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nity in small sums extending over a large the East, and elevate her rank among the period, but all the Powers do not approve this great Powers. Her hostility to Russia has plan. Russia in Manchuria is a constant slumbered since the unfair treatment that she provocation to disagreement, whether a treaty received at the close of her conflict with with China be signed or not. The strongest China, but it has never been forgotten. military force in China is the German force, Now Russia is thought to have removed and Germany is not likely to be the most the English collector of revenue in Corea, and moderate in demanding indemnity. Japan is Japan interprets this as an unfriendly act, and openly hostile to Russia. Great Britain is Russian conduct in Manchuria has inflamed yet engaged in South Africa.
Africa. Our own the Japanese Government. There has been government wisely restricts its activity to an open threat of war, and Japan has been moral suasion. The outlook therefore is not making active and extensive preparations. as hopeful for preserving the Chinese Empire There is no doubt of the eagerness of the as we could wish it were.
Japanese people for such a conflict. The And it is Russia now as it was Russia in patriotic feeling of the country is deeply the beginning that causes the greatest fear, hostile to Russia. despite her friendly protestations. She has a Of the allies that must come to an agreesettled policy of Asiatic conquest. Steady, ment about a settlement with China, England sometimes stealthy and sometimes ostenta still has her war in South Africa, Russia has tious, but always certain is her advance. In her acute troubles at home, and Russia and methods very different, but in results alike Japan are at swords points. Agreement on effective, she absorbs Persia on one side of indemnities is not made easier by these comthe continent, and on the other side she plications, and the fate of China is uncertain acquires (for she will yet acquire) Manchuria. for so many reasons that conjecture must Internal disorder may threaten the throne, descend to the level of blind guessing. Czar may succeed Czar, and ministry succeed ministry, but there is a continuous purpose,
THE BOERS' STUBBORN OR STEADFAST REFUSAL
peaceRussian push eastward. Sufficiently Asiatic instinctively to understand the art of conquer- in declining them the Boers seem surprisingly iro nd assimilating Asiatic populations, the ill-advised. General Kitchener, with authority, Russian has advantages that no purely Euro- offered, on the surrender of the Boer arms pean conqueror can hope for—whether his and ammunition and the cessation of hostiliconquest be by arms, by diplomacy, by indus- ties, to give amnesty in the Transvaal and the try, or by trade. It looks as if he were Orange River colonies to all bona fide Boer destined to rule the greater part of Asia. soldiers, and to all belligerents in the Cape
An illuminating chapter of this advance is Colony and Natal except British subjects told in this number of The WORLD'S WORK who had taken up arms against Great by Mr. Mumford in his article about the Britain ; to return the military prisoners from Russian supercession of England in Persia. St. Helena and Ceylon; to replace military While the eyes of the world are fixed on law by a civil administration, looking toward Manchuria, or on Peking, or on St. Petersburg, the establishment of a representative governthe work of Russianizing Persia goes steadily ment; to permit the use of both the Dutch forward. Not only may the Chinese Empire and the English languages in the schools and be partitioned, but the great conflict between in the courts; and to give $5,000,000 toward the two dominant races of the world, the payment for the loss of the burghers' property English and the Russian, may before many actually caused by the war.
General Botha years take place on the borders of the long reported that, after a conference, the Boer slumbering cradle-land of civilization.
leaders had declined these terms. The only
terms that Great Britain had before offered THE DANGER OF A JAPANESE-RUSSIAN WAR were unconditional surrender. UT in the meantime Japan must be Weary as the English public is of the con
reckoned with. That wonderful little flict there was at once a vigorous revival of Power is not averse to a war whereby she war-feeling. One explanation of the Boer remight still further emphasize her influence in fusal is that the Boers hoped fur better terms
perhaps an inevitable race movement, in the The Peritish were
surprisingly liberal and
because of the difficulty that was at the that in fact only Great Britain would be moment threatened between Great Britain and bound to observe neutrality, and that no other Russia in the Far East. The true reason for nation would be so bound. their declination is doubtless their unwilling Great Britain is, of course, clearly within ness to desert their kinsmen in the Cape her rights to withhold assent to the treaty, Colony who joined their desperate fortunes. and her declination is expressed in friendly But, whatever their reason, the continuance terms. But the situation is a complicated and of the struggle seems clearly to put a heavy embarrassing one. responsibility on the Boer leaders. The The British Government forgot or ignored British will put to the severest strain, if need one important fact—that, whereas the Claytonbe, the whole resources of the Empire—even Bulwer treaty contemplated the construction to the remodelling of their revenue system- of a canal by the help of both American and to end the long struggle victoriously.
