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800 employees, of whom 325 are boys and In the main, good spirit has been shown by girls. The business of soap-making requires the men. Of course there are always excepvery little skilled labor, and wages are low. tions. Men have left the Proctor & Gamble They average $10 a week for men ; $4.75 for Company in dissatisfaction, but that would women; and from $3.50 to $7 for boys and always happen even under the best conditions. girls.
In August, 1899, thirty-four boys in the packIn 1887 the company adopted the plan of ing department went out on a strike. They sharing profits. During the previous year had all been in the company's employ several there had been fourteen strikes in the factory, years, and had grown to manhood, though involving each time from ten to 100 men. they were still on boy's wages. Their action, Stability and education were needed. The however, was not so much a protest against plan as originally adopted gave a salary of profit-sharing as an illustration of the fact $4,000 to each member of the firm actively that profit-sharing is, after all, only a means. engaged in the business, and divided the rest It tends to bring employer and worker into in a certain ratio between the employees and closer relations. And that is all. It does the company. The employees' share was not take the place either of good wages or of divided according to wages received. All
All permanent employment. who had been in the company's employ for One instance may be taken as typical of three months were included, except the boys the general result. From time to time it is and girls earning less than $4.50 a week. the custom to sum up the results at a meet
In 1890 the company was incorporated, and ing of the firm and the employees. Once it a new plan was adopted of paying a bonus on was pointed out that where the cost of raw mawages proportional to that earned by the com terial is the chief cost of production, the best mon stock.
A stockholder owning five hun way of saving is the prevention of waste. Formdred dollar's worth of stock and an employee erly, the scraps that came from the machine earning $500 a year receive the same dividend. where the soap was cut were scattered heedThe dividends since have averaged more than lessly over the floor. Once a week the floors twelve per cent., and more than ninety, instead had to be scraped, and from this material a lowof fifty, per cent. of the employees draw their grade soap was manufactured, which was called dividend.
“ Banjo," and sold at $1.25 a box. By a little There have been several reasons for it all. attention another grade of soap was obtained Since 1892 the employees have been en from reworking this same material. This couraged to become shareholders in the com grade sells for $3 a box, and as about 10,000 pany. Ten dollars assures to any employee boxes are turned out every day, the saving in one share of the common stock, bought at the material alone is evident. But this is only market price by a trustee appointed by the one instance. The main result is that which company. Two years is allowed to complete the company set out in the beginning to attain the payment and interest on the unpaid bal - to bring about stability, to give permanent ance which is charged at four per cent. Nearly employment at good wages, and to educate a hundred of the adult male employees own their men in the business. At present there shares in the stock, the total present value of are only two men in important positions in which is almost half a million dollars.
the factory who have not been advanced or In 1894 a pension plan was established. A promoted from the ranks. And these two portion of the profit dividend is set aside each are employed on account of their technical year, and the company contributes an equal knowledge and experience. amount. A pension not exceeding three The main objection to any form of profitfourths of the average wages received during sharing is that it is illogical. It doesn't work the last two years of service is paid to any both
To share a loss means a decrease employee who, on account of old age, sickness
And good wages are at the basis or accident is obliged to give up work. The of it all. It is, then, only where wages are only condition is ten years of service. In entirely independent of all hazards of business 1899 the pension fund amounted to about six that profit-sharing—or, better still, prosperitythousand dollars, with only one pensioner, and sharing—can hope to succeed. Moreover, the he still earns something by tending the gate method is everything. It stands for merit. at the entrance to the factory grounds.
Charity must be barred.
THE POLITICAL STATUS OF EUROPE
THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY AND CONTRADICTORY GOVERN-
UROPE holds no more pathetic figure brother all lost, small wonder the Emperor
than Francis Joseph, Emperor of Aus- cried out in his agony, “Is nothing to be
tria and King of Hungary. Merely spared me in this world ?” There must to set down the story of his life is to unfold arise the sombre simplicity of another Sophoa tragedy worthy of the Attic stage.
