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supremacy be maintained in these days of friction than legal injustice toward organized world competition. It appears clearly that labor, or a conviction on its part that it would the non-union mills of the steel corporation in find the courts prejudiced in favor of its adthis country are better equipped and more versaries. Our law must be above reproach economically conducted than those in which as a respecter of persons or vested interests. the management has been hampered by the

THE WESTERN DROUGHT jealousies and the obstructive policy of the labor unions,

S this record is closed, news comes of the

Nobody questions nowadays the desirability AS breaking of the prolonged Carought the

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of combinations of workmen. But if Amer- the Central West which has occasioned many ica is to attain the great commercial and in- sensational estimates of crop failures. For dustrial destiny for which she seems marked about a month the temperature in Missouri, out, she must go into the conflict free from Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska and adjacent states any hampering restrictions. Most of the men ranged from ninety to one hundred and ten who are actually managing the vast steel busi- degrees. At Topeka the Kansas River was so ness today are in these positions because they dry that grass grew in the centre of the chanhave proved themselves more competent than nel, and fish were scooped out with shovels in their fellows, and stagnation and decay are parts of the Platte. Pastures were burnt so the inevitable results of a transfer of power severely that growers of stock rushed cattle, from the true generals of industry to less sheep and hogs to market lest they would be able hands. The country is to be congra left with no food for the animals. The untulated, therefore, that the steel plant owners precedented heat and a flood of alarmist have stood firm on this point, and decisively de reports sent the price of corn up to nearly feated a tendency so deplorable in its effects. sixty cents a bushel on the Chicago Exchange,

about double the average price at this date, SWEEPING INJUNCTIONS

and the consequent reaction caused a panic URING the labor troubles in Connec on a small scale. Since the long-hoped-for

ticut, Judge Gager granted one of the rains have reduced the temperature and most comprehensive injunctions yet issued. checked the withering drought in the corn The strikers were restrained from interfering belt, it has been possible to get a saner in any way with the new laborers, from boy- opinion of the situation. The early corn cotting, intimidating, persuading or threaten crop is ruined and is being gathered for ing them, from picketing or patrolling the fodder, while the farmers are hurriedly refactory, and from all concerted action inter- planting in hopes of late fall harvests. The fering in any way with the employees or experts figure that about a third of the total business. This seems almost too sweeping a corn crop is gone, and look for a total figure prohibition, for it forbids lawful actions as of 1,500,000,000 bushels, the estimate on well as unlawful ones; and the judicial opin- July 1st having been for something over ions in other sections concur in enjoining 2,000,000,000. Fortunately the yield of only acts which are violations of established wheat, even in the drought-stricken states, is statutes. In Paterson, for instance, a tem the largest on record, the present indications porary injunction against picketing by the for the entire harvest showing an aggregate vice-chancellor was overruled on this ground, of over 700,000,000 bushels, or 25,000,000 and other judges—while upholding firmly the more than the high-water mark set in 1898. right of any company to employ whom it It is believed that the Russian wheat crop choose, on any terms it can make, and the will be greatly below the average, since it has inviolable right of laborers to work for any- been greatly injured by much the same conbody for whatever pay they are willing to ditions which have prevailed in Kansas and accept-are careful to draw the same dis Missouri. tinction. While human sympathy is apt to

A LESSON IN IRRIGATION obstruct one's judgment in such a case as

NE because his friends ostracized him for return

aster ing to work, it is clear that nothing could be has been to furnish the sufferers with an more unfortunate and conducive to lasting object lesson of the value of irrigation more

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that of the poor fellow who committed suicide Oaster to western agricultural interests

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effective than all the literature ever published prehensive instrument; and though the fight on the subject. While the winds have for will in all probability be carried to the weeks blown steadily from over the arid Supreme Court, the small companies, especiplains upon the cornfields, destroying probably ally in the rural districts, are multiplying five hundred million dollars' worth of farni with astonishing rapidity. A monopoly or produce, the irrigated valleys of western large combination is necessary to get the Kansas and eastern Colorado, where droughts benefits of the long-distance telephone, or of have no terrors and water supply is under the ordinary local system in very crowded scientific control, have been producing un communities, where its efficiency depends usually plentiful crops of alfalfa, which yields upon any business man's ability to call up three or four harvests a season, and which is any other telephone subscriber without having now worth almost twice its ordinary price. more than one installation ; but the isolated Moreover, it is evident that had these desert country residents and farmers have found lands been even partially reclaimed, much of their small organization of the utmost service the damage to adjacent regions would have in putting them into communication with one been avoided. It is a lesson which the prac- another, and with the nearest centre of poputical Westerner will take to heart, and the lation. They are enabled to shop; to keep in result should be a new impetus to the irriga- touch with what is going on, particularly as to tion of arid lands on a large scale.

