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day. So far each renewal of the Ausgleich weapons not necessarily of their own chooshas brought substantial modifications in favor ing. In other words, they need simplifying of Hungary, and the centre of gravity has, in if they are to combat the Czechs successfully. fact, shifted from Vienna to Buda-Pesth. The As it is, the Czechs for the last thirty years Emperor, when driven to it, might go against have been slowly driving them to the wall. the German-speaking Austrians, but never City after city has fallen into their hands; against the Magyars; and the Magyars, fully Prague and Pilsen, that only a quarter of a realizing their power, have extorted concession century ago were German in tongue and after concession from their unhappy partner, sentiment, are now Slavonized down to their have applied the screw so persistently, that it very street names. And in politics and inis becoming a question whether they are not dustry as well as music and literature and the as unpopular among Austrian statesmen as lighter arts, the past hundred years have seen the very Czechs themselves.

the Czechs advance in a quite wonderful The present troubles of the Dual Mon- fashion. They have long ceased to fear the archy are due to the failure of the Germans Germans, and with the disappearance of fear to repeat in Austria the successes of the comes naturally the claim to equality. Magyars in Hungary. “You look after your Moreover, the Czechs have a strong historihordes,” said Count Beust to a Hungarian cal case. Four hundred years ago what are statesman when the Austrian Empire became now the crown-lands of Bohemia, Moravia, the Dual Monarchy, “and we'll look after and Silesia formed the Czech Kingdom of ours." The Czechs of Bohemia have turned St. Vacslav; and what is now Hungary was to ridicule the Count's too valiant declaration. then the Kingdom of St. Stephen. The The Germans of Vienna, one must remem Czechs offered their crown in 1526 to the ber, are very different from the Germans of Habsburgs, at the same time, for the same Berlin. Of all the sections of the Teutonic reasons, and on the same conditions as the race they appear to have the least robustness Magyars; stipulating only that they should of intellect or character and the laxest grip retain their old rights of self-government. on practical affairs. Indolent, hypercritical This contract, together with the Pragmatic and self-satisfied, they are the emasculated Sanction, was the legal basis of the Hungaeditions of their northern kinsmen. From rian rebellion of 1848. The Czechs still use whatever cause, some paralyzing blight of it to point the justice of their demands for a lassitude and ineffectiveness seems to have resurrection of St. Vacslav's Kingdom, maineaten its way into their energies. Against taining that their case is on all fours with their cultured fecklessness the Czechs oppose that of Hungary, rests on the same docuthe elemental force of racial ambition, the ments, and is supported by the same coronadriving power of a people that has the con tion oaths. The Habsburgs, as I have said, sciousness of a great destiny before it and never quite lived up to their side of the agreefeels itself on the top of the rising wave. ments. They allowed the Turks to overrun

The Germans protest that they have edu Hungary at will, and when the Reformation cated themselves beyond the point where came and the Czechs gathered round John race is everything and cannot at this time of Huss, they stamped out the heresy in blood day be expected to return to first principles and established a strong German colony along It is of course tenable that the variety of the northern borders of Bohemia for the proparties into which the Germans are split up tection of the faith and the suppression of argues an advanced and broad political intel- the natives. ligence. At the same time it makes a poor As a matter of fact, Bohemia is another barrier against the impact of a race that sub- Ireland. The German-Slav duel is a minute ordinates everything to a single practical end; duplication of the long Anglo-Celt conflict. and unless the Germans are prepared to see In both countries the battle-ground is the a great part of their old ascendency pass same. In both we find a demand for Home away, they must be ready to drop “theoriz- Rule supported by the native population and ing,” take up the issue that has been forced resisted by the “foreign garrison”; in both upon them, and meet their antagonists with the same bitterness of racial antipathy, ex

pressing itself in the same old wearisome unless universal suffrage brings to the front an manner. Even the kind of antipathy is curi- entirely new set of problems, trod it must be. ously identical.

