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Sandw practically universally observed in Twhich practically destroyed the town,

has been made to the conferring of an honorary many employers themselves the advantage of degree by Harvard University on President taking a full day for golf.

taking a full day for golf. We seem likely to McKinley. To argue against Mr. McKinley's escape the danger of working ourselves to eligibility to the “goodly fellowship of scholars" death, and that, too, without doing any less is easy and yet not convincing. Easy and not work, or doing it less well. convincing, too, is it to argue for it. Witness No social philosopher can consider the inthe tortuous way whereby Senator Hoar creasing love of country life by all classes of worked to his loyal conclusion. It is a mis

It is a mis- people without a thrill at the sociological rejudgment to argue it at all. Any man who sults—saner living, more robust physical knows the history of Harvard's honorary characteristics, a growing love of nature, degrees and knows also American history for more wholesome sports, the beautification of the last five years and who thinks such an act the earth, better agriculture-all the things inappropriate has profited little by his privi- that are the antitheses of upholstery, conleges of American citizenship. Such a man's sumption, obesity, bad temper, nervous prosview of Harvard University would, if carried tration, and a despondent theology. The to its logical extreme, make the University a quantity of land that is every year brought nunnery for “Miss Nancies.” Instead, it per- into use as gardens or parks is a wide-stretchsists in being a great American institution of ing evidence of the artistic development of which the Republic is prouder perhaps than of the people; for the art of the American any other institution of any sort within its people is the landscape gardener's art, howborders; for it has balance, and breadth, and ever crude its general development may yet tolerance even of its narrowest sons whose be. The time is coming when we shall have advice it is too wise to take.

the most beautiful continent that man ever

lived on. THE SOCIAL SANITY THAT BEGINS IN JUNE

THE BURNING OF JACKSONVILLE.

'HE disastrous fire in Jacksonville, Fla., many trades and industries, and they send hundreds of thousands of people outdoors. It gave another occasion to prove the readiness has brought a great social change of almost with which the generosity of the people in incalculable consequence to the indoor work- every part of the country goes instantly to the ing classes. But it is a change that has so

victims of misfortune. It proved also that quietly and gradually taken place that it is every town built of easily combustible material now hard to recall the time—only a few is doomed, sooner or later. Good fortune years ago—when the half-holiday was almost may give some such towns a long lease of life, unknown

but they are sure to perish. Civilization reThe change has had an almost revolutionary quires better building—buildings of less daneffect on the popular appreciation of outdoor gerous material—in the future. In a few life; and the popular appreciation of outdoor decades a new Jacksonville, constructed more life may, without much risk of exaggeration, scientifically than the old town was, will have be called the most noteworthy development of saved in insurance charges and in the results popular taste and health and social sanity that

of the increased activity which security gives, this generation has witnessed. It is pre more than the city that has been destroyed ventive social treatment of the highest value. was worth. It was the fashion not many years ago to discuss the danger of the permanent nervous

THE FUTURE OF THE ANTI-IMPERIALISTS breakdown of Americans. It is the fashion THAT is to be the future of the Antinow to study nature outdoors. Bird-books, Imperialist party? The concrete reflower-books, animal-books, the camera, walk- sults of its activity are the encouragement ing-clubs, bicycle-clubs of course—these have of the insurgents in the Philippines, the overcome into their present popularity in very whelming defeat of Mr. Bryan, and the large measure because of the Saturday half- nursing of opposition to the United States in holiday. And the sane recreation idea has Cuba. It is a Party of Dire Predictions, grown beyond a half-holiday. The granting none of which has come true. It declared of a half-day to employees has suggested to that we could never put down the insurrec

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tion in the Philippines; but Aguinaldo is now dition is promising. His methods have all advising peace and the war is ended, and civil been tested with the exception of the comgovernment is superseding military rule. It pressed foods : soups, fruits, meats, grains and predicted that we would grab land in China, the like which he will take with him. Food but the influence of the United States has in small bulk will mean less labor for the dogs. been the one continuous and the most con There will be four hundred of these—an extraservative force for the preservation of the ordinary number, twelve times more than Dr. Chinese Empire. It predicted the violation Nansen took. The Russian boat can force of our faith with Cuba, but the Platt amend its way through ice not more than fourteen ment is the safeguard against annexation. It feet thick at the rate of three knots an hour. predicted the downfall of our liberties and the Each expedition that is made brings the rise of militarism; but the army has been re North Pole nearer. Nansen beat all former duced and no man can say specifically wherein records, and the Duke of Abruzzi beat his; so American liberty has been abridged. one is filled with hope for what may be done in

The real harm that such an emotional party the future. Every feasible scheme of reaching does is to hinder the growth of an effective this particular end of the earth is tried almost party of the opposition. Men cannot gather as soon as it is proposed, and one cannot but about a programme of wholesale denun believe that the successful plan will some day ciation.

be discovered. That the interest in the Arc

tic regions is widespread is shown by the THIS SUMMER'S POLAR EXPEDITIONS

number of countries from which expeditions F the mere number of searchers for it

are sent. The desire to have the national

flag fly first in these mysterious regions is will be discovered this summer.

