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protection and a revenue tariff, have been to have only in the United States. They got forgotten. We woke up to a sense of our the point of view of the United States governplace in the world, and began to think in larger ment—a point of view that is in every respect units.
friendly to Cuba, but which might naturally Our strides towards commercial supremacy be misunderstood in the rhetorical atmosphere we should have taken in time if we had of Havana. had no war with Spain; but we should prob There is now less doubt than ever that the ably have taken them much more slowly and Platt amendment will be accepted by the timidly, for our attitude was an apologetic one Cubans. There is of course some dissent in towards the rest of the world.
We were Cuba from its terms—there would be some afraid of entangling alliances, and we were dissent from the terms of any propositionalmost content with our home market.
but every week since the amendment was In fact, the experience that the Philippine adopted by Congress substantial progress problem has given us is among the most help seems to have been made towards an amicable ful chapters in our whole national history. working basis of agreement. We showed again the character of American The most difficult part of our whole Cuban manhood by the conduct of our navy and of programme is the economic part of it. Are our army; and again we gave conclusive we willing to make a reciprocity treaty proof, as of old, that, when men of English whereby her products shall not be too heavily stock set out to do a new task, hysterical taxed in our market in comparison with comcriticism cannot deter them. The race has peting American products, and whereby her found its development by doing things. By tariff (which a United States commission is doing things it has learned its wisdom and now drawing up) shall be favorable to such of built its institutions. Common sense our products as she imports ? pressed in action—that is the American char An amusing turn is given to the American acter, as it has been the English character discussion of the subject by the sudden realibehind it for a thousand years; and never yet zation by the anti-Imperialists that the effect has despondency buttered a single parsnip of the Platt amendment will be to discourage out of its garden.
and probably to prevent the annexation of
Cuba—in other words, that the AdminisTHE VISIT OF THE CUBAN COMMITTEE
tration's plan is and has always been really COMMITTEE of the Cuban Constitu- anti-Imperialist. The opponents of the Platt
tional Convention made a visit to the amendment play directly into the hands of the United States to confer with the President and Annexationists, who oppose Cuban independthe Secretary of War and to find out the temper of the American people. The President received them cordially, and all the questions
WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN CHINA
ROM sheer answered by the proper authorities; and they had opportunity to talk with representatives Diplomatic negotiations, particularly with a of every shade of American opinion. They Chinese court, are wearisome and full of conducted themselves with great dignity too. delay; but even with these checks on speed, Most of them refrained from disclosing their the progress made seems to be unpardonably opinions through the newspapers, but they slow. uniformly expressed themselves as greatly The most important matter of the negotiapleased by their visit and by their reception. tions has now been reached; for the repreBut General Portuondo, who had been opposed sentatives of the Powers have agreed upon an to the Platt amendment, expressed himself as indemnity in the enormous sum of about satisified with it after his interview with $337,000,000. It will probably require months President McKinley.
to decide whether China can pay it and how These Cuban gentlemen were as heartily she shall pay
it. welcomed by American sentiment as by our It will soon be a year since the shocking officials at Washington; and they did well to assault was made on the ministers at Pekin; come. The best way to reach an understand and the final settlement of the enormously ing is by such a conference as they were able complex difficulties that grew out of the
Boxer movement is not yet in sight. The to give China a long time to pay it, but that Imperial capital has been looted and dese the indemnity should be apportioned according crated; European civilization has been dis to the part taken by each nation in the relief graced by its soldiers' conduct and by of the ministers in Pekin.
