurs,” who are appointed by the government after a rigid examination. The resident and his assistants are aided in their intercourse with and control over the natives by cooperation with the native chiefs, who receive salaries or percentages on the amount of the taxes gathered from the natives.

No. 9-38

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Justice is administered under a system which places Europeans and persons assimilated with them under laws nearly similar to those of the mother country, while the natives are subject to their own customs and institutions. The administration of justice for Europeans is entrusted to European judges; that for natives is to a great extent under their own chiefs. The revenues are from customs duties, personal imposts, licenses, land taxes, taxes on houses and estates, the government monopolies on salt, opium, railways, and the sale of coffee grown under the culture system on lands owned by the government, some of which are under perpetual lease to those occupying them. The colonial army consists of 39,388 soldiers and 1,345 officers, all Europeans, about 15,000 of the common force being Europeans, the remainder natives. Nearly four-fifths of the exports of sugar, coffee, tea, indigo, cinchona, tobacco, and tin go to the Netherlands, and a large share of the imports are from the home Government. Revenues, 1901 (estimate)

-guilders 1.. 150, 653,000 Expenditures, 1901 (estimate), on private account...

..do....? 150, 226, 000 Imports in 1899..

do.... 186, 792, 241 Exports, 1899....

.do.... 225,978, 871 Vessels entered, 1898.

..tong.. 1, 660, 968 Railways, 1899..

miles.. 1, 300 Post-offices, 1899...

...number..

216 Letters carried in 1899 (internal intercourse).

...do... 10, 674, 898 Samples, newspapers, printed matter, etc., carried..

.do....

7,777,888 Telegraph lines operated...

miles..

4, 310 Cable lines in operation

...do....

1,025 Messages delivered, 1899.

number..

672, 892 Expenditure for education of natives, 1901 (estimate)

-guilders.. 1,482, 000

--

AMERICA.

DUTCH GUIANA.

[Area, 46,060 square miles; population in 1898, 66,490.] The Dutch West Indies (so called) include Dutch Guiana, on the north coast of South America, and the island of Curaçao, with several small adjacent islands. The area of Dutch Guiana is 46,060 square miles and the population in 1898, 66,490, exclusive of natives unenumerated. The government is administered by a governor, assisted by a council, which consists of the governor, the attorneygeneral, and three members, all nominated by the King. The colony is divided into districts, which send delegates to an annual assembly for legislative purposes. All religious creeds are given complete liberty of worship. Justice is administered by a court, whose president, members, and recorder are nominated by the home government, and these are assisted by three cantonal and two circuit courts.

The revenues are collected from import, export, and excise duties, taxes on houses and estates, personal imposts, and some indirect taxes.

Guilders.
Receipts, 1900..

2, 296, 000
Expenditures, 1900.....

2, 424,000 Subvention by the government

128, 000 Imports, 1899...

6, 122, 112 Exports, 1899..

5,517, 384 Imports from Netherlands, 1899....

3, 203, 000 Imports from United States, 1899 ..

1, 330, 000 Exports to Netherlands, 1899 ...

1,771, 000 Exports to United States, 1899.

3, 211,000

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CURAÇAO.

[Area, 403 square miles; population, 51,524.] A group of islands lying north of the coast of Venezuela, having a total area of 403 square miles and a population of 51,524. The government is administered by a governor appointed by the Netherlands Government, assisted by a council composed of the attorneygeneral and three members, also appointed by the sovereign. The colonial council consists of eight members nominated by the sovereign. The laws are administered with the cooperation of the chiefs of each of the islands of the group, who are also nominated by the sovereign. The revenues are from import and export taxes, excise duties, taxes on land, etc. Revenues, 1901 (estimated)

-guilders.. 700,000 Imports, 1899

...do.... 1,922, 917 Exports, 1899...

..do....

255, 525 Tonnage of vessels entered in 1898.

..tons.. 507, 344 Attendance at schools.