cles before the tragedy of such a life can be life he has been tried as with fire, buffeted felt in its full measure. by every exquisite experience of sorrow that And if the past has been bitter, the presa man can know and almost every ignominyent and the future, at least in many eyes, that a king can endure. He came as a boy seem almost as hopeless. If the cup of all to a throne shaken by revolution and an
possible personal suffering is full, the 'porempire seemingly crumbling to ruin. That tents are dark with presage of political empire still has a prospect of the same fate. trouble. Europe watches the Dual MonBy the fortunes of two bloody wars precious archy with a sense of impending dissolution. parts of it have been lost to his crown for For more than fifty years Francis Joseph
His only son died a violent death has striven "to solder close impossibilities under circumstances that are still somewhat and make them kiss," and now at last the of a mystery. His brother Maximilian went prophets declare that the forces of disunion to Mexico to establish an empire, but, as it are growing too strong even for his quiet turned out, only to find a grave; for he fell and restraining influence. This, as will under the weapons of his own subjects -- if afterwards appear, is an opinion I venture he could ever have been entitled to regard to dispute; but I have to admit it is a forein that light men whose loyalty was never boding entertained by many cautious and anything but a matter of interest or compul- capable observers. If the Dual Monarchy sion. Maximilian's wife, the Empress Char holds together during the remainder of the lotte, lost her reason under the blow. The Emperor's lifetime, the world will look upon Queen of Naples, the sister of the late Em
it as a memorable tribute to the place he press of Austria, was driven from her throne
has won in the hearts of his peoples. If during the struggle for Italian independence. it survives his death for long, it will falsify She came to Francis Joseph a fugitive from
many an expectation. In either case the the ramparts of Gaeta, where she had played closing years of the hapless monarch's life a man's part, for want of a man capable of are doomed to be preyed upon by a fearful playing it, by encouraging the garrison, at anxiety for the realm that the Habsburgs the hazard of her own life, to a splendid but have ruled for six hundred years and more. vain resistance. A little over two years ago came the last blow. The nation was just
A GREAT GOVERNMENTAL CRISIS preparing to celebrate the jubilee of its pa As I write this chapter, the elections for tient, beloved, and sorely stricken monarch a new Reichsrath which began early in last when the Empress was murdered by an December are still continuing. They mark Italian anarchist. With wife, son, and a crisis in the history of Parliamentary insti
1 The first article in this series was on Germany, in the February number; the second on Italy, in the April number.
tutions in southeastern Europe; they are honest electoral system and duplicate Count likely to be a turning point in the history Taafe's rather desperate attempt to flatten of the Dual Monarchy itself. The Emperor out racial enmities under the steam-roller of announced after the dissolution that this was universal suffrage; whether the standing the last chance his peoples would be allowed orders of the Reichsrath are to be revised to settle their difficulties by constitutional and strengthened to head off obstruction ; means. The warning can hardly be thought or whether the Emperor will take up once over-hasty. It has indeed been delayed long more his old rôle of benevolent despot past the first moment of justification. Within the benevolence of it may be assumed to-day, the last three years the Emperor has seen though it did not temper the first ten years no less than five Premiers adding to and of his reign — and govern without the hinbaffled by the confusion of the country. drance of a Parliament, - are questions to He has seen the Reichsrath turned into a which only speculative answers can yet be bear-garden, Bohemia convulsed with some- given. Whatever happens one may perhaps thing more than a pretence of civil war, the be certain of three things: German-Czech feud carried to a point where There will be a short and stormy session neither side will be satisfied with anything of the new Reichsrath, a time of stress and short of a shattering triumph, the partnership fury and possibly of wild rioting before the with Hungary imperilled by a crisis which Emperor intervenes for the final coup d'état. has been partly tided over but by no means During this interval the air will resound settled, and the Parliamentary system de with prophecies of disruption — the number graded and nullified in a vicious chaos of of people who are periodically scandalized by polyglot intrigue. He has seen one half of the obstinacy of the Dual Monarchy in keephis realm lying exhausted and impotent at the ing whole in spite of all paper calculations is feet of the obstructionists, and the other half heartbreaking. taking advantage of its weakness. He has And finally — the third certainly is the run through all the permutations and combi best — the realm of the Habsburgs will surnations of Austrian parties and appealed to vive this trial as it has survived other and each nationality in turn in his search for a more pressing crises in the past. durable and decisive Ministry. He has even tried his hand at such constitutional autocracy as Article XIV permits of, an autoc Nevertheless, there is a crisis in Austriaracy, of course, very different in kind and Hungary and a dangerous one, in spite of effect from the absolutism of his earlier Dr. Emil Reich's convenient dismissal of years.