by of the ministers in Pekin. Our government “punitive" expeditions; the Chinese court is has favored also the wisest proposal of allas mysterious and vague in its character as that the extension of the area of trade should ever; the principal Chinese culprits or revo be received instead of a part of the money lutionists (the royal family excepted) have payment of indemnity. This makes directly been put to death; the Empire has not been for the good of China as well as of all the dismembered, but Russia has control of Powers. Manchuria ; a fierce controversy about missionary activity and character has been waged
A PLAN REALLY TO OPEN THE EMPIRE
UST record is closing, the informaperhaps the abating of the old-time missionary zeal; and through it all, in spite of oc been asked to agree to an arrangement for casional reports of threatened insurrections opening all China to trade. The formal propoagainst the throne, the great jelly-fish of the sition is said to have come from the Chinese Chinese Empire has existed very much as it Government, but it is the principle that the has existed for centuries—practically undis- United States has contended for from the beturbed even by events that in other nations ginning. Before the attack on the legations would change both the outward form of at Pekin, it will be recalled, our Government government and the direction of civilization. secured an agreement from the principal
The main great points for which our Gov- Powers to maintain the open door. ernment contended from the beginning have Hitherto only a small part of Chinese ternot been lost, even if they have not yet been ritory has been open to foreign trade at all; conclusively settled—the integrity of the and the outside world has hardly touched the Empire, and the open door for trade. The fringes of the Empire. The vast mass of the United States has declined to put its legation population has never been reached by foreign guard under the command of General von wares nor by the influence of outside civilizaWaldersee; our troops have not joined in his tion. If the European Powers will accept the punitive expeditions, and, our Government opening of the whole empire at once, instead favors a lower indemnity and easy terms of of an oppressive indemnity, the birth of a payment.
modern China and of a new era in commerce
will begin; and the misguided zeal of the THE SCANDAL OF THE INDEMNITY
Chinese revolutionists who thought forever to "HE fear is that a scandal will be de- exclude foreigners will have brought about a
veloped about the Chinese indemnity better result for China and for the rest of the parallel to the scandal of the military misde- world than statesmanship could have planned. meanor of some of the European troops. The total sum proposed to be exacted from
THE UNITED STATES THROUGH EUROPEAN EYES China is $337,000,000. The influence of our
activity of Government has been used to reduce it. But the influence of Germany and France is to lish steamships, and the continued American increase the amount by compelling China to subscriptions to European government loans, pay the cost of the “punitive" expeditions. have again provoked discussion of a European All the Powers indeed except the United trade alliance against the United States. States, England and Japan, present claims for That so sensible a journal as the London the cost of their forces in Pekin since the Spectator should treat the subject seriously, legations were relieved, and they do not pro- rather humorously shows the feeling of panic pose to make deductions from their demands that American audacity has produced in the for the loot that has been taken.
foreign mind. The Spectator declares that As at every preceding stage of the trouble, such an alliance of the rest of the world our State Department has been considerate against the United States may become necesand just. We have proposed not only to re sary for three reasons, (1) the great wealth duce the sum demanded to a minimum and and energy of the Americans, (2) the fact
THEondon'txilway franchises and of Eng
that the United States is sadly in the way in about this export duty. Export duties are Asia, and (3) the American attitude in South no longer a part of the methods accepted America.
by economists as an advantageous plan of We have taken the Philippines, but we raising revenue, and this proposal brings a object, the Spectator reminds us, “to any but new principle into modern English taxation. native powers in control of the richest coun The government refused resolutely to propose tries of Asia.” This remark is interesting a protective tariff on anything, preferring to because it shows such a gross misapprehen- depart from accepted principles, in this emersion in so intelligent a quarter of the Ameri- gency, only by this export tax. The increase can purpose in the Philippines—as if we had
as if we had of the income tax brings it almost to six per deliberately taken the archipelago, and as if cent. In other words, every man whose inour only interest there was a commercial in come is more than $3,000 a year must pay a terest. “The United States,” said President tax on it of $150. A smaller tax is imposed McKinley in one of his speeches on his on incomes between $800 and $3,000. journey, “has never acquired a foot of terri The Boers are divided into small bands, and tory that has not been forever dedicated to the British forces are of course similarly liberty." To build up self-government in the divided. It is not organized warfare but Philippines is our motive—a motive apparently guerrilla work, at which the Boers have the utterly incomprehensible to the European advantage as long as they can afford to keep mind.
it up. Expectation is expressed almost every And again, it is not true that the United week that terms of peace will be arranged. States will “neither take South America nor But week by week the long-drawn-out contest let anybody else.” Heaven forbid that we
The Boers can never win against should ever "take" South America ; and in a British resources, British pride, and British sense it is true that we forbid anybody else to tenacity ; but it looks as if it would take for"take" it. But the Spectator utterly misses ever and a day to convince them of it; and the American motive and point of view. It it has already made an enormous drain on the is amazing that the simple original meaning of resources of the government. the Monroe Doctrine—that none but free government is desirable on this continent—is THE DECLINE OF YANKEES IN NEW ENGLAND yet incomprehensible. Our willingness to free TANKEES are slowly disappearing from Cuba without wishing to "take" it is yet a Connecticut. Their birth-rate and their strange and incredible thing to the European death-rate balance each other, but many are mind.
