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His administration is characterized by in this mood he turned to Mr. Gage, then telligent temperateness. He follows no hard president of the First National Bank of Chiand fast lines, but is willing to be original if cago, as the one man for the place. Mr. it is advisable. He realizes where aid is McKinley hesitated because Mr. Gage was needed and gives it promptly. When he not a strict party man.
He communicated decided in November, 1899, to devote a part with personal friends of the banker in Chiof the national surplus to the purchase of cago, Republican leaders, and found them government bonds, he did not rush wildly enthusiastic, for they believed in the man. into the market, but conducted what might When the position was offered to Mr. Gage have been made a sensational financial coup he hesitated. He was president of one of in a quiet businesslike manner. He esti the strongest banks in the country, with a mated what certain bonds were worth accord- salary of $25,000 a year. His influence in ing to interest earned, and announced that his home community was far reaching. By this price would be paid for all such bonds. entering the Cabinet he practically retired This sale to the government was advanta from the business world. To be Secretary geous to those who had these securities, for of the Treasury of the United States is an there were no stamp taxes or other attendant honor.
on the further side of expenses. The offer put more cash in cir- sixty, with a modest competence assured, it culation and steadied the market price of was a satisfactory way of rounding out a government securities.
Such was the con busy life, especially as he saw in it a betterfidence, however, that less than $19,000,000 ment of the public service. And Mr. Gage worth of bonds were offered for redemption. entered the Cabinet.
President McKinley leans strongly upon FINANCIER, NOT POLITICIAN
his Secretary of the Treasury. In questions Mr. Gage is not an active politician, in fact of finance his advice would naturally be he has rather a contempt for professional sought, but his ability, foresight, temperatepolitics. He performed excellent service in ness, and good common sense, with his power the last campaign, however, by rejoinders to of grasping readily an entire situation, have attacks made upon the financial system of the made him an invaluable adviser to the Presiadministration. He is neither a high protec- dent. In the affairs of Porto Rico, Cuba, and tionist nor a free trader.
the Philippines, Mr. Gage has played an Personally, Mr. Gage is genial, accessible, important part. and democratic. He has none of that hard During Mr. Gage's occupancy of the Secfisted uncharitableness generally associated retaryship there has been no opportunity for with money getting. He is a kindly man, a great dramatic event such as the resumption though stern with dishonesty. Many Demo of specie payments was in Mr. Sherman's crats still hold important offices in his de time. But the chance has presented itself partment which might have been filled by for service of hardly less real value; and he Republicans, had Mr. Gage so desired. With has so managed the larger problems as to those who consult with him he has a patient, take rank among the most efficient Secretaries. persistent way of making things absolutely The whole weight of his influence has been clear. His wonderful faculty of illustra felt towards the fullest establishment of the tion is noticeable from first acquaintance. gold standard, so as to prevent the recurrence He has a way of reducing great economic of a cheap-money crusade. He has done problems to simple examples of everyday what he could to reduce the interest charges life.
of the government; and he has worked President McKinley sought a Secretary of towards a greater elasticity of the currency — the Treasury who not only represented the all in a thorough, businesslike way. He is financial world, but one who could combine a good example of the well-trained man of with his ideas of finance an understanding of affairs applying businesslike methods to a equally important economic questions. In great public task.
HOW THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSMISSION OF POWER HAS REVOLU.
F the wasted waterfalls in the world were mate extension of the uses of the waterfalls
to drive dynamos, their power would will have a profound, and at last, universal
probably be sufficient for the mechanical effect. The most remarkable examples of needs of the whole world. We could do
We could do the way in which the sending of power over without gas and coal, and the smoke problem long distances may effect our social life are to would be solved. Our houses would be be found in our western states, where the heated and lighted and our cooking done by latest achievement is transmitting a current electricity. Farms could be cultivated with 150 miles across the Rocky Mountains. the same power, and electric railroads would The story of the first electric transmission become universal.
plant and how it came to be installed is a The recognition of these facts has started simple statement, but it gives a key to all that a veritable world-movement, and it is only a has followed. A mine owner in Colorado was question of time when most waterfalls will be bemoaning the fact that he must presently go harnessed and electric power be transmitted out of business because the cost of mining in every direction. The influence of what his low grade ore was greater than the profit has already been done on our scientific, indus- from its sale. The mine was high up on a trial and political life, is great, and the ulti- mountain spur, and the way to it was a zig
an old, unused aqueduct, which had been built in the days of the Romans.
