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intelligent farmers from various parts of Minnesota were selected, and to them enough seed was sent to give it a fair trial. Every farmer was supplied with an elaborate record-blank. If for any reason the new wheat should be given a better chance or a worse chance than the old, especial attention should be called to the fact. Some of the reports indicated by the abnormally large increase of the new wheat that the farmer had given it a better opportunity than the old wheat, even though he did not say so, and all such instances were thrown out as being unfair to the old wheat. Other farmers were as plainly unfair to the new wheat, and their data were rejected. Out of all the instances, about forty were selected as having complied with all the conditions.
The new wheat averaged almost four and one-half bushels per acre more than the Fife wheat, one of the old standard varieties, and almost one and one-half bushels more than the average of all the wheats with which it was compared. In some few instances the new wheat was below the old, and there may be some regions where a new wheat will have
must be hardy and it must be rich in food qualities.
From the hour of the creation of the new wheat in the gray of a summer morning, throughout its life, a careful record is kept of every event in its history, in a book which is the record of the wheat's life.
Selection plays an important part as well as breeding. At every step only the best wheat kernels and wheat stalks are preserved ; defectives are rejected. No effort is spared to give the new wheat the best possible start in life. In some ways the selection may be considered more important than the breeding itself. During these experiments nearly five hundred wheats were thrown away as deficients. Out of the entire number bred, less than a dozen were retained. A number of those which were kept for future trials were especially prolific, registering as high as eight to ten bushels per acre above the old wheats planted alongside of them and receiving the same treatment.
In the spring of 1900, enough of one variety of the new wheat having accumulated to warrant field trials, a number of thrifty and
WASHING OUT WHEAT ROOTS And making drawings of them for record purposes
to be bred to meet the climatic and soil con for a period of six consecutive years, from ditions ; for it is now possible to make a 1895 to 1900, inclusive, is in no case less than wheat to order.
twenty-seven bushels per acre, while the It seems fair to say that the increase of the average of all the averages of the new wheats new wheat over all old varieties will be at is 28.1 bushels per acre.
The general averleast two bushels per acre. In the three age of the standard varieties in the region on states of Minnesota, North Dakota and South the farms is from thirteen to fifteen bushels Dakota, there are
an average about per acre, so that, while making due allowance 15,000,000 acres of land planted to wheat. for superior farming at the station, the allowWhen the new wheat is in use over all this ance of an increase of two bushels per acre region, an increase of only two bushels per when the new wheat passes into complete acre will make a crop at least 30,000,000 sway in the northwestern wheat fields, seems bushels larger than the old varieties would far too low. On a number of farms of the have yielded. At an average price of seventy-- higher type it showed more than two bushels five cents per bushel, the increase in wealth increase in last season's harvest. in the region will be $22,500,000 a year.
The tabular statement subjoined shows in The new wheat which has been grown under the direction of Professor Willet M. Hayes, of the Minnesota School of Agriculture, will be given a much wider field trial among the farmers this summer. Those who planted the wheat last season, have, in addition to their own seed supply, about 4,000 bushels to sell to other farmers, and the new wheat, it is expected, will have quite an appreciable effect upon the harvest of 1901.
The wheat known as Minnesota No. 163 has yielded as high as 42.7 bushels per acre, while none of the eight new wheats during the six years' trial has ever run behind 19.5 bushels. The average of each new wheat
PLANTING, ONE KERNEL AT A TIME
HOW OUR REPRESENTATIVES ABROAD ARE REGARDED WITH
N an article, “Our Growth as a World branch of our Government machinery which
Power," in the World's Work for No a few years ago seemed but little likely to
vember, the wonderful development in challenge the emulation of other countries, the export of American manufactures during and is still the object of much well-meaning the past few years was ascribed mainly to the but ignorant criticism, not by foreigners, but inventive genius and mechanical skill of our by would-be reformers at home. For it is people, which have enabled us to undersell only lately that the consular service of the even the more advanced industrial nations of United States has come to be regarded by Europe. It was pointed out that our prog the best authorities abroad as the most effiress in foreign markets is the more extraordi cient organization of its kind in the world for nary because of the general lack, until very spreading the sale of goods, for stimulating recently, of organized or intelligent effort by home industry and enterprise, and for informour manufacturers or by our exporters to ing exporters as to trade conditions in every cater to any but our own consumers. With important market of the globe. most defective and inefficient methods, we In view of the demand from various quarhave surprised ourselves and the world at ters for reforms in our consular system, this, large by suddenly emerging from our absorp- doubtless, will be regarded as a surprising tion in domestic trade as a potent factor of statement, but it is one that is abundantly international commerce.
borne out by the facts. It is the fashion to The same result has been reached in a argue that, because the consular service is
called upon by the Executive Council to consider “the action taken by the Government of the United States and by other governments by means of special consular reports, in order to supply their traders with information up to date with regard to openings for business in foreign countries,” and the opinion was expressed that the practical value of the reports of British consuls “would be much increased if they afforded more direct and early suggestions and details with respect to trade questions of present interest.” The
local chambers of commerce were, therefore, THE CORNER TAKEN BY THE UNITED STATES CONSULATE, FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, GERMANY. invited to make suggestions as to trade in
quiries by consuls for submission to the Forlargely made up of men appointed for merely eign Office. In the responses to this circular, political or personal reasons, therefore its
à variety of changes were proposed for the fruits must necessarily be bad. But it some improvement of the commercial work of the times happens that a system confessedly faulty produces some good results; and paradoxical as it may seem, there are foreign experts who consider the frequent changes in our consular corps, which most of our reformers denounce as wholly pernicious, to be one of the reasons which explain the admittedly greater usefulness of American consuls in promoting trade.
COMPLAINTS OF THE BRITISH SERVICE Six years ago the commercial world of Great Britain was beginning to take note of the practical character of the reports on commerce and industry by American consuls, and the promptness with which they were printed and distributed by the Department of State. The British Chambers of Commerce were
THE CONSULATE AT CHUNGKING, CHINA.
British consular service. At the meeting of the Bradford Chamber of Commerce, the statement was made that United States consuls “ did a great deal more” for the extension of trade than British consuls did. The Cardiff chamber complained of the delay in printing the British consular reports. The Hull chamber thought the reports of British consuls should be given to the public as promptly as possible, “if necessary, even by telegraph.” The Newport chamber replied to the effect that trained business men should be selected as consuls, and that it was desirable that the system of the United States Government in instructing its consular representatives “to report exhaustively upon trade and commerce, either in their isolated or general phases or developments," should be adopted.
The British agitation of the subject continued, and about a year ago a commercial