the vitally important commercial happenings It is a striking evidence of our agricultural and movements of prices which used to be a prosperity that this blow is received so calmly closed book; and to ameliorate, especially by by the western farmer. He is in better evening talks, the loneliness and social isolafinancial condition than ever before; and tion which have been one of the greatest while there may not be as much for luxuries drawbacks to farm life. Within a radius of this year in some sections, and the railroads thirty miles around Chicago there are eighteen will hardly have the business they expected, hundred farmers who can be reached by telethere is a noticeable absence of talk about phone; where they do not adopt the three-topanic or mortgage foreclosures or the conse the-mile arrangement, giving a joint service at quent political restlessness which was a feature a dollar a month apiece, many farmers in this of the trans-Mississippi country after the bad region rig up a home-made line, two or more times of 1894. The farmer now has a

now has a stringing wires between their houses, along reserve fund of money and hope; and he is the fences, or on bean-poles, at an expense of neither grumbling nor discouraged.

about ten dollars each. In Maryland, and in

deed all over the country, there are thousands THE GROWTH OF TELEPHONES

of rural subscribers to small local independent THI THIS altered status of the formerly systems which gradually grow and form con

mortgage-ridden agricultural region is nections with each other. The result has been evidenced in many ways, but by none more many minor improvements and simplifications forcibly than by the farmer's adoption of the which have reacted and still further increased improvements of modern science. He has the ramifying network of telephone wires, been setting up automobiles in Kansas and each little centre spreading out arms to the the Middle West; improved farm machinery other adjacent ones like a great system of and implements find a ready sale; personal nerve ganglia.

nerve ganglia. The Department of Agriand household luxuries recently unheard of culture reports that the demand for rural free are now everyday matters; rural free delivery delivery has been greatly lessened by the of mails and long-distance trolleys are putting advent of these country telephone systems. him into closer communication with the cities; In the cities the telephone is also making and, above all, he has been solving some of its way with a speed which needs only the inevithe most difficult social and industrial prob- table further cheapening of the service to lems of agricultural life by the use of the double or quadruple. We are still far behind telephone. The extension of independent some European countries in this matter; in telephones has been much accelerated by a Stockholm, Sweden, for instance, the low recent decision against the parent concern in rates have increased the use of telephones the matter of the “ Berliner patent," which, till there is now one for every fourteen inwhile not basic, is a very important and com- habitants. An important judicial decision in

South Carolina (due to competition between —that is, houses “with two-feet airshafts two companies, one of whom refused to con having no outlet to the yard or the street, and tinue a citizen's telephone unless he gave up no intake at the bottom permitting the free the other service) has pronounced the tele circulation of air, and which are thus chiefly phone a common carrier, subject to all the useful as a vent for the conveyance of the regulations of such corporations

bad odors from the lower apartments to those

above, and as receptacles for the collection of DESPATCHING TRAINS BY TELEPHONE

indescribable filth.” The new law requires HE newest field which has been invaded that every living room shall have a window by the telephone is that of train

upon the street or yard or upon an airshaft of despatching. The Delaware, Lackawanna & not less than twenty-five square feet opening Western Railroad is to substitute a telephone to the sky without roof or skylight — and system throughout its lines, in place of the apartments already constructed must have present telegraphic one, as soon as the long- either this or an opening sash window leading distance wires can be erected. It is claimed into a room so situated. No room in a cellar that the existing method can be enormously or basement can be occupied for living pursimplified, and that by a phonographic attach poses without a written permit from the Board ment, permanent records of the orders can be of Health, water must be furnished in reasontaken which should eliminate many of the able quantity on every floor, and the spaces present causes of accident. When one con beneath all sinks must be left open. The siders the possibilities of long-distance com height of houses, the percentage of lot munication which follow in the wake of Prof. occupied, the width of yards, the ventilation Pupin's discoveries, it becomes evident that of courts and halls, the size of rooms—even the telephone is still in its infancy as an the privacy_of new apartments is carefully annihilator of distance.

