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Corliss engine, secured an option on an old tainous country. They even use the current ruined mill standing on the bank of the to haul cars to the top of the Jungfrau. In Shetugket, at Baltic, four and one-half miles Italy, they utilize that old Roman aqueduct down the river. The old water-wheel was which the Rocky Mountain miner spoke of, still intact. It was connected with a dynamo, and it is now sending electric light and power and now the looms in Taftville are operated into Rome nineteen miles away. The Rhone by the mill in Baltic. The present location sends 15,000 horse-power from Chevres to of the cotton mills at
Geneva,and the Rhine Columbia, South Caro
yields 16,500 volts at lina, is made possible
Rhinefelden. In Noronly because electric
waterfall transmission enables
known as the Sarpsa distant water-power
fos operates a great to be utilized. In
aluminum factory. In Georgia, a country
Sweden, the inventor, man harnessed the
DeLavel, secured conwaters of a creek
trol of most of the which ran through his
waterfalls, and, in Finplace, and with the aid
land, they are making of a dynamo lighted
ready to use every his house and out
available fall to send buildings and oper
currents into the disated his farm with
tant capital of Russia. electric power. Later
But we must come he found that he had
back to America if we surplus power to rent
would get a glimpse of to his neighbors.
the wide influence of Then he took a con
this movement and tract for lighting a
realize the possibility nearby village, and
of its future growth. finally he went into
The capacity of the the electric business
Niagara plant is being on a large scale, and
doubled, and several now he is president
of the California of a trolley company.
plants have been The movement in the
united into one great East has, of course,
system. When the culminated in the
Niagara transmission most talked-of trans
line was built, it was mission of all—Nia
thought that its chief gara.
office would be the The city of schemes,
supplying of electric made possible by the
light to Buffalo and utility of the Niagara power, sent the move the nearby towns. In
measure this ment rapidly abroad. Mexico had already was true, but the industrial phase of the established an eighteen-mile plant at Guadala installation is the more important, for around jara, and a twenty-three-mile plant at Pachuca ; the Falls has grown a veritable city of and Canada was arranging to take 21,600 schemes—a city of processes which dehorse-power out of Lachine Rapids. But at pend more on the chemical action of the Deptford, England, they built a plant to send current than on its mere mechanical power. 10,000 volts into London, and in Switzerland Many of these processes are possible only they got options on every waterfall in sight; because the current and plenty of it cheaply and in the case of the River Suze they produced is to be had for the asking. You harnessed the waters to a transmission system might run a cotton mill with steam, for that operates through twenty miles of moun instance, but you could not produce carbor
undum except in the electric furnace. Neither most fertile regions in the world, and full of could you effect the electrolytic reduction of rapids and falls capable altogether of multicopper except by the use of large quantities plying many times the electric generating of cheap current. And this principle follows
And this principle follows power of Victoria. How civilization in Africa in the production of certain bleaching powders, can be quickened by the introduction of transaluminum, and the hundred and one other mission systems! The power can be used in things which are now produced at Niagara the depths of the wilderness with as much Falls.
economy as in New York, London or Paris; In California the transmission systems have the lines can be tapped at any point en route, grown in extent until two plants exist each of and branch lines extended in any direction, for which do service, approximately, 150 miles any distance; at the end of each branch line, away, and the voltage has increased until even in the top of the highest mountain or in 50,000 volts is no longer considered re the middle of the densest swamp, thousands markable. Starting in the Blue Lake region of horse-power will be available ; the immense of California, one of these lines will transmit forests of Africa can be cut down with the 60,000 volts 152 miles overland to San Fran- most improved machinery, which under the cisco and to Stockton, illuminating the Golden old system could not well be removed from Gate city with current transmitted over a dis the heart of a manufacturing district; the tance as great as the length of the state of mineral resources may be developed; the new New Jersey. The other plant, utilizing the towns and cities which will inevitably spring waters of the Yuba River, will supply current up around each of these industries will be to Oakland, 145 miles away, with tappings lighted electrically, have trolley cars, and as and offshoots at Sacramento and Nevada City many mechanical comforts as any New Engon the way. The current will be about forty land village has now, and all quite irrespective five thousand volts. Each of
Each of these sys of the price of coal. And most of the foretems will supply current en route.
