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GENERAL BENJAMIN HARRISON
EN. BENJAMIN HARRISON was When his second term as Reporter of the
a man of most sturdy and admirable Supreme Court expired, he resumed his law
qualities, an old-fashioned kind of practice in Indianapolis, and took part in most man whose mental attitude to many problems of the important cases in his state during the of our time was the attitude of a generation next twenty-five years.
next twenty-five years. In 1876 he made a
. ago. In politics he was extremely partisan canvass of Indiana for the office of governor, with the partisanship of the war period, but under conditions that were hopeless and that there was no more patriotic man in the Re- brought his defeat. He was offered a place public than he. In his religious life he held
In his religious life he held in Garfield's cabinet in 1880. But he declined to the straight sect of Presbyterianism, and it, preferring a seat in the United States he believed in the value of rigid discipline Senate, where he served one term. The after the fashion of an earlier generation. Democrats by a gerrymander of the State carFor instance, on his journey through the ried the Legislature in 1886 and thus defeated West while he was President he stopped in his reëlection. But his friends, feeling that Denver on Sunday. The citizens of Denver he had been ill treated, made the more enerwished to invite him to make an address, but getic effort to secure for him the nomination they hardly dared suggest that he speak on for the Presidency in 1888. The friends of the Sabbath. But they did ask him and he Mr. Blaine in that convention gave Harrison consented. The address was a sermon on their support at last, and he was nominated. the sacredness of the Lord's Day.
In that campaign Mr. Cleveland had staked He had a certain hardness of mind ac his whole chance of reëlection on his famous companied with great clearness, a high sense radical tariff-reform message, and General of justness coupled with an unsympathetic Harrison was elected. He owed the Presimanner. He had the power of convincing dential nomination in great measure, and his men, but he seldom moved them; everybody election, as many Presidential candidates have, greatly respected him, but the respect was not to his residence in a doubtful state; in great accompanied with personal affection.
measure, too, to his staunch partisanship. Of a distinguished ancestry, he made his His Administration was a creditable one own way and stood on his own merits, and and a clean one. But there were no great his strength of character and mind was such events that make it stand out conspicuously. that he fairly won the great honors that came The McKinley tariff-act, the so-called Sherman to him. His great-grandfather was a signer Silver-purchase act and a vigorous effort made of the Declaration of Independence, his by the Administration to pass the Force bill grandfather was President of the United indicate the direction of his thought and acStates, and his father was an Ohio Judge. He tivity and the vigor of his partisanship. was born at North Bend, Ohio, on August 20, Both he and Mr. Cleveland were renomi1833, and he spent two years at Miami Uni- nated in 1892. Neither man had a genius for versity in Ohio. When he came of age he political leadership, and their failure to inmarried and went to Indianapolis where he spire enthusiasm made them better candimade his home till his death.
His diligent dates when they were out of office than when application to his profession, and his careful they were in. The administration of each study of public questions brought him a good gave the opposing party the advantage. Mr. equipment both for professional and political Cleveland, therefore, won; and General Harrisuccess. He was elected Reporter of the son retired from public life. Supreme Court of Indiana in 1860 and re He took up his law-practice again and was ëlected in 1864 while he was in the army. very successful. He was retained as counsel In 1862 he volunteered and went to the war for Venezuela in its boundary dispute with as a second-lieutenant, and he made a most Great Britian. After the Peace Conference creditable military record. He rose to the at the Hague he was appointed Arbitrator for rank of Brigadier-General of Volunteers. the United States.
General Harrison maintained the dignity of public affairs. The passing of the period of an Ex-President's difficult position with both his participation in politics softened his pargrace and increasing usefulness. He gave tisanship. He married a second time after much time to the great religous body of which his retirement from the Presidency and he he was the most distinguished layman. He seemed likely to grow old both gracefully and presided at the World's Ecumenical Congress usefully when his death occurred suddenly on in New York, and he was a member of the March 13 from pueumonia. He continued Presbyterian Committee to consider the re to develop at a time of life when most men vision of the creed. He gave much time, too, begin to show some signs of decay. Mr. to educational institutions in which he was in Cleveland is again, as he was once before, the terested; and he kept alive his interest in only living ex-President.