Peary and

intense. With two American expeditions on Sverdrup have been in the Polar regions for the scene this summer the chances for our three consecutive seasons and will continue flag are unusually good. their work for another. Then a determined The expeditions to the South Pole are effort will be made by Evelyn Baldwin of the rather more scientific than exploratory. They Baldwin-Ziegler expedition; a party of Rus seem to be more intent on flora and fauna sians will try to crush their way through the than on the pole itself, but they are nevertheice; Walter Wellman may lead an expedition ; less of great importance. They will help and Herr Anschutz-Kampfe, of Munich, may to lead the way for exploration pure and try to make his way under water. This burst simple. of energy is paralleled by a somewhat similar one in regard to the South Pole. Both the

SOME DEATHS OF THE MONTH English and Germans will send ships and MONG the men who died during the scientific parties into the Antarctic regions ; month were Professor Henry A. Rowand the Swedes may too; but this is uncertain, land, the physicist, of Johns Hopkins Unisince their expedition like the Scottish one

versity, who was one of the very foremost and that of the Duke of Abruzzi will probably scientific men of this generation; General A. be postponed until 1902.

C. McClurg, the Chicago publisher and bookSo far as the North Pole is concerned the seller; and George Q. Cannon the Mormon methods that are being used in the effort to “Apostle"; in England the Right Rev. Wilreach it grow more and more interesting. liam Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford and the author Andree's attempt in a balloon was the most of that monument of exhaustive research, novel method but the project of Herr “The Constitutional History of England "'; Anschutz-Kampfe threatens to out-do it. He and George Murray Smith, the publisher of has invented a submarine boat with a speed of the Dictionary of National Biography. three miles an hour under water, which can remain submerged for fifteen hours.

THE PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION poses to sink beneath the surface of the ice, N May 1, the Pan-American Exposition proceed until he reaches an opening where he at Buffalo was opened to the public will rise, renew his air supply and then proceed and during the six months following it will as before. If he does not find an opening he serve its purpose as an educational force and will return to the last one.

Baldwin's expe

do a service different from the great fairs at

A

He pro

Philadelphia and Chicago, but comparable to people. Very noteworthy and beautiful effects them. it is held at the most fortunate time have been produced by the landscape archipossible—a summer of great prosperity, when tects, appropriately celebrating and exemone of the uppermost thoughts in the com- plifying the steady advance of their art. mercial world is the development of trade The noteworthy advances that have been with Central and South America.

made in the practical applications of science, For a long time our practical interests in especially in electricity, since the World's the people of these countries and in their Fair at Chicago, are strikingly exhibited, trade has gradually been increasing, but we thanks to the great power of Niagara. The have till recently been too much a home managers and the builders have made a really keeping people even to do our full duty great fair, and it has perhaps been more extowards the development of closer relations tensively and attractively made known than with them. The time is now ripe for a rapid any similar enterprise ever was. There will increase of our interests there—for mutual be great crowds to see it, and they will be profit and benefit.

repaid for their outlay of time and money. While the bringing of all parts of our con A large part of the August number of this tinent into closer relations is the main purpose magazine will be given to a description and an of the exposition, it is not the only purpose. interpretation of the Fair (with many illusAs a spectacle of great beauty and of striking trations from photographs taken for this purand novel architectural effects, especially in pose only); for it falls directly in line with one color, it will attract and instruct the whole of the chief aims of THE WORLD'S WORK.