the racial ferment as a sign of just that It is therefore only after a quite wonderful healthy activity in the body politic, for the forbearance and a long and resolute stifling of lack of which Poland perished. The truth his Habsburg instincts that the Emperor has of the matter seems to be that Austria is launched his ultimatum. Its intention is slowly, and under conditions of peculiar clear only up to a certain point, but it has complexity, coming in for her full share of within it at least a definite promise of deliv the French Revolution and the bouleverseerance and as such has been gratefully
such has been gratefully ments of '48. It is the last rumblings of welcomed. If the extremists are again in the world-earthquake in the southeastern control and the new Reichsrath proves as corner of Europe - not the last altogether, unworkable as its predecessor, - and there is and there is for Spain's turn is still to come
- that we not the smallest hope or the smallest indica- have been listening to, the final bout in tion of any other issue, – the Constitution is the struggle for individual and rational to be suspended - that much seems assured. assertion. Whether after that a new Constitution will In such a situation the simpler the conbe drafted by royal decree and an effort made ditions and the clearer the objective, the to secure for it the sanction of a plebiscite; more likely is the revolutionary movement whether the new Constitution, if promulgated, to succeed at a stroke. The infinite crosswill sweep away the present clumsy and dis currents of Austrian politics, the intermin
A GRAVE CRISIS
gling of so many opposing interests of race, geneous nation. Indeed, as the late Professor religion, and economics, saved the realm in Freeman used to insist with lofty impatience 1848, and will always be a barrier to the and somewhat rasping iteration, the word cohesion and common impulse and deter “nation " has no applicability to Austria and mination, without which an agitation must very little to Hungary. To talk of either sooner or later crumble away. The com state so as to give the impression that it can plexity of Austria, if it gives too obvious act or think as a unit, is, to use his own shatand easy an opening to the small incendi- tering conclusion, to talk nonsense. It is ary, is also a safeguard against anything this variegated contradictoriness of Austrialike subversion on a large scale. There is Hungary that makes up its fascination for always the chance of playing off one fac the political student. There is hardly a tion against another - as the Czechs were problem of those that are
problem of those that are common to all used to police Hungary after the rebellion modern countries with which it is not faced, - and neutralizing a threatening combina- and in addition it is an inexhaustible problem tion by stirring up divisions in its ranks. itself, - a paradox, a mosaic without obvious The Dual Monarchy, in fact, as we know it cement, a Tower of Babel erected into a to-day, is a congeries of nationalities balanc system of government,” everything, in short, ing one another, not by an artificial system that is abnormal, unreasonable, and imposof checks, but by the natural play of racial sible.
sible. The nationalities that inhabit it have enmities and ambitions. The final strength owned a common sceptre and jostled side by of its position lies in the weakness and side for centuries in an area smaller than antagonisms of its component parts, so that Texas, and yet never mingled.
Each race while it is never without a crisis of some has lived its own life, made its own history, sort, it always manages to evade the logical produced its own literature, preserved, and, disruption. It is easier to see that it seems of course, tried to extend, its own individuality. forever on the brink of a precipice than to Austria to-day is what Metternich with less recognize and gauge the forces that keep it truth called Italy, little more than a geographifrom sliding over.
cal expression. Three bonds, to be touched
on later, do indeed unite its discordant naA BABEL ERECTED INTO A GOVERNMENT
tionalities; but for the too hasty observer the The fundamental fact of the realm of the country might well seem in the last stages of Habsburgs is that its development has been decomposition. There is nothing really Ausone long exception to the ordinary rules of trian in Austria - no Austrian interests, no national growth.