ENERAL FUNSTON'S capture of the gunbozt Vicksburg ; and after six days the
Aguinaldo, carefully thought out, Vicksburg put out her lights and ran in shore
well-planned with an admirable judg on the north of Luzon. The party landed and ment of men, successfully executed without marched twenty-five miles to Casiguran, where loss, requiring deliberation, coolness, endur the former insurgent leaders exhibited the ance and daring, was characteristic of the American officers as prisoners, and said that resourcefulness and energy of the man. they had captured them and were carrying them He is the most picturesque soldier, and along to Aguinaldo. General Funston and the other with General Bell, the most dashing that the American officers were kept in prison for war has developed. The many kinds of three days to deceive the people of the settledanger that this expedition involved, especially ment, who were strongly loyal to Aguinaldo, the danger of treachery, make it stand out as and letters were sent forward to Aguinaldo a most extraordinary exploit; and it is no bearing the forged signature and the seal of doubt the last brilliant military achievement Lacuna. One of these letters gave news of of the war in the Philippines, for it has the the progress of the war, and the other said great and welcome merit of ending hostilities. that the writer was sending him reënforceThe story of the capture is worth telling. ments. The forged letters completely de
Aguinaldo had long been in hiding in the ceived Aguinaldo. Province of Isabella, in the northeastern part On March 17 the party started on a ninetyof the Island of Luzon. In January he sent mile march to Palanan, where Aguinaldo's a messenger with letters to Baldemero headquarters were, through a rough, uninAguinaldo in Central Luzon, ordering men habited country, eating only shell-fish and to be despatched to him as soon as possible. suffering many hardships. After a march of General Funston secured these letters which, seven days and nights they halted eight miles of course, conveyed the information where from Palanan, and sent to Aguinaldo's camp the leader was. He had already secured the for food. The Filipino chief sent supplies seal of Lacuna, one of Aguinaldo's generals. and directed that the Americans be kindly
Funston then went to Manila and secretly treated, but be forbidden to enter the town. organized his expedition, consisting of seventy By a skilful manœuvre, to avoid attracting eight Macabebes who spoke the Tagalog attention, the American officers did accomlanguage, and four American officers—Capt. pany the Macabebes and the Tagalog officers Russell T. Hazzard and Lieut. Oliver P. M. into the town. The Spaniard of the party, Hazzard, Capt. Harry W. Newton and Lieut. when he thought that Aguinaldo's body-guard B. J. Mitchell and four former insurgent offi- had had their suspicions aroused, ordered an cers—one Spaniard and three Tagalogs. attack. Three insurgents were killed, and in
They sailed from Manila on March 8 on the confusion that followed one of the former
insurgent officers arrested Aguinaldo, saying, a filibustering expedition. This was
the “You are a prisoner of the Americans." first step in his military career.
About two General Funston had already openly taken weeks after his arrival he was made a Captain command of the party. Some of Aguinaldo's and placed in command of two guns. He officers fled and others were captured. The commanded these guns in the twelve days siege party returned to the Vicksburg with Aguin- of Cascorra, and in the engagement at La aldo, and arrived at Manila on March 27. Machucha. He took part in the battle of Aguinaldo, who had on January 28 pro- Desmayo, the Cuban Balaklava, on October 8, claimed himself dictator, and had been living 1896. “At Desmayo,” he wrote, “that little at Palanan, was imprisoned in the palace, force of 479 Cubans rode against magazinewhere his former generals and his mother and rifles firing seventy shots a minute, and breechhis wife were permitted to visit him.
loading artillery, and held their position in the General Funston, who had held the rank of face of that pitiless fire until fifty-two per Brigadier-General of Volunteers, was cent. had tumbled from their horses killed or March 30 promoted by the President to the wounded.” same rank in the regular army.
After Desmayo, Gomez, under whom Within a half a decade General Funston Funston was serving, marched to meet has risen from obscurity to his high rank by Calixto Garcia near Guimaro. Guimaro, alhis restless and energetic courage.