English capital, the proposal now is that it
shall be constructed by the United States A ROYAL VISIT TO THE BRITISH COLONIES
Government alone. Under these circumHE Duke of Cornwall and York, the stances we surely have a stronger claim to heir to
control of it than we should have had if it had on a world-girdling journey to the colonies, by been built by both British and American the eastward route; and in due time, he will capital. reach Canada. On May 6 there will be a cele The important facts are (1) that public bration at Melbourne in honor of his visit and opinion in the United States demands the on the occasion of the opening of the Federal construction of a canal by our Government; Parliament of Australia. Such a journey is an (2) that a strong section of public opinion, obviously excellent part of the education of a including a majority of the Senate Commitprince; but it is noteworthy that the English tee on Foreign Affairs, is in favor of inderoyal family appreciates its two-fold value pendent action without further reference to more keenly than the monarchs of any other Great Britain's wishes; and (3) that to reach country. This journey was planned by the an agreement with Great Britain further negoQueen, who was the most far-sighted monarch tiations must be begun by us, Great Britain of our times. One of the wonders of this having made no proposition when it declined democratic era is the deep-seated loyalty to assent to the amended treaty. to England of her great independent colonies It would be difficult to conceive of a more —a wonder that a close study of the Queen's complicated situation. But the friendly spirit wide sympathy goes far to explain.
in which the subject can be discussed by both
governments gives hope of an amicable arTHE STATUS OF THE CANAL TREATY
rangement. In the meantime the “interests" "HE Hay-Pauncefote treaty as amended that are opposed to a canal are said to be
by the Senate was returned by the active to discourage it. But the public opinion British Government without its signature on that favors it is so strong that nothing less March 11, and negotiations with regard to the than a period of great financial depression cutting of an isthmian canal are now at a stand could cause the enterprise long to be poststill. The original Hay-Pauncefote treaty, it poned. will be recalled, received the assent of Great The canal is an undertaking which would Britain ; but the Senate amended it, and this make any administration so memorable that amended treaty is not acceptable.
the utmost endeavors of the President and of The objections that the British Government the Secretary of State will be made to begin makes to it seem rather technical than sub its construction as soon as possible. The stantial, namely (1) that the consent of both present hitch is unfortunate; but the United parties is necessary to abrogate the Clayton States is going to cut the canal and an amicBulwer treaty (we asked that the new treaty able way will be found to do it. should supersede the old one); (2) that the
There is one remark in Lord Lansdowne's proposal of the United States to defend the instructions to the British Minister at Washcanal is in violation of the purpose of the ington which hints of the seamy side of diplooriginal agreement that its neutrality should macy-that Lord Salisbury be guaranteed by both governments; and (3) “ did not see how her Majesty's Government
could sanction any convention for amending the complicated, Mayor Carter Harrison owes his Clayton-Bulwer treaty, as the opinion of this third election to his loyalty to the public incountry would hardly support them in making a
terests as against the “traction interests.” concession which would be wholly to the benefit
His platform demanded that “pending the of the United States, at a time when they appeared achievement of municipal ownership” no franto be so little inclined to come to a satisfactory
chise for street railways shall extend more settlement in regard to the Alaskan frontier.”
than twenty years; that fares shall be reduced The sensible and broad view of the whole during the crowded hours; and that the munimatter taken by the London Spectator com- cipality shall ultimately acquire the street railmends itself :
ways. In spite of the grave criticism of his ad“We cannot help thinking that, instead of con
ministration for other reasons and in spite of triving a very effective diplomatic score, the
the Altgeld opposition in his own party, Mr. Marquis of Lansdowne would have been better Harrison was elected on this street-railway employed in asking himself what were the essen platform. In Toledo, Ohio, Mayor Jones was tial interests of the United Kingdom in the whole reëlected on a platform of a similar and even question. We believe the British mercantile and
more radical character in other respects. maritime interests demand that a canal shall be
In St. Louis, Mr. Wells (Gold-Democrat) made, that when made it shall be held by America
was elected chiefly because he stood for munas we hold the Suez Canal, and that, except for icipal home-rule. Here the candidate who keeping British Honduras, which of course we shall keep, the less we have to do with Central
stood for municipal ownership was defeated; America the better. So long as we keep com
for the dominant impulse of the people was mand of the sea—and unless we keep it we shall
to make sure of a business-like and creditable cease to count as a nation—we need not get into administration during the period of the apa panic over Americans fortifying the canal. proaching great fair, commemorative of the Sea power will control the canal, not land Louisiana Purchase. batteries.”