TEACHING FARMERS AT HOME

THE CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL OF AGRICUL-
TURE AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY — ITS METHODS
AND SOME OF THE INTERESTING RESULTS
LETTERS FROM FARMERS WHO TAKE THE COURSE

BY

JOHN CRAIG

PROFESSOR OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION TEACHING IN CORNELL UNIVERSITY

F

VARM life is said to be monotonous, the transforming process be hindered or

and the oft-repeated statistics giving facilitated ? When he knows something of the percentage of insane farmers and these processes his

these processes his power as a coöperator farmers' wives are quoted in support. Why with nature is vastly increased, his interests is it monotonous ? Because in many cases

centred. the eyes of the worker are not open to There are those who but await the awakenobjects teeming with interest which surrounding touch of education to place them in comhim on every side. He sees in the fruit tree plete harmony with their surroundings. only so many bushels of fruit, in the wheat A correspondence school for farmers has field sacks of grain, and in the corn field tons been organized, and is being conducted by the of silage for his milch cows, or bushels of University Extension Department of Cornell corn to be transformed into pork. Should he University. It is paid for by state approprianot think of the wonderful chemistry of tion, and is given to the agricultural breadnature which captures the raw materials of winner without any charge whatever. While the soil and elasive elements of the air, and Cornell's reading course for farmers does not changes them into apples, wheat and corn, attempt to educate in a pedagogical sense of and again into bacon, beef and butter? How the word, it elucidates principles which add not is this done? How may the various steps in only to the active enjoyment of farm occupa

tions, but which, if practiced, increase and questions asked on the lessons, statements of cheapen crop production. There are in the farming difficulties peculiar to certain regions. ranks of the farming class thousands of clear- A consideration of these troubles suggests the headed, broad-minded men, strong men who inauguration of experiments designed to illuslack chiefly on the side of mental orderliness trate fundamental principles in successful agbecause of deficient scholastic training. While riculture, or the best way to overcome funthis defect is difficult to correct, yet much

gus or

insect parasites. The farmer is may be accomplished by systematic reading invited to coöperate. In this way he becomes even late in life. The reading-course is doing an experimenter, an observer, a scientific farexcellent work in illuminating cloudy notions mer. When the farmer has learned to study about farm practice; by inspiring courage his land, his plants and his animals as carethrough the acquisition of knowledge, and fully as a financier studies the stock market above all, by teaching the farmer to recognize he is on the high road to success. The the true dignity of his calling, and the neces course for men has achieved such practical sity of bringing to bear upon it all the inter success that a parallel course for women on est, intelligence and perseverance he is able the farm was organized the past winter. It to command.

has been joyfully received and 6,000 applicaLike many other enterprises it had a small tions for membership have been recorded. beginning. The incentive was furnished by Is the movement appreciated? The best the farmers themselves. The plan of the evidence is offered by the growth of the encourse was worked out by a farmer, Mr. J. W. terprise and the unsolicited testimony of Spencer, known to thousands of school chil interested readers. Beginning in 1897 with dren as “Uncle John,” and he was aided by 1,500 readers the membership has grown the staff of the college of agriculture. The rapidly until it has now reached a grand total plan was and substantially is, to send to each of 2,700 correspondents. A great range of member a lesson containing an elementary agricultural activity is touched. Farmers real, exposition of a principle which is fundamental farmers prospective, farmers practical, and to the success of some phase of farming. A farmers theoretical are heard from. In these supplement to each lesson is forwarded in letters, as a member of the College staff rethe form of a “quiz”. This examination sheet marked, there is an astonishing aggregation is to be filled out and returned to the college of fact, fun and philosophy. Here is one by the reader, to be there recorded and a dealing in all three : value assigned. The farmer deals with the soil. Its fertility

. A FORLORY HOPE represents his capital stock. It is his bank “I am just past fifty years old, healthy but only account. He draws on it wisely or unwisely weigh 110 lbs. Am a New York printer out of according to the custom of his locality and his business, and too old to get steady work. They knowledge of the principles of good farming. want a younger man; besides my eyes are giving In preparing the lessons it was natural that

out. The only thing left for me to do is to go the soil and the methods of managing it should

"backwards to Eden' and try to earn my living at furnish a text for the first three lessons. farming in a small way. In pursuance of this

plan I have leased a small place in New Jersey, Logically the animal and its intermediary

twenty-seven acres with small house and dilapithe plant-came in for consideration next.

dated barn, cow shed and corn crib. I took posAfter disposing of these recognized funda

session February ist, last. I have means enough mentals, the special types of farming, such as to pay a year's rent at twelve dollars per month, dairying and fruit growing have each formed buy a cow, three young pigs, fifty chickens, a distinct series in the course.

horse and dog and some tools and seed and live therefore, now three series, each consisting for one year. After that it must support me and of six lessons, the last of which is in effect a

the housekeeper and fourteen-year-old boy, who review, in that it gives correct answers to the

will also have to go to school. You ask what are questions asked in the previous lessons.

my special difficulties. Arn't these them? Special The farmer fails on the observing, the plan- it is this or the poor house, with a chance of this

and general? There is no choice in the matter, ning and and the experimenting sides. To

and the poor house at the end of the year. I strengthen this weakness the editors of the simply must make it succeed. I shall make miscourse endeavor to obtain in the answers to takes and if you care, or if it interests you, I will

There are,

report success or failure, so you can hold me out a farm and is very much interested in farming. as a light house. I call the place Forlorn Hope She takes an interest in all its branches.” -Last Ditch."