His though defended by eleven small forts, was early life was dull and unexciting. He was attacked. On the second day, Major Osgood, born in 1865; and
1865; and when he two of Garcia's force, who had charge of the years old his father moved to Kansas. He artillery, was killed, and Captain Funston attended the public schools, and finally the took his place with the rank of Major. He University of Kansas at Lawrence, where he was created chief of artillery the day Guimaro was considered a rather poor student.
surrendered. Subsequently he took part in Funston left the University without grad numerous engagements east of the Cauto uating, and became a newspaper reporter, River. He fought at Banes, and on May 11, giving up his desk before long to collect 1897, bombarded the Sama forts for General botanical specimens for the government in Torres. He commanded the five guns used the Bad Lands of Dakota. He took part in in the attack on Las Tunas on August 28, the expedition to the Death Valley in Califor and at the end of the operation was promoted nia in 1891. His party spent a considerable to Lieutenant-Colonel. On December 12, time in that fiery sink, suffering terribly. Of 1897, while crawling along the ground, sufferall the members of the expedition Funston ing cruel pain from bullet wounds in both is the only one now living who is still lungs and other injuries, he was captured by sane. In 1893-4, he went north to botanize the Spanish. His old habits of mind promptly for the government in Alaska. He had some came to his assistance, and giving the Spanish scruples about undertaking this trip, because certain facts about the Cuban army, in which as he said his botanical knowledge did not much poetry was mixed, he managed to get “extend much further than knowing a violet permission to leave Cuba. He went to New from a sunflower.” He bought a few text York where it was at first thought he would books, however, and got to know a little about never recover from his wounds; but very soon Arctic flora before he started, so that his trip he was lecturing in Kansas about his exploits. turned out to be valuable after all.
When our war with Spain began he offered His winter was full of adventure. Once, his services to his country. Governor Leedy in his canoe, he came across a fleet of English of Kansas appointed him Colonel of the 20th whalers and he and one of the Captains got up Kansas Regiment. While the regiment was a yarn about England and America being at being drilled, Colonel Funston was called to war. The other Captains and all the crews Tampa to consult with General Miles about were much alarmed and were preparing to the situation in Cuba. In Tampa he went hide in the ice for a year or more, when the about in civilian clothes, saying that when two jokers told them so far as they knew there were plenty of sure-enough fighters Uncle Sam and John Bull were still patting around he would not pose as a warrior-not each other on the back.
without stimulants at least. He returned to Funston went to Cuba in August, 1896, on Kansas and took his regiment to San Fran
cisco. Between drills, Colonel Funston used Kansas presented General Funston with a to run over from San Francisco to Oakland, handsome sword. But on the 23d of Nowhere he fell in love with Miss Eda Blankart vember, he sailed again for Manila to complete whom he married. Then he sailed for Manila his work and, as it was to prove, to round out at the head of his 1,300 men.
his fame. It was not long before the cable began to The distance between this country and the bring news of the 20th Kansas. Towards the Philippines makes the soldiers seem vague and spring of 1899, the country was thrown into uncertain figures. Only occasionally when they" amazement by two startling feats of its perform some extraordinary deed do they stand Colonel, and several of its members. Funston's out clear and firm in the sight of the public. own words give a sufficient description of these General Funston stands so now and gives exploits. He wrote:
promise of keeping the position. His rise has “I swam the Bagbag river with the other been rapid, almost without precedent; but it officers and 4 men of the 20th Kansas under has been won by extraordinary achievement. a hot fire, April 20. The Rio Grande River Five years ago he was unknown; to-day at I crossed two days later on a raft with 45 men the age of thirty-si
of thirty-six, he is a Brigadier-General and after a desperate fight drove 2500 of the in the United States Army. He has gone enemy from an intrenched position.”
through the horrors of Death Valley; he has In recognition of his gallantry and skill, he lived through a long Arctic night; he has was appointed Brig.-General of Volunteers on fought for a people whom he thought opMay 3, 1899. Shortly after this he sailed for pressed; he has swum rivers, driving savage the United States with his regiment, arriving enemies before him ; he has led bloody charges; in San Francisco on October 11, 1899. The and last of all, he has captured the leader of men, then only 708 in number, were met by the Filipino insurrection.
. A man who has the Governor of Kansas and a large delegation done all these things is a man who sets the of happy friends for whom they paraded be blood tingling and gives wings to the imagifore proceding to their homes. The people of nation.