5, 460

1 Value of guilder, 40.2 cents,

2 Of which 30,007,000 guilders by the home Government.

GERMANY. Germany's foreign protectorates are "spheres of influence” rather than colonies in the ordinarily accepted sense of the term. Her extension of empire beyond the bounds of Europe began in 1884, and now includes over 1,000,000 square miles of territory, with an estimated population of 14,700,000 people, most of these being in Africa.

AFRICA.

TOGOLAND.

[Area 33,000 square miles; population, 2,500,000.) Togoland is a German protectorate on the west coast of Africa between Dahomey and the Gold coast, and has an area of 33,000 square miles and a population estimated at 2,500,000. The territory was declared a German protectorate in 1884 and placed under an imperial commissioner, assisted by a secretary and inspector of customs and a local council of representatives of the merchants. Four missionary societies at work in the colony have schools largely attended by native children. Revenues are collected chiefly from customs. Local revenue, 1899–1900...

.marks!..

554, 083 Budget revenue for 1900–1901 (estimated)

..do.... 21, 448,000 Imports, 1899-1900.

.do.... 3, 279, 708 Exports ...

..do... 2,582, 701 Vessels entered....

..tons.. 280, 439

CAMEROONS.

[Area, 191,130 square miles; population, 3,500,000.] The Cameroons region, also located in West Africa, became a German protectorate in 1884, and is placed under an imperial governor, assisted by a chancellor, two secretaries, and a local council of three representative merchants. Four missionary societies are doing work in the colony. The revenue is mainly derived from the import duties. The area is estimated at 191,130 square miles, and the population at 3,500,000. Local improvements are being encouraged, agricultural experiment stations established, and the condition of the natives improved. Local revenue, 1899–1900.....

marks.. 1,325, 631 Imperial subsidy, 1900–1901 (estimated)

..do.... 2,180,000 Vessels entered, 1899–1900 ...

.tons..

76, 155 German vessels entered, 1899-1900

..do.... 36, 793 Imports, 1899–1900 ..

.marks.. 12, 726, 734 Exports, 1899–1900.

..do.... 5, 156, 943

GERMAN SOUTHWEST AFRICA.

[Area, 322,450 square miles; population, 200,000.] A German protectorate on the west coast of Africa, immediately north of Cape Colony, extending along the coast for about 930 miles. Total area is estimated at 322,450 square miles, and the population 200,000, of which 2,600 are whites. The northern portion of the territory is controlled by an Anglo-German company under concessions obtained from the German Government. The coast lands are held by a German Colonial Company for Southwest Africa. The government is administered by an imperial commissioner, with government stations and representatives at the chief centers of population.

Marks.
Local revenue from customs duties, 1899...

883, 000
Budget for 1901, revenue (including imperial contribution of 9,103,000 marks) and expenditure ...

... 10, 452, 000 Imports, 1899....

8, 941, 154 Exports, 1899..

1, 399, 478 Imports from Germany, 1899 ...

7,670, 049 Exports to Germany, 1899...

241, 537

GERMAN EAST AFRICA.

[Area, 380,000 square miles; population, 6,105,000.] A German sphere of influence in East Africa, with a coast line of 620 miles, an estimated area of 384,000 square miles, and an estimated population of 6,105,000, consisting chiefly of mixed tribes, with a strong Asiatic element near the coast. The European population at latest reports was 1,139. There are seven Protestant and three Catholic missionary societies at work. enterprise is being encouraged by the German Government, which grants subsidies for railways and steamers. German plantations of

Commercial cocoa palms, coffee, vanilla, tobacco, and cacao have been established, and experiment stations for tropical culture and cattle raising. A railway is being extended to the interior. Budget of 1901 (including imperial contributions of 5,259,000 marks)

8, 491, 000 Imports, 1899....

10, 823,000 Exports, 1899....

3,937,000 Imports from Germany, 1899...

2,019, 000 Exports to Germany, 1899...

923, 000

Marks.

1 Value of mark, 23.8 cents.

2 Of which imperial contribution 884,000 marks.

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