regulated. The Tenement Commissioner whó,

with the department he will organize, is to MORE LIGHT FOR THE TENEMENTS

carry out this admirable law will not be apEUROPEAN scientist claims to have pointed until the first of next January; and

discovered in " sunlight baths" a direct it is probable that the Health Board, which is and permanent cure for lupus and many other meanwhile entrusted with its enforcement, diseases and has founded a hospital in which will do little besides circularizing house-ownhis patients can be scientifically treated with ers to familiarize them with its provisions. It sunlight on every portion of the body. That will put into the Commissioner's hands the disease appears in the absence of sun and power to reach the pockets of those miserable air is a sad scientific truth impressed upon creatures who squeeze high rents out of the the public mind ever since the great cities unfortunate and degraded occupants of their began to huddle people together—in a manner tenements, and it will present the considerain which no farmer would house his pigs. tion of a thousand dollar fine to the owners From the point of view of one who believes who through careless ignorance permit their in the brotherhood of man, the condition of agents to do the same thing. the poor of New York or Chicago or San The first effect of the enactment was the Francisco is simply a nightmare. To the hurried filing of more than a thousand plans philosopher it is a barbarously unenlightened between January i and April 12, to take adwaste of human strength and life. From a vantage of the old law. It transpired last purely selfish standpoint, this state of affairs month that in this rush an unscrupulous is a constant menace to the health of every architect filed from fifty to a hundred “dumone of the city's more fortunate residents. mies," taking any plan he happened to have

It may safely be said that the New York and entering it for some vacant lot, regardless Legislature of 1901 was responsible for nothing of the fact that it did not at all fit the space, else so important as the “Tenement House He subsequently altered these radically, thus Law,” the two final sections of which (relat- filing and erecting old style tenements long ing to prostitution in the tenements) became after the law was in force; and the connivance operative on the first of July.

of some official of the Building Department Among the provisions of this statute is one seems to have been secured in this dishonest that does away with the horrible “dumbbells" practice. The publicity given to the evasion

A

MR.merchant, has been doing a good work

of the law by Mr. Robert W. DeForest and neglect any agency which so surely and his associates has probably frustrated the vitally improves public health and morals. scheme; and it will merely serve to make the Tenement House Committee watch such

THE GROWTH OF CITIES matters even more carefully. The reputable HE movement of our population to the

architects, many of whom de great cities of slackening conclared the new statute would be ruinous to tinues with accelerated speed. During the both owner and tenant are now finding little last decade the United States added thirteen difficulty in meeting its provisions—with plans million to the sum of its inhabitants. There for apartments and tenements which must re has been an enormous movement of both imjoice the heart of any one familiar with the migrants and native Americans to the sparsely existing conditions.

settled regions of the West and Northwest, A “prominent architect” has made in the yet the percentage of the total population livReal Estate Record and Guide some very ing in cities of 8,000 inhabitants or more has interesting predictions as to the ultimate risen from 29 to 32.9.

risen from 29 to 32.9. A hundred years ago effects of the measure. He looks for a great this percentage was only 4. In the 116,000 movement to the suburbs and two-family square miles occupied by Massachusetts, dwellings in place of tenements; indeed he Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New asserts that in twenty years New York will Jersey and Pennsylvania, seventy-two people be “a city of big apartment houses and small out of every hundred are to be found in cities one and two story dwellings."

of over 4,000. This is a logical outcome of

the extraordinary industrial activity which FLOATING HOTELS AND FREE BATHS

has lately characterized American effort; and

it is surely not fanciful to see in the movea

ment merely another application of that prinfor the dwellers of the city, and carrying out ciple of combination which now dominates a pet scheme of his own, by opening to the the whole world of business and industry. public a fleet of “floating hotels” during the The world seems to have just waked up to heated term. Each evening the staunch full- the unlimited application of the copy-book rigged ship Jacob Stamler and two attend maxim as to the strength of union, and the ant yachts have sailed down the bay, carrying City is merely a Residence Trust. its patrons to pure air and a healthful night's It is difficult to look forward in this direc

from the city's smoke and roar. On tion, for one feels instinctively that some Saturdays the trip is prolonged till Monday counter influence must arise to check this morning.

mad rush townwards. Otherwise that dismal It is an interesting and novel experiment, prophecy which Mr. H. G. Wells introduces which should succeed, and which emphasizes into one of his stories will become a reality, the loss to the great city's residents, of the and the monstrous city, swollen to incredible water-front as a location of homes. Almost proportions, will drain every vestige of life universally the choicest dwelling-places have from the country. Even today the realizabeen given over exclusively to docks and tion comes upon one with something of a manufactories and business, while the workers shock that over twenty-eight million of our who do not get away to summer resorts people are living in a space probably aggregatswelter and lose strength for lack of the ing not more than 5,000 square miles, while breezes which might be found by the water the other forty-eight million are spread over side.