PRESIDENT DIAZ AND HIS SUCCESSOR
AN EXPLANATION OF THE POLITICAL SITUATION IN
J. D. WHELPLEY
SHOULD like to live fifty years to of a modern military school; representation see the result of the seed I have for Mexico at the capitals of all foreign
planted," remarked General Porfirio nations of importance; an increase from 420 Diaz, the President of Mexico, to a friend but to 8,000 miles of railroad; an increase from a few days ago. This is some of the "seed": $35,000,000 to $78,000,000 in the output of
Twenty-four years of peace for a nation of precious metals; an increase from $20,000,14,000,000 people who had been at war with 000 to $51,000,000 in imports ; an increase others and among themselves for half a cen from $23,000,000 to $75,000,000 in exports; tury; compulsory education ; religious free the investment of $30,000,000 of foreign dom; safety for foreign and domestic life and capital in cotton mills and millions more in property; the creation of a middle class; a breweries, paper mills and many other forms modern army of 38,000 trained soldiers armed of enterprise; a general increase of wages with Mauser rifles and officered by graduates paid for common labor from eighteen to sixty
cents a day; a government the expenses of ful. Statesmanship and the arts of peace which are always within its income and which have dominated and subordinated the military has an accumulated surplus in bank of $18, instinct. 000,000 in currency; a capital city with “If Mexico should get into trouble she 400,000 inhabitants in which is now being would have to look to her great northern spent about $10,000,000 for water, light, neighbor for support, and I know of nothing sewers and pavements.
so binding between nations as a commercial This reads more like a harvest than a seed tie." Such a sentiment would have been insowing, but it is looked upon as only a begin- comprehensible to the leader of 1877. With ning by this ruler who entered his kingdom the leader of 1901 it is the inspiring motive as the man-on-horseback, but who will be of his foreign policy. He has faith in its truth, known to history as a prince of peace. for, by following its dictates, he has in twenty
His rule did not commence until he was four years brought his people farther along past Afty years of age, and it is to-day, at the the road towards civilization than they had end of twenty-four years, as vigorous and gone in five centuries preceding. effective as ever. That this rule cannot last The credit for this tremendous accompvery many years more the Mexican nation now lishment must be given to President Diaz. mournfully admits. With keen anxiety the Those who have served him faithfully and inpossible successors to the President are being telligently in carrying on the work would have weighed in the balance in hopes of finding been powerless without his leadership. He another whose energies and statecraft are of has been the whole government in every sense such heroic mould as to warrant his being en of the word, and he is to-day; for, notwithtrusted with the cultivation of the crop sown standing the Constitution of 1857, Mexico is by his predecessor.
governed “ without the curse of parliamentar
ism," and by a power centralized in one mind. FIGHTER AND STATESMAN
It is a government entirely rebuilt with each In the council room of the municipal build- succeeding administration, and from the top ing in the City of Mexico hangs an oil painting, down. Always in evidence—always behind the portrait of a soldier. There are many every civil order—is the military arm knowing other portraits in the room, some of them oc no law other than the will of its leader, recogcupying more prominent places upon the wall, nizing no constitutional principle other than but this one personality dominates the entire the integrity of Mexico as a nation. This group. The face is unmistakably that of a army was never in better condition than it is Spanish-American. The complexion is dark, to-day, and it constitutes a formidable military and the cheek bones are high. The eyes are showing for such a minor power. sombre, but they have a keen and Aashing
PROGRESS REPLACING POMP glance. It is “the man-on-horseback,” ambitious, daring, content only with supreme lead When the ill-fated Maximilian became ruler ership and working relentlessly toward that of Mexico, he spent the first hours of his adend. To him death is the only acceptable ministration designing new orders and decoralternative to success. This is General Diaz, ations for his favorites. The first plans put as he appeared in 1877, when, at the head of forth by the administration of President Diaz his victorious army, he made himself President were for great railroad systems, and for laws of Mexico.
to encourage the development of the country To-day, in the executive office of the na- by foreign capital. The man of pomp perished tional palace, but a stone's throw from the miserably. The man of military and communicipal building, sits a man best known to mercial genius will live for ever in his works, the world as the builder of modern Mexico. for with his coming dated the birth of modern He is the same Porfirio Diaz in name, and Mexico. To make a throne of bayonets and still President of the Republic, but his char to sit upon it in comfort is an unique task ; acter has changed—the emphasis is now on but by cushioning it with a constitution and other qualities. This change is written plainly by making his rule the best that Mexico has upon his face. The same lines are there, but ever had, President Diaz has kept the mass of they have been broadened and softened. The the Mexican people more than content and so hair is white. His eyes are deep and thought- busy reaping a harvest of industry that the