going applies to every other uncivilized counConsider Africa, from which Professor try in the world. George Forbes, of England, has but just re Man has always dreamed of doing great turned, after having made what might be called things, and has attempted in his puny way to a continental long distance transmission sur accomplish them, only to find in the end that vey. One result of Professor Forbes's visit Nature has a better way, and waits to perform will be the harnessing of Victoria Falls for it gigantically as soon as her secrets are found the transmission of electric power to the out. The earth is after all a great machine, mines of Mashonaland and Matabeleland, and and during the century just passed man has an engineer named Shaw has calculated that found out how many of the interrelated parts enough power can be transmitted all the way may be made to work at his bidding. At to Buluwayo to run all the machinery in the some distant day perhaps we may come to ungold mines for the next twenty years. This derstand every crank and cog and lever of is the ground on which Lobengula held sway the machine. It may be that by accident or only a few years ago, and it is still as primi design we shall hit upon the master lever tive as Yellowstone Park was fifty years ago. which will set the whole machine working for The Victoria Falls are part of the Zambesi, us. Meantime, long-distance transmission may a river 1,600 miles long, draining one of the be regarded as one of the cogs.
THE INCREASED YIELD AND THE HARDIER QUALITY OF NEW
W. S. HARWOOD
REVOLUTION larger in yield than the old wheats, and better
in the produc- able to withstand unfavorable weather and tion of wheat is prom- disease, but they are as rich in essential food ised — the beginnings qualities. During the summer of 1900 the of it have in fact experimental stage was passed and actual farm been achieved—by the trials were made ; for a farm trial is the ultisuccessful experiments mate test of a new wheat. Whatever favormade during the last able results may be shown in the experimental ten years at the Minne- stages, the wheat must still stand the final
sota State Experiment practical test in the fields of the farmer. In A TYPICAL SHOCK OF WHEAT Station, associated with the fields it has now proved its right to sup
the agricultural school plant the old, standard varieties. The conof the University of Minnesota. The aim crete results are these: a toning up of the was to make new breeds of wheat. Both
Both wheat harvest, not only of the region where the yield and quality are greatly increased. experiments are carried on, but of the entire
The new wheats, which are the product of wheat area of the world ; the overthrowing of breeding and selection combined, have been the argument of Sir W. Crooks, president of tested for every purpose. They are not only the British Association, that the supply of the
wheat. Wheat is a self-fertilizing plant. Left to itself, it will reproduce itself throughout endless centuries. Great care is necessary in the work, and trained men are essential. As soon as the pollen is transferred—which is done about four o'clock in the morning at the hour when the wheat forets open—the head of wheat is encased in a tissue sack so that the work may not be interfered with by any pilfering insect or bird. Two of the best
known varieties are selected, one for the REMOVING THE POLLEN
father, the other for the mother of the new To be transferred to another plant
race. When the harvest comes it may be
that the new wheat has some of the poor, and wheat of the world would soon become in few of the good characteristics of the parents ; adequate for the needs of the world; a or the reverse may be the case. It is immarked increase in the world's wealth, millions possible to say in advance what the new wheat of dollars being added in a single season in will be. only one section of the wheat-producing area From the single head which results as the of the world.
The work of wheat breeding began many years ago on the great Vilmorin estate in France. M. Henri Vilmorin, carried on extensive experiments in the creation of new breeds, more than a thousand new wheats having been tested by him. I shall not forget a trip to his farms at Verrières-le-Buisson, under the guidance of the present head of the house, M. Philippe Vilmorin. Ten years ago similar work was begun at the state institution in Minnesota, not only to create new breeds of wheat but to carry them forward through a series of years until enough wheat of a superior variety should be accumulated to
CUTTING AWAY THE FLORETS
And a head in tissue sack after pollenization enable the farmers to make the final test themselves. This work has been carried on first harvest, only a handful of kernels is at no expense to the farmer; for all the threshed out. This handful is of immense results are for the benefit of the public. importance, for these kernels may become the To create a new wheat the pollen from the
source of a mighty race, destined not only to flower of one wheat must be artificially trans- supplant the old wheats, but to add enorferred to the stigma of the flower of another mously to the wealth of the world. But the
last results are slowly won ; for the first harvest is very meagre, and the second and even the third are small. But after a number of years enough wheat can be garnered to sow the twentieth of an acre; and then come tangible results. To breed a new wheat requires infinite pains and patience. It has taken ten years to bring the new wheat varieties at the Minnesota Experiment Station to the farm test.
In the meantime hundreds of wheats have
been proven valueless. Some were too heavy TRANSFERRING THE POLLEN
in the stalk, thus “lodging," as it is called, To the stigma of a wheat plant
falling over in seasons of much moisture be
cause of a too rank growth; some were par- lacking in essential food elements.
A sucticularly susceptible to the diseases of wheat ; cessful new wheat must not only yield a some were poor in the color of the kernel, larger number of bushels per acre, the while still others were deficient in yield or first and all-important requisite, but it