In New York, Governor Odell has made a
successful revolt against the Republican maTHE RISE OF NEW MUNICIPAL ISSUES.
chine of Senator Platt. Senator Platt pro'HERE is no doubt about a rising tide in posed legislation that would do gross violence
municipal government. Public opinion to home-rule in New York city in its police is becoming alert about it in most significant management.
The conduct of municipal ways; and the two subjects that it concerns it- affairs by state machines is receiving many self most about are municipal home-rule and discouragements. the careful guarding of franchises. The April The significance of the spring municipal elections in Chicago, Cleveland and St. Louis, elections from the point-of-view of national and the present activity in New York have politics is not great; for local issues were very instructive lessons on both these topics. dominant. But in Cleveland, Chicago and St.
There is a very strong popular opinion, Louis the newly elected mayors are Demowhich is growing in every part of the Union crats; and in St. Louis and Chicago the sucand which is especially vigorous in the middle cessful Democratic candidates were opposed West, in favor of a much closer scrutiny of by the Bryan faction of the party; and Mr. franchises than ever asserted itself until a very Johnson, of Cleveland, is a Gold-Democrat. recent period; and the sentiment is becoming . If these elections have any national political strong even in favor of municipal ownership. significance they indicate the good manageMunicipal ownership will play a greater and ment and strength of sound-money Democrats. more earnest part in municipal politics for a Mr. Johnson is, for the moment at least, long time to come.
spoken of for higher honors. He is a man of It has received a noteworthy impulse by fortune which he made chiefly from street the election of Mr. Tom L. Johnson as mayor railways, a man of convictions and courage, a of Cleveland. His platform was “a three cent free-trader, a believer in the single-tax, a man street railway fare and universal transfers;” of good business ability and a former member and he was elected chiefly because he stands of Congress. against the renewal of street railway franchises But the political and personal aspects of under the present terms. In Chicago, too, these elections are of small importance beside although the question was somewhat
their importance as indications of the growing
opinion in favor of home-rule for cities, in field is open to any one who has friends enough favor of stricter care for the public welfare in or followers enough to nominate him by their disposing of franchises, and of a strong tend- ballots. But the law relieves a candidate and ency toward the municipal ownership of street his friends of the pressure of party affiliations, railways.
and it gives independents an opportunity to THE BUSINESS METHOD OF PURIFYING CITY make their power felt. The Australian ballot GOVERNMENT
offers increased immunity to voters from HE Committee of Fifteen citizens of New
coercion and corrupt influences and encourages
coöperation among good citizens by giving noise are trying to cut the connection between
them primaries exempt from the dictation of vice and the government of the city, are the
the machine. most effective enemies that the Tammany it was tried were that it would lead to con
The objections made to the Day law before machine has encountered for many a year. Their primary purpose is not to suppress vice, fusion, cause delays, and disrupt legitimate which they frankly recognize is an impossible party organizations. But when it was tested
last fall there was no confusion, no delay, and task in a great city; but it is to prevent the city government from protecting vice and no disruption—except that five Aldermen of drawing its revenue from it. They are every
bad reputation were not even nominated, and week closing gambling houses and other such
the Hennepin Republican Association, which resorts, and are thus cutting off one of the
is a Tammany-like machine, was shaken to its
foundations. It brought five times as many great sources of Tammany's revenuesource that yields in good times an incalcu
voters to the primaries as had ever attended lable but enormous sum. The same process
them before, and it demonstrated anew that chills the loyalty of the criminal classes : if
pure primaries are the most effective instruTammany cannot guarantee protection to
ments in the hands of honest men to combat
the machine. In the Hennepin county prithem, why should they be loyal to Tammany? The value of the lesson taught by this
maries the best list of candidates was put
forward that had been nominated in many method is the greater efficiency of business men than of religious crusaders, for the very
years, and many of them were elected. The practical work of lifting a city government to
legislature of Minnesota has now extended a decent level.
the law to the whole state, with some unfor
tunate amendments. A SUCCESSFUL SECRET PRIMARY LAW
A stubborn contest has been carried on in "HE nominating convention is the strong- the Wisconsin legislature for a similar law.