The Czechs are a nation of The interplay of these racial ambitions has Healys, and the excursions of that formidable been complicated, sometimes retarded and family against Saxon insensibility and pig- sometimes acutely emphasized, by a hundred headedness would make capital campaign differences of religious, economic, and purely literature for the Czech irreconcilables; while political interests, all of which have reprethe Germans treat their inflammable neigh- sentatives in the Reichsrath. They act upon bors on the “little children in a nursery” one another under the shadow of the racial theory, which so far has been Ulster's chief issues in a way that no foreigner can disencontribution to English statesmanship. tangle. The confusion of the country is

But the Czechs have two tremendous worthily reproduced in the fifteen distinct advantages over the Irish nationalists. The parties and the seven or eight languages that case for Home Rule would be irresistible crop up in the Vienna Parliament. Austriaand would have been yielded long ago if the Hungary is a polyglot chaos in which even Irish still spoke Erse or if Ireland's geo Austrians do not profess to see more than a graphical position were anything but what it

half light. is. The Czechs have kept their native tongue The prophecies of disruption may therefore alive, and just across their borders — imagine appear at least plausible. But it is one of the Ireland within two hours' sail of Washington many paradoxes of the Dual Monarchy that - are their kinsmen of the Russian Empire. it seems unable to break up. In part it is The card of Russian sympathy is too easy protected, as I have said, by the very divernot to be played for all it is worth, and after sity and number of the antagonisms it is every fresh frustration of their national hopes obliged to house. A more visible bond of follows the spectacle of five and a half million union is the army, in which all must serve, Czechs cautiously sounding the Czar's “racial which is of all races and creeds, and therefore instinct.” It is this that lends color to the of none, and the atmosphere of which is common charge that the Czechs are disloyal, broadly and impressively Imperial. What its but it is to be noticed that when the situation actual effectiveness will prove to be like, is reversed and the Emperor makes even the should it ever be tested, is one of the most shortest step toward Home Rule, the Ger- interesting military problems of the day. mans at once adopt their opponents' tactics, The only force with which it can be comthrow themselves into the arms of their Prus pared in the excellence of its units and the sian brethren, and vow that sooner than stay variety of its nationalities and tongues, is the and be swamped by a hated and inferior race, allied army that rescued the Pekin legations; they would willingly exchange the Habsburgs and the parallel is not altogether hopeful. for the Hohenzollerns and enroll themselves A polyglot army must of necessity be to among Kaiser Wilhelm's subjects. The sus some extent a disorganized army, and while picion cannot be avoided that these dramatics the forces of the Dual Monarchy use German are at bottom intended for home consumption, as the language of military command, the and that the tune would be quickly changed rank and file and the bulk of the officers reif the Czar or Kaiser were to listen too tain their own speech for general purposes. seriously.

The heterogeneous character of its composiThe whole history of the Dual Monarchy tion has had a steadying influence on the goes to show that real consolidation and unity internal struggles of the Dual Monarchy, can be effected only by the seemingly para however much it may hamper its efficiency doxical method of allowing each nationality on the battle-field. The army has kept itself the widest possible freedom. Justice toward largely aloof from politics, and though the and equal treatment of all races is the only Czechs did once attempt to transfer the sure road to peace and permanency. It is a

racial bitterness to the parade ground by hard one for the Germans to tread, for it answering the roll-call in their own tongue, means the overthrow of an ascendency once a sharp rebuke from the Emperor was enough paramount in every corner of the realm ; but to bring them to reason.

A second and equally powerful bond of ous nationalities involved, but also to secure union is the Monarchy. Not only is it ac the peace of Europe.” The peace of Europe cepted everywhere, but the idea of upsetting would indeed be jeopardized in the event of it in favor of any other form of government a scramble for the fragments of the Dual has never yet been broached. Even the Kos- Monarchy.

Monarchy. But no such catastrophe is likely, suth irreconcilables, who would like to see for the reason that it is to no one's interest to the Ausgleich abolished and Hungary direct bring it about. It is not for secession from, her own fiscal policy — a quite possible de but for the fullest liberty within, the Empire velopment and manage her own foreign that “the numerous nationalities involved " affairs, still do not propose to sever the per are struggling. The only genuine secessionsonal tie that binds the two countries. And ists are Herren Wolf and Schönerer and their not only is the monarchy secure in the affec- followers, who wish to incorporate Germantions of the people, but the dynasty is equally speaking Austria with the German Empire. popular. So long as there is a throne it is It is possible that their wishes may ultimately not conceivable that any one but a Habs be gratified, but not in our time, not till after burg should occupy it. This

This twofold devo the next European war, if even then, and not tion to monarchy and to the dynasty has been till the Clericalism of Austrian Germans has greatly strengthened of late years, partly by considerably toned down. What the Czechs the breakdown of Parliamentary government and the other races want, is the same indepenand the weariness which has made the people dence as the Magyars possess, and such indelook to the throne as an escape from the tur pendence is as inconsistent with Russian as moil and wranglings of small groups, and with German domination. partly through the patience and wisdom, the In other words, it is against their interests sterling fair-mindedness and competency, of to break away from the Habsburgs. Disthe present Emperor as well as the ghastly memberment would mean for them the very tragedies of his private life.

