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Center and Collegiate Alumnæ of that city, in the face of hygiene. Among such are and reported to Congress two years ago. over-heating, neglect of the means of ventila
The places where these investigations have tion provided, failure to regulate the light by been made are representative American cities. adjusting the curtains, seating children in the We cannot suppose that Boston, Philadelphia, draught from open windows or beside stoves Buffalo, Baltimore and the rest are sinners or steam radiators, the promiscuous use of above all the cities in this country.
the same drinking cup or towel, the wearing reader of these reports who imagines that the of rubbers and of wet shoes and clothing in sanitary condition of schoolhouses in his own the schoolroom, the abolition of recesses, the neighborhood is any better, must be endowed confinement of pupils in the schoolroom under with remarkable optimism. One should not penalty of remaining after school if they go be misled by the reports of superintendents. out, one long session with no lunch except Naturally they describe the new buildings candy from the street vendor or pickles from erected and note their model features. And the nearest grocery, several flights of stairs the community is often led to believe that all to be climbed by growing girls, general disrethe schoolhouses are satisfactory; for the gard for cleanliness, illustrated in grotesque report as a whole makes a good showing form
form by such so-called methods of cleaning as When one cites facts like those given in this dry sweeping and the feather duster. How paper, some one is likely to point to the im- prevalent such evils are, observation shows. provements that have been made and the To illustrate but one point, the last mentioned : excellent schoolhouses built. All this is true Mrs. Richards of the Boston Committee, reenough. Such school buildings are found in ported, “The feather duster is ubiquitous, and most of our large cities. It is a pleasure to it is the practice, sanctioned by the rules of contemplate them. But it seems absurd to the school committee, to stir up by its use in ask, what all this has to do with the subject the morning the dust which has settled upon we are discussing. The excellence of light the desks, just in time to greet the pupils as and ventilation in the model schoolhouse, re they enter, and to fill their throats with the cently built, does not ensure the eyesight and germs which cannot fail to be present under health of the children in the old, ill-kept, un such conditions." repaired house.
It is not strange that the percentage of So much for “the big red schoolhouse" of disease is great. There are no extended the city as Mrs. Howe of Buffalo has cleverly statistics in regard to the health of American named it. If we turn to “the little red school children. That a large number are schoolhouse" of the rural districts, the sani chronically ill or defective, every teacher tary condition is often still worse. More knows. The investigations of Hertel, in than fifty years ago, Henry Barnard, the Copenhagen, showed that thirty-one per cent. great pioneer of educational journalism in of the boys and thirty-nine per cent. of the America, reported the results of his observa- girls were suffering from chronic disease. tion in a paper on “Schoolhouses As They The commission appointed in 1882 to investiAre.” In this paper, afterwards expanded gate the health conditions of children in the into a book on "School Architecture," Mr. Danish and Swedish schools found a still Barnard presented facts showing the out greater percentage of illness. Of the total rageous neglect and disregard of hygiene in number of over 17,000 boys reported upon the rural schoolhouses. In many rural dis
In many rural dis- by the Danish Commission, twenty-nine per tricts his words would describe the school cent, were suffering from chronic illness, and houses to-day. I know of no extended statis of over 11,000 girls, forty-one per cent. Of tics in regard to them; but observation and over 11,000 pupils in the boys' higher schools, the reports of superintendents indicate that it the Swedish Commission found forty-four per is the exception to find a rural schoolhouse in cent. chronically ill, and of over 3,000 pupils satisfactory sanitary condition, and the atro in the higher girls' schools, sixty-one per cent. cious sins against health in many of them The amount of illness is probably not as would require a volume like Barnard's for great in the schools of this country, but the adequate description.
few investigations already made show a large The environment of the school child is often percentage, especially in the higher grades. polluted by flagrant evils that flaunt defiance Johnson, for example, found about eighteen
per cent. unwell in seven Indiana high schools. the grade level, a granite damp course surEngelmann's investigations indicate that the rounds the building. The outside walls conpercentage among girls is very much greater. tain an air space, and the outside faces are Impaired sight and hearing and other defects coursed with hollow brick, making the walls are common among children of both sexes. impervious to moisture. All interior wall and Tests of the eyes of many thousand pupils by partitions are of solid brick. The floors are Allport and others, show about thirty per framed entirely with steel girders and beams. cent. with defective vision.