going away and the birth-rate among the
immigrants to the state is greatly in excess of THE ENORMOUS COST OF THE BOER WAR
their death-rate. The proportion of the South African war is yet the worst natives to the whole population, is, therefore,
task that any European nation has in appreciably diminishing. hand; and the day of financial reckoning is In the state's vital statistics for 1899, which come in England. The budget presented to have just been published, it is shown that of Parliament shows a deficit which required the 20,855 births in the state, forty-five per cent. borrowing of $300,000,000. The war has were registered as of both parents foreignalready cost $755,000,000, and the total loss born, and only thirty-nine per cent. of native of men is nearly 17,000, about half of whom parents. The registered mortality was 14,381, have died of disease.
of whom more than 10,000 were natives. In Worse even than the enormous cost (as a forty-one country towns the native deaths large body of English opinion regards it) is the actually exceeded the births. These figures necessity of modifying the English fiscal sys- show that the young people have struck out tem. Not only must duties be laid on into new regions, leaving the old folks behind sugar, molasses and glucose, but the income them. The vital statistics of Massachusetts tax must be raised from one shilling to one for 1899 show a similar tendency. The shilling twopence on the pound sterling, and native deaths are more numerous than the an export duty of a shilling a ton be levied births, and the births among the foreign on coal.
population are much in excess of the deaths. The fiercest controversy has been provoked This change is not yet overwhelming, but
IN these timesues
, more on herofered are the
it shows a somewhat startling tendency. Yet the personnel of the army constantly changed. it is a tendency that may easily be exagger- As long as the campaigning was active, fresh ated as the number of abandoned New Eng men were kept at the front; the army was land farms has been exaggerated. Since always young and strong. New England is accurate in keeping statistics, Several regiments made enviable names for we know better what is going on there than themselves in the early part of the Philippine anywhere else, and accuracy sometimes has campaign. No regiment has been so idolized its penalties.
as the 20th Kansas, or the 10th Penn
sylvania, when those two were in service. A MEASURE OF THE MONEY-MARKET Those regiments deserve to be congratulated N
on the opportunities they had of displaying at real values, the loan offered by the their qualities. They are not praised above British government gives a stable and true the others, but rather regarded as having had measure of the rate of interest in an abso- special good luck. The country remembers lutely safe investment. The government's
The government's their services, as it does the services of their offer is of $300,000,000 in bonds at ninety- fellow regiments, with gratitude. Out of the four and one-half, bearing two and three- volunteer service have come not only famous quarters per cent. for two years, and two and regiments, but many officers of note also, one-half per cent. thereafter. British bonds Funston among them, and the ex-Confederhave for a long time sold at a rate which gives ates, Wheeler and Lee. the investor a smaller return than this; but When the last volunteer has been mustered the part of this loan that has been placed was out, the army officials can put the reorganized over-subscribed
times. There were army into shape. It is proposed to station eager buyers on both sides the Atlantic. about 40,000 men in the Philippines, 30,000 United States bonds at their present price, in this country, 5,000 in Cuba and 1,000 in also yield a smaller return than these. In Porto Rico. These 76,000 men will constiother words, given absolute security and a tute our standing army, for the present at reasonably long investment, money can be least. had for two per cent. in any calculable As one picks up the roster of the volunquantities.
teers and looks over the list of the regiments,
whether they bear the names of States or THE MUSTERING OUT OF THE VOLUNTEERS
were called simply this or that number of infanTO volunteer soldiers will be left in the try, one must feel elated at living in a country
service of the United States after of which any single section can alone produce the end of June, for by the provisions of the thousands of loyal and patriotic men eager to Army Reorganization Act they are all then to defend it and to uphold its principles. be mustered out. Regiments of regulars will take their places in the Philippines and else
THE INCREASE OF THE BRITISH AND THE where.