fate of absorption each and all are most anxBut it is a curious delusion to argue that ious to avoid, and a final answer, from which just because Francis Joseph is so adequate there could be no appeal except by insurrecand well beloved and comes so near to Walter tion, to their dreams of autonomy. The day Bagehot's ideal of what a constitutional mon of small States has gone by, and a lonely arch should be, therefore the Empire must Czech kingdom could not exist for a year by go to pieces when his moderating and per the side of Russia. It is a fact which the suasive influence is withdrawn. Such a reign partition-mongers singularly overlook, that as his is far more than a merely personal tri the racial agitation in Austria-Hungry has its umph: it is the consecration of a system; it subconscious limits very rigidly fixed. The exalts the monarchy as well as the monarch, jarring elements that make up the Dual and it smooths out the path for his succes Monarchy may find it hard to live side by sors by bequeathing to them an office made side, but they have a pretty shrewd suspicion more illustrious by his example and memory, that they would find it harder to live at all if more powerful and more deeply based in the they parted company. hearts of the people. So far from being a The foreign politics of Austria-Hungary signal for dismemberment, the close of the hardly extend beyond the Balkans, and so long present Emperor's reign is more likely to as the present agreement with Russia to mainwitness a splendid rally round the house and tain the status quo in that fiery cockpit lasts, throne of the Habsburgs.

they are not likely to be of much moment. But the final and irrefutable argument that

A conflict with Russia is the greatest of should give pause to the facile prophets of all dangers. Austria-Hungary, therefore, disruption was summed up by Palacky, the cleaves anxiously to the Triple Alliance, and Czech historian, when he wrote that “even faces a difficult future with the hope, for if it were not already in existence, an Aus which she has good reason, that the present trian empire would have to be established, international deadlock may be long mainnot only to insure the welfare of the numer tained.

NEW NERVES FOR

FOR THE STEAMSHIP

RECENT INVENTIONS FOR PREVENTING DISASTERS AT SEA – THE
PRIZES OFFERED BY THE HEIRS OF ANTHONY POLLOCK, LOST ON
THE “ BOURGOGNE” – AUTOMATIC WARNINGS OF APPROACHING SHIPS,
ROCKS, AND ICE — WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY ON DANGEROUS COASTS

BY

HENRY HARRISON LEWIS

T

TWENTY-THREE great wrecks of mechanics, electricity, and other sciences has

the past century caused a loss of been called to the help of these inventors. 7642 lives.

Each one of these was And the principles involved are based on all a world-stirring disaster, and for that reason the causes of disaster: the proximity of vessels stands vividly in the memory of men. And or icebergs, the quelling of stormy waves, the yet awful as these figures may seem, the dissipation of fog, the automatic stoppage of reports of the various governmental hydro- leaks — each man has his idea, and the men graphic offices show them to be but an in range in caliber from the unknown enthusiast significant mite in the sum total of ocean to such past masters in the art of invention mortality. In the old days when civilization as Thomas A. Edison and Professor Oliver was concentrated on one-half of the earth, Lodge. If any one of the leading devices and only adventurers braved the sea, this can be made uniformly practicable, we may would not have mattered so much; but now shortly bid “good-by” to all fear of such that the world is rapidly becoming one large calamities as the sinking of the Bourgogne, country and our globe-trotting population is the Ertogrul, or the Princess Alice. increasing every year, the question of safety at sea becomes one of the important questions

THE TEMPERATURE OF APPROACHING OBJECTS of the age.