hold of the boss, and a primary elec Governor La Follette has stood resolutely for tion that should be held under the secret it; and when this summary closes, it had been ballot-law would at least arm a community passed by one branch of the legislature against against its bosses. An interesting and appar the desperate opposition of the political ently conclusive experiment of this kind has machines. been tried in Hennepin county, Minnesota, It is bound to be an important instrument which includes the city of Minneapolis. in undoing municipal bosses; and, if we may
The aim of the Day primary election-law is dream for a moment of the millennium, think to substitute a secret nomination election for what a change such a law would bring if it the nominating convention. The nominating could be substituted for a national convention ! primary is held seven weeks before the elec- These quadrennial mobs are the least repretion to allow time for a campaign. The pri- sentative bodies that exist outside the Russias. mary election-day is also one of the registra
THE WESTERN DEMAND FOR IRRIGATION tion days, so that a voter when he registers for the general election cast a secret OST of such sectional feeling between ballot for the nomination of candidates that
the Eastern and the Western States as he prefers.
has shown itself in times of economic depresUnder the Day law any properly qualified sion has disappeared—at least it slumbers; for person may become a candidate for office if he the West now lends money to the East. But can produce a petition signed by a specified interesting reminders of the two different number of voters. In this way the political points of view come to the surface now and
then. An Omaha letter to the Boston Herald people as they are, the people of all parties -Omaha and Boston are the extremes of and of all sections of the country, and he temperament, if we longer have extremes-re will see them in the cheerful mood of proscently told of the sectional struggle that may perous times. He is personally well-liked. be expected if Congress continue to refuse He has a more sincere respect of his political aid to irrigation in the arid States. It was an opponents than any recent Executive. He arid Senator who talked the River and Harbor has, for instance, resolutely and wisely rebill to death.
frained from giving sectional offense to the No one who knows the temper of the West Southern Democrats. From Washington to can doubt that irrigation works will yet be New Orleans and to El Paso he will be as built by the Government. Although promo- heartily welcomed as he would be in Ohio. ters of this movement secured no legislation Everywhere he will be received with pride during the last Congress they carried on a and honor. campaign of education ; and they expect the Across the desert he will see the meaning next Congress to pass the Newlands bill. of the cry for irrigation.
of the cry for irrigation. In California he They have all agreed on this measure, and will find out public opinion about the Isthmian the National Irrigation Association will champ- Canal. Up the coast he will find evidence of ion it.
the wonderful prosperity of the great northThe Newlands bill does not call for any west, for the old frontier-phrase has now direct appropriation of money from the treas- moved across the mountains to Puget Sound, ury; but provides for the use of the money here- and he will see a trans-Pacific service better after secured by the sale of public land in the equipped than the trans-Atlantic service was arid and semi-arid States to construct irriga- until the other day. He will see a regular yield tion works. This sum last year was about of precious metal from Alaska and from the $3,000,000. The Government is to use for Rocky Mountains that would have caused an irrigation the future revenue from this source
He will visit the national —so this bill provides; the irrigated land is to parks that attract visitors from all parts of sold to settlers at a fixed price, and the Gov- the world. He will return down the great ernment is thus to be repaid.
lakes, which have a larger traffic than any The objection to the bill rests on the other sea; and he will come to Buffalo, where general rule that the Government never re the Pan-American Fair will show what adceives back money once appropriated in such vancement we have made since the great fashion. But, since the public lands that will Fair at Chicago. yield this revenue lie only in the States to be There is no itinerary from which a student irrigated, the general objection is likely to of the practical forces of modern life could yield to the earnest organized public opinion learn so much; no other country through of the West. The Western earnestness about which its ruler could get such a vista of the the matter is little understood by local public future of the world; no other journey so inopinion in the Eastern States.
structive to a man who looks to the well
being of mankind as the chief aim of civiliTHE MOST INTERESTING JOURNEY IN THE
zation, and perhaps no man is so sure to WORLD
catch the meaning of every phase of our RESIDENT McKINLEY is about to go bounding rise of life as Mr. McKinley.
on a journey to the Pacific States, and And he has the habit of frank speech when after his return he will attend the Commence- he meets the people. His utterances will rements at Harvard and Wesleyan Universities, veal more of his thought than he would exand visit other places in New England. press in many state papers. He goes at a
He does well to take these journeys, for he happy time, too. The harassing problems of will enjoy them and profit by them, and so our island wards are nearer solution than ever will the people. His jaunt is a cheerful enter before. The people are not wrangling about prise from every point of view. It can have party doctrines. They have a more active no personal political significance. He can go pride in American citizenship than any recent without arousing the suspicion even of those generation has had, for they feel, as no preemotional children of the Republic who dream ceding generation felt, the power and the of him in imperial robes. He will see the destiny of the nation. The presence of the