Ah," he said to his chief engineer, “if I had that old aqueduct in this watershed I could make a fortune.”
“Do you know," replied the chief engineer, “that there is a big waterfall on one of the upper spurs of these mountains ?”
“Yes, but it is twenty miles away."
“Well,” said the engineer, “if you should bottle it up and bring it here you would not have to go to Rome for your power. At
LAYING A PIPE LINE
least, you can make the fall run a dynamo and then transmit the current to the mine."
The mine owner went forth into the engineering world to see what could be done. He found that the idea had occurred to others, and that mighty preparations were making for a reclamation of the wasted waterpowers of the silver districts. In the end he secured rights to the waterfall, and had parts
" PIPE LINES THAT WOUND LIKE SNAKES THROUGH
THE MOUNTAIN PASSES”
of the water diverted into a wooden sluice Starting in this way, it was not long before box or, aqueduct, which led to a water-wheel. the greater number of mining districts were The water operated the turbines, and the tur supplied with electric power emanating from bines were connected with dynamos. The distant waterfalls. Some of these waterfalls dynamos generated a powerful electric cur were found close to the mines; others were rent, which was made to flow through wires thirty or forty miles away.
thirty or forty miles away. Some falls were twenty miles across mountain-tops to the found ill-fitted for the purpose and had to be silver mine, where in its turn the current adapted, as in the case of the Silverton mine, operated motors attached to the crushers. where a pipe-line, or fume, had to be conNo more coal came up the zigzag path, and structed to carry the water several miles bethe mine became a highly profitable property fore a proper “head” could be obtained. in which electricity is used for lighting as well And in still other cases where the water was as for traction and crushing. Work goes on scarce, especially in summer, artificial resernight and day, in winter as well as in summer. voirs were constructed to hold it and keep a In the old days the winter was a season of idle “head" continuous enough to drive the turness, because the burros could not get through bines all the year around. Following these the snowdrifts. The miners now pile the ore efforts of the individual mine owners men of into great heaps all winter long in anticipation capital went into the cañons, and harnessed of the spring, when it can be packed down to the waterfalls and rented electric power to the the smelting works. And the cost of the districts around about, and sometimes the power for operating this mine is now not even demand became great enough for several as much as the yearly repairs for the plant power-houses to occupy one cañon.
In one used to be. For the mine-owner rents a sur instance, near Salt Lake City, power is genplus power to other mine owners.
erated by the cañon water, which passes down
to another power-house, and after operating San Bernardino, in another. In the same this, down to a third. Great trenches were way Snoqualmine Falls, Washington, send cut in the mountain sides, and pipe-lines as sixteen volts overland twenty-five miles to big as a city aqueduct began to be seen wind Seattle and thirty-five miles to Tacoma. ing like snakes through the passes, and wires Butte, Montana, utilizes the waters of the carrying currents passed up, some of them Big Hole River, which transmits 15,000 through the region of perpetual snow and volts over the twenty miles of intervening down again to the level of residence, where space. Redlands, California, receives its electhe power was made to do all those things that tric light from an unpretentious station in are usually accompanied by engine throbbings Mill Creek Cañon, nine miles from the city. and the dust and dirt of burning fuel. For, Salt Lake City, Utah, gets 10,000 volts from following the sudden great increase in the the waters of the Big Cottonwood, fourteen production of silver and the newly-acquired miles away, and when the multiplying trolley prosperity of the mountain districts, western system became too heavy, the city went furcities began to ask themselves if they had not ther and harnessed the waters of Ogden found the key to their manufacturing problems. Cañon, thirty-five miles distant, and added
Sacramento is lighted and drives its trolley 16,000 volts to the available supply; the cars with current generated by the American town of Ogden taps the current en route. River at Folsom, twenty miles away. This So all over the West. Plants have been power being insufficient for the increased installed in Los Angeles, California ; Riverside, needs of the city, another water-power has California ; Colorado Springs; Puray, Colobeen harnessed at Newcastle thirty miles rado; New Richmond, Wisconsin ; and when away. The waters of San Antonio Cañon, the success of the movement was assured, it California, generate 10,000 volts, which are spread East and South. A mill owner at transmitted overland sixteen miles to Pomona, Taftville, Connecticut, where the looms were in one direction, and twenty-eight miles to operated by an expensive 350 horse-power