Devices designed to prevent collisions are, During the last few years the United States of course, most numerous. These depend on Patent Office has been deluged with appli- wireless telegraphy, the detection of delicate cations for patents on life-saving devices, sounds, and on heat and cold. The lastand quite recently the general interest has named are, of course, especially designed to been stimulated by a prize offered for the detect the proximity of icebergs. It is even best invention of this sort. And yet even this now practicable to record the approach of one interest, like many another world movement, vessel toward another by the heat that the was aroused only when a tragical romance newcomer transmits through the atmosphere. brought it home keenly to the public mind. This may seem wonderful, but not so much so Among those who went down with the ill when we remember that Ganot recorded in fated Bourgogne was Anthony Pollock, who his Physics his invention of a thermopile that was then on his way to France to obtain was sensitive to the heat of a candle held a a patent on a life-saving invention in which quarter of a mile away. He also used another he was interested. His heirs have offered instrument which was sensible to the warmth the prize ($19,000) “for the best appliance of a heated penny at a distance of twenty feet. for the saving of life in case of maritime Compare these temperatures with the much disaster.” The competition is now closed, but greater heat from the galley of a ship or the the decision has not yet been made. Prob- boilers of a liner, and the possibility of the ably this is because of the really remarkable thermopile becomes very great. wealth of idea and invention from which the In line with this Mr. Herman Herberts, a judges have to choose.

Newark scientist, has constructed a thermoNearly every principle of optics, acoustics, pile that will detect differences of temperature

as slight as one one-millionth of a degree centi- mopile is immerged directly in the water rushgrade. Yet the thermopile is a simple instru- ing through this tube. It is well known that ment. For instance, if we attach a piece of water in the vicinity of an iceberg is very German silver wire and a piece of copper wire cold. So, if a vessel carrying the Makaroff each to a binding post of a galvanometer, we thermopile were to steam or sail suddenly shall have naturally two loose ends of wire into such an are: of cold water, the thermodangling from the instrument. If we hold

If we hold pile would immediately become affected, and the two loose ends of wire in a candle flame, a current would be generated that would r ng a current of electricity will be generated a bell on the bridge or quarterdeck. immediately and be recorded in the galvanometer. This current is due to the heat and

TO TRANSMIT WARNING THROUGH WATE.. the dissimilarity of the two pieces of wire. Thomas A. Edison has had this question of But there are metals much more sensitive than the safety of ships in mind for years. Je these; bismuth and antimony, for instance. has even made experiments. Once in the And selenium is so extremely sensitive that Clootahatchee River, Florida, he conducted its electrical properties are seriously affected a series of experiments with rowboats in even by light. A combination of these sub order to see how he could make use of the stances is used in the Herberts thermopile. principle of induction for signalling purposes. In practice one thermopile will be used on He sat in one rowboat; his assistant sat in each side of a vessel. Surrounding each another, perhaps a quarter of a mile away. instrument is an outer case containing an Above each boat floated a toy balloon which alum solution designed to intercept the sun's had been given a metallic coating. Signals heat. Above each thermopile is a revolving were easily transmitted forth and back. In funnel which turns in every direction of the practice, Mr. Edison proposes to use a metalcompass. From the thermopiles wires extend lic sail stretched between the masts of a ship, to the bridge of the vessel, where they connect so that she may signal to other ships simiwith a sensitive galvanometer. Here are also larly equipped. But his most feasible idea two bells, one of which rings on the approach utterly disregards electricity and depends on of a heated object, as, for instance, another the wonderful capacity of water for transn itsteamer; the other of which rings on the ting sound. As the inventor points out approach of a colder object, like an iceberg. diver beneath the waves can always det ut If another vessel approaches within a mile of disturbances in the water even when at gri !t the ship carrying the thermopiles, the delicate distances from the source of the noise. le metals are at once affected, a current of can, for instance, hear the throbbing of 1 electricity is generated which flows through steamer's engines or the noise of its propel; the wires to the pilot-house, where it deflects or paddle wheels, even though the vessel e the galvanometer and rings the bell. Of more than a mile away. Taking advantage of course the pilot can tell if the other vessel this phenomenon, he says an apparatus could is coming toward him or moving away, by be constructed in the keel of every vessel for noting whether the current grows stronger or transmitting and receiving sound. In the weaker. The bolometer is an instrument keel of the vessel he would have constructed similar to the thermopile except that it has a diaphragm operated by compressed air. a current generated by an electric battery. An electric battery or a dynamo could operThis current also grows stronger or weaker ate this diaphragm so as to produce an according as it is brought in proximity with explosive note which would travel miles heat or cold.

through the water and be received on the diaAdmiral Makaroff, of the Russian navy, phragms of other vessels. If advisable, the has invented a thermopile for detecting the Morse or any other code of signals could te approach of icebergs. The device calls for a transmitted, vessels could communicate la ilittle channel or tube down in the keel of the tudes and longitudes to one another, and vessel and arranged longitudinally so that a even long conversations could be carried constant stream of water can flow in one end on. of the tube and out of the other. The ther One of the most interesting instruments for

a

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