AN AFFECTIONATE INTEREST “KNOCKING FACTS INTO HIS HEAD"

“I don't know how to address you, and there “I enjoy the study for it is good sense and

are lots of poor old broken-down farmers in the until the farmer knocks a few scientific facts into same boat, but I will call you Cornell so I will his head he will continue to lose more than he

address you thus: Friend Cornell: I feel very gains. I consider the way you go about helping much interested in your Reading Course. If you the farmer is by far the best investment possible have got a pet name inform your readers. They of the state's money. I admire your noble work are loyal and obey orders. Excuse us for not and I want to study with you. Please send me answering you according to your plans. We the new studies as they come out and believe me want to file all your matter, so that if our busito be."

ness does not drive us too hard we can refer to

them in the future.” APPRECIATIVE AND THANKFUL “My dear Cornell: It pleases me very much

A PRACTICAL RESULT indeed that you have not forgotten your delin

“I am a truck gardener and greenhouse man quent Pennsylvania boy. You know I dropped

You know I dropped and I consider your experiment work of vast imout while my wife was so sick. She is once more portance. I should like to have

you

continue getting well and I am glad. Anything from Cor your bulletins. By using them I have become nell is always welcome here and in my blundering

one of the most successful growers of egg plant way I have endeavored to answer your questions.

in western New York.” I hope to hear a speaker from Cornell somewhere

A PRINTER TURNED FARMER this winter."

“While not a practical farmer, or directly conOUTSTRIPPING HIS NEIGHBORS

nected with farming at present-being a printer “I am a little dubious about the wisdom of

-I am so much interested in agriculture and further pursuing this Reading Course. It has

horticulture that I have purchased a tract of forty helped me to become a better farmer than most

acres on Long Island, cherishing the hope that of my neighbors; which in many cases has

some day I will be in such circumstances as will aroused their envy and hatred. I am fast losing

enable me to leave the printing business and friends; becoming isolated in consequence. My

devote my time, with the aid of a practical crime is, I am raising ten bushels of grain and

and experienced assistant, to the cultivation of three of potatoes to their one. If I should, in the

the said place. For that reason I wish to make near future, grow a fine orchard they might mob

application to enter the courses at Cornell, prome."

viding there is no objection on account of my not

being engaged in farming at the present time." HOW BULLETINS INCREASED CROPS “ The Reading Course has been a help to me

DRUDGERY TRANSFORMED the past summer in the way of raising crops. "Although a Canadian farmer boy, you were Through these lessons I have obtained kind enough to send me your Farmers' Reading bushels of potatoes of saleable size from one-half Course. After reading the five lessons on the acre of ground in spite of the unusually dry year. soil and the plant as I trudged up and down There is nothing that I can say to criticise or through the furrows, every stone, every lump of condemn. I am thankful to the state and to the earth, every sandy knoll, every hollow, had a new college for placing these lessons in my reach.” interest. The day passed, the work was done

and I had a new experience.” HARD MANUAL LABOR DISCOURAGES NIGHT STUDY “Kind friend, I must address you as such for

Is not this the key to the whole situation ? you are a friend not only to myself but to all Vivify a task by introducing the child's farmers. You have so kindly sent me your bul

eternal “why?" and what was irksome beletins for a number of years, and they have comes attractive; what was a labor becomes helped me a great deal.' I am ever so much a recreation. Scientific education must be obliged to you for sending me this last course. developed downward as well as upward. Its The other you sent me during the summer and it

foundation should be laid in the farm home was quite a task to keep my mind on it during and the rural school. Correspondence courses hard work, but I had almost finished it when you

in agriculture strive to repair defects of sent me this last Reading Course. I will finish it and return the same to you. Now would it be

early education of the farmer with a view asking too much to send me another or rather

of placing him in full harmony with his the same you sent me, for a lady friend who owns

surroundings.

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