DECREASE OF THE FRENCH POPULATION
THE recent British census shows the the volunteers have played an important and efficient part in our military service; and factory if not large increase of population. they have proved again, as was proved in the London itself shows only a moderate insixties, that after training and seasoning, a crease—308,000 since 1891-because there volunteer army of the United States is as has been during the decade a decided moveformidable a force as was ever organized. ment to the suburbs, many of which have
There have been in the service, since the grown rapidly. Of course, there is no parallel Spanish war began, about 225,000 officers and to the rapid growth of some of our cities, but men in the state volunteers, and about 35,000 Liverpool has grown 56,000; Leeds, 61,000; in the national regiments, making a total of Birmingham, 44,000, and Manchester, 38,000. about 260,000. The national regiments, that The population of London is 4,536,034, an is, regiments recruited from the whole increase in ten years of 308,000. country instead of from limited localities, took In France, on the contrary, there has been the place of the state volunteers, just as the a decrease of population during the last five regulars are now taking their place. Thus years. The five years from 1891 to 1896
Since the beginning of the war with Spain T Vitality of the English race by a satis
showed a small increase—174,000; but during teresting piece of literary uews that has been the last five years the population has fallen off published for many a day. by 12,000.
One of the latest of such lists (and as good
a one as any) has been given out by Mr. EDUCATION ON THE GROUND
Foster, the librarian of the Providence Public F one had to say what is the dullest subject Library. They are the writers a part at least
in print, but the most important in prac- of whose books are placed in the room in the tical life, one would not go far wrong by say- library that is set apart for "the literature of ing Good Roads. Men ought to celebrate power." An interesting exercise in selfour prosperous era, in every part of the abasement can be got by going over such a country, by building them; for a good road list and counting the authors whose chief is not only the best investment that any writings you have never read. community can make, but the best evidence
Molière, of enlightened public spirit, the best monu
Emerson, ment that any generation can rear to itself,
Nibelungenlied, The, and the best bequest to its successor.
Federalist, The, Petrarch,
Plato, method of arousing the people to action is the Aristotle,
Polo (Marco), very practical method now tried along the line
Pope, of the Illinois Central Railroad. A train
Ramayana, The, with expert road-builders, the best road-build Browning (Mrs.), Gray,
Schiller, ing machinery and laborers, was equipped at Bunyan,
Shakespeare, New Orleans. It stops at places where good Burns,
Sidney, roads are needed, and the men set to work Cæsar,
Johnson, and build a piece of good road, as an object
Spenser, lesson for the people. They explain methods,
Tacitus, the cost, and the value, and the pieces of road
Chanson de Roland, La Fontaine,
Tennyson, that they have built remain as examples and Cicero,
Theocritus, an incentive to the community.
Wordsworth, work of the railroad company, the National De Quincy,
Mahabharata, The, Xenophon. Good Roads Association, manufacturers of
Malory, road-building machinery, and of the Agricul And such a list always raises the question tural Department of the National Government. whether the educated youth of the United Wherever the party stops, local committees States will ever again feel it a duty to read volunteer the use of teams and of additional such a list of authors (and to read them all) laborers, and a public meeting is held.
as a matter of power and culture, and whether It would be hard to make a plan that any larger number of American men and would show more common sense or more women do habitually read them. helpful and far-sighted good judgment than this. It is, in fact, common sense expressed
A LITTLE ACADEMIC INCIDENT in well-directed action, and are
larger a university trainqualities that are required make
ing, at least in the United States, is to earth and an improved race of men to live give men balance and breadth of judgment. upon it.
An incidental purpose is to train the critical
faculties. It seems inevitable in most schemes AN EXERCISE IN SELF-ABASEMENT of academic work that the incidental purpose"HE making of lists of the hundred best the cultivation of the critical faculties—should
authors has long been an industry of in some men swallow up the larger purpose. the editors of the professional literary journal. Here lies the problem of higher education in It is an industry that makes men who read a democracy-so to train men that they will good books sad—sad with wonder whether not regard mere intellectual prejudice as a the youngest generation that has reached high intellectual quality. manhood reads half of them. If the truth An admirable illustration of mistaking prigcould be found out it would be the most in- gishness for good judgment is the objection that