3,000,000 square miles. Less novel, but even more important, is

AMERICA'S GREATEST POPULATION CENTRE the movement for free public baths and the establishment of shower baths in connection -EEPING in mind the fact that there are with the city's school-houses. Lack of conveniences and of privacy in the crowded tene each square mile of our territory, the followment homes make the extension of New ing data by Mr. J. H. Pence are impressive: York's present inadequate system—two over

The accompanying map shows the number crowded bath houses—a crying necessity from of persons to each square mile in America's every point of view. We cannot afford to

greatest population centre-New York, Kings,

rest away

K still less than twenty-six inhabitants to

CON

Queens and Richmond counties of New York, and There are smaller cities with smaller areas Hudson and Essex counties of New Jersey. that are denser than many in this list, owing to These six counties contain an area of consider the fact that in various States the custom of inably less than 500 square miles—about one-half corporating suburbs is different; but these the area of Cook county (Chicago), Illinois—but are, as a rule, not of a size sufficient to be have a population of 4,200,000, an average of termed population centres, except Cleveland, O., 8,500 persons to each square mile. Some idea with an average of 11,569. of the immensity of these figures may be gleaned

BAD GOVERNMENT OF OUR CITIES from the fact that were the entire country thus peopled it would have a total of nearly 30,000,

ONFRONTED by such figures as these 000.000, or thirty-five times as many persons as

the importance of municipal affairs in

our great cities takes on a new aspect. The WESTCHESTER

government of New York, Chicago and Phila

delphia directly affects 6,429,474 people, BERGEN

nearly a tenth of our whole population. How are these vast public interests faring in the hands of those who have them in charge?

The pitiable condition of Philadelphia culHUDSON

minated in the infamous “street railway grab," 3,977 QUEENS

chronicled in these pages last month, which 1,185

has made her a synonym for political corrup

tion in every newspaper of the land. The KINGS

franchises, deliberately stolen from the public ONION

and granted to a political ring in the face of

Mr. Wanamaker's offer of $2,500,000 for RICHMOND 1.176

them, are now said to have been sold by these Diagram Showing

harpies to an existing traction company for a The Density of Population in Kings, Queens,

Richmond, Essex and Hudson Counties. sum almost as large. It is possible that an The figures represent the number of people to the square mile in this region.

aroused public sentiment may bring this humil.

iating case of highway robbery into the courts, the estimated population of the earth. In no but the disheartening fact would remain even other place in this country is there anywhere then that it is merely a flagrant example of nearly so dense a gathering of people as on Manhattan Island. This is shown by the following has marked the history of Pennsylvania ever

the indescribable political corruption which list of counties, where the average exceeds 1,000 to the mile:

since she has been dominated by Quay and

his band of spoilsmen. COUNTIES

PEOPLE PER SQ. MILE New York..

22,076

It would not be difficult to find almost Kings, N. Y Suffolk (Boston), Mass.

parallel cases in Chicago; and as this is Philadelphia, Pa.

written the newspapers are chronicling in Hudson (Jersey City), N. J.

8,977 San Francisco, Cal.

8,167 scare-heads the virtual bankruptcy of “the Essex (Newark), N. J. Cook (Chicago), II.

1,851 second city in the most prosperous nation of Orleans, La Milwaukee, Wis.

the world.” Mayor Harrison, failing to raise Queens, NY

the assessed valuation of property above Richmond, N. Y.

1,176

$100,000,000, has instituted rigid economy Hamilton (Cincinnati), 0.. All of these counties contain populous cities,

in every department; but he declares that but many of them also have a considerable rurai owing to the above, to the city's antiquated area that reduces the average of density. Con- charter, excess of tax-levying bodies, and absidering the cities alone the following is the surdly low debt limit—"policemen will have result :

to be discharged; fire companies will have to CITIES

be reduced; teachers' salaries will have to be Greater New York.

cut; some of the library sub-stations will Chicago Philadelphia

have to be abandoned; when bridges and

viaducts go to pieces they will have to be Jersey City.

closed, as we will have no money to repair San Francisco.

8,167

them; our streets will be dirtier than they Milwaukee..

have ever been, our alleys will be uncleaned; Cincinnati

[graphic]

15,150
11,990
9.951

2,827

1,457
1,447
1,185

St. Louis, Mo.

1,149
1,021

PEOPLE PER SQ. MILE

11,160 8,91 9.951 9,430 13,032 16,156 15,83)

St. Louis.
Boston
Baltimore.

New Orleans.

1,457 12.405 8,808

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