The races that compose Austrian language, or literature, or patriotism, it i have never fused as the Celts and Gallo no Austrian nationality, no Austrian standard Romans, Franks and Iberians, have fused in of civilization; nothing except the Emperor, France, as nearly every nationality under the and the army, and the cockpit of Reichsrath sun is fusing in the United States to-day. that the races share in common. The GerNo dominant type has arisen to master its mans form a compact entity by themselves weaker neighbors and weld them into a homo in Upper and Lower Austria and the Duchy
of Salzburg. In Bohemia there is a respec1 The following table will make clear the numerical
table colony of them along the borders of strength of the various nationalities :
Saxony and Bavaria, over two million strong,
but even so outnumbered by the Czechs in Austria
the ratio of three to five. All together the Germans 8,461,580 Magyars
7,426,730 German-speaking subjects are about a third of Czechs 5,472,871 Servians and Croats 2,604,260
the total population of Austria — some eight Poles 3,719,232 Roumanians.
2,591,905 Ruthenians 3,105,221 Germans
and a half out of twenty-four millions. The Slovenes 1,176,672 Slovacks
1,910,279 Czechs in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia Servians and Croats 644,926 Ruthenians
388,392 Italians 675,305 Slovenes
number roughly five millions. In Galicia Roumanians 209,810 Gypsies
82,256 some four million Poles hold down a trifle Magyars 8,139 Other races
over three millon Ruthenians. A couple of 23,473,756 Total
million Slovenes, Servians, and Croats are
scattered over Carinthia and Carniola, while vacks, Jews, Roumanians, and Croats — by the
THE MAGYAR TENACITY
In Austria, as in Spain, the factory is placed But for the dashing tenacity of the Mag- some distance behind the barracks as an eleyars, who in politics are the English of the ment of national welfare, and a contemptuous Continent, Hungary might be as heteroge- bureaucracy shackles trade with a hundred neous as her partner in the Dual Monarchy. entangling regulations. The Magyars, on the The Magyars are only seven and a half out other hand, have been as attentive to comof nearly eighteen millions, but they are a merce as to their racial position. Perhaps race with the fierce hardihood and determina there is no country in which the state, as such, tion of the Teutonic stock and a grace and has done more for industrial development. fascination that are neither Latin nor Celtic, The really vital domestic problems of Hunbut distinctively their own.
gary are, indeed, no longer racial, and as freeSince the two nations entered into a part- dom of worship is the law, they have never nership agreement as coequal and sovereign been acutely religious. But in the rise of states, the Magyars have devoted all their brill what is called Agrarian Socialism, a moveiant energies and the immense force of a con ment which has a future before it not only in centrated one-idealness to making themselves Hungary, but in Germany, Spain, and Italy, paramount throughout the southern half of there is something that before long may test the realm. They revolted against being Ger- Magyar statesmanship severely. manized, but they see no inconsistency in Meanwhile the Magyars are the backbone insisting that the Servians, Croats, Rouma of the Dual Monarchy. Against the rising nians, and Slovenes shall be Magyarized; and tides of Pan-Slavism they present a compact they have set about the task with unsparing and unbending front. Together with the persistency just saved from relentlessness by German Empire they may be considered the their genius for wise compromise.
outposts of Europe against Slav aggression; stricted suffrage, excluding nineteen-twenti and even in the domestic affairs of the moneths of the people from the polls, keeps archy their unbreakable unity as a political public affairs in their grasp. The schools force has made their influence well-nigh dehave been a much more effective instrument cisive. The Ausgleich of 1867 — the partnerin the development of a national feeling, and ship agreement between the two halves of the the Magyars have thoroughly worked them realm — prescribed that matters of common to that end.
concern, such as foreign affairs, diplomatic Like the Russians and Americans, but un representation, and naval and military matters, like the English, the Magyars recognize that should be arranged by sixty delegates from where there is difference of speech there will each country, meeting twice a year. The be difference of sentiment, of heart, of inter- Austrian delegation is made up of Germans, ests, and at a pinch perhaps of loyalty, and Czechs, Poles, Ruthenians, Italians, whose have accordingly refused to make the preser- feuds make steady coöperation all but imvation of dialects an object of government. possible. The Hungarian delegation, on the Fifty years ago the Hungarian nobles spoke other hand, is composed of fifty-five MagGerman and a bastard monkish Latin in their yars and five Croatians, working with the homes and Diets. To-day the native tongue directness and harmony of a single man. obtains, among all classes, and the absorption The consequence is that in the long run the of all manner of outlanders — Germans, Slo- Hungarian view is pretty sure to carry the