Wide iron stairways, of easy ascent, connect The English physician, Dr. Chadwick, is the several floors. reported to have said that he could build a Heating and ventilation are by a combinacity in such a way as to give any desired tion of the so-called plenum and exhaust sysdeath-rate between five, or possibly less, to tems. Large tubular boilers in the basement fifty or more per thousand annually. In like generate steam that is circulated through vast manner, it would perhaps be possible, if home coils of piping placed between the cold air conditions were hygienic, to build a school room and the fan room. On the north side house and arrange a school that would give, fresh air, received from a court supplied with within certain limits, any desired percentage air from above the ridges of surrounding roofs, of disease among the pupils. It is a pleasure is warmed by passing over the steam pipes to to turn from the gloomy statistics cited above a temperature of about seventy degrees Fahrto note what has been done in the best enheit, and forced by the fans into the main schoolhouses to safeguard the health of duct, which extends the length of the entire teachers and children. In the foregoing building, between the ceiling of the basement pages facts have been presented ; facts will be and the first floor; from this it passes to verpresented also in sketching an ideal American tical shafts, and is introduced into each schoolhouse. Only those features will be
room through registers in the wall. Steam mentioned which are actually incorporated in coils, controlled by thermostats regulating the some school building in this country. In temperature, are placed on the exposed sides other words, the ideal to be presented is en of recitation and study rooms for use in extirely practicable. While there is no school treme weather. The humidity is also tested, house of the kind in existence, yet for each and steam mixed with the incoming air when feature the writer can refer those interested too dry. Two hundred and fifty cubic feet of to some actual school building where it may air space is provided for each pupil, and thirtybe found; and approximations to this ideal five cubic feet of fresh air is supplied each re presented in the new high school buildings pupil per minute. Distribution of the warm of Boston, Cambridge, Newton, Worcester, air and ventilation are ensured by exhaust fans Fitchburg, Providence, Indianapolis and other placed near the top of ventilating shafts, and cities, in the Providence normal school, and in the foul air is drawn from each apartment. a number of grade schoolhouses, notably the The arrangement of the warm air registers and Bigelow school in South Boston.
the foul air outlets in each room is made with
regard to the best distribution of the fresh air, THE IDEAL SCHOOLHOUSE
in the recitation rooms the inlets being placed A very brief description of this actual ideal, eight feet above the floor, usually on an inas we may call it, would be as follows: This terior wall, and the outlets near the floor on schoolhouse is situated on a slight elevation, the same side. The main horizontal duct for the soil is natural, sandy, free from organic warm air extends under the whole of the impurities, and well drained. No high build
No high build- assembly room, and fresh air is introduced by ings, noisy, dirty, or ill-smelling industries are a register under each seat, while the outlets near it. There are large grounds containing are at the top of the room. a school garden, shade trees, playground, etc. In the basement besides the heating and The building is entirely of masonry and steel ventilating apparatus are storerooms, playconstruction, built of the best glazed brick, rooms, gymnasium, shower baths, toilet-rooms, and practically fireproof. It is two stories and ventilated lockers for the wraps of each high and built around a large quadrangle. At pupil. The plumbing is all open, the sani
This plan has, perhaps, never been tried in a schoolhouse, but it is in successful operation in the Colonial Theatre in Boston. The register is vertical, being attached to the side of the seat, thus avoiding the dust on the floor.
taries of the best modern style and ventilated their pupils as individuals. There are outdoor through a special exhaust duct. The light in recesses for free play and occasionally short the class-rooms comes from the left, or from pauses to relieve the strain of work at the disthe left and rear, and is regulated by curtains cretion of the teacher. The aim, in general, of neutral gray green running up from the
is to make the conditions such that pupils may bottom as well as letting down from the top. put forth their greatest effort and work at a All the exit doors open outward.
high pace while in the schoolroom. Special Especially noteworthy are the arrangements physicians inspect the children every morning; for cleanliness. The fresh air introduced to dentists examine their teeth periodically; exthe heating apparatus is filtered through a perts test their sight, hearing, and general screen of cheese cloth so that dust and other condition; and perhaps most remarkable of impurities are removed before it enters the fan all, a skillful engineer and an intelligent room. The schoolrooms are really cleaned janitor have care of the heating, ventilation every day. There is no sweeping or dry and cleanliness. dusting The hardwood floors are cleaned Every feature of this ideal—it should be reevery night by a carpet brush dipped in a peated—is embodied in some existing schoolspecial oil preparation. The oil makes the house. As it takes the virtues of many men dust adhere to the brush, and in this way it is to make the ideal man, so in takes many not stirred up, but removed from the room, schools to make the ideal school. But if we and the floor is improved each time it is could bring together and combine in one all cleaned so that once a week it can be washed the good features found in many schools thoroughly without injury. At intervals the scattered throughout the country, we should rooms are disinfected. The furniture is wiped have one almost ideal in hygienic excellence, off with a moist cloth. The chalk dust is re an ideal which, if not perfect, would have duced to a minimum by the use of the best the merit of being real and all the influence crayons and by cleaning the blackboards, and of concrete example. It is surprising how the little dust made is caught in removable good this composite schoolhouse is. troughs. Thus each morning the children cellence condemns the ordinary schoolhouse come into a schoolhouse actually clean. There as no words could. It shows, too, the progress are no free text-books used promiscuously, no of school hygiene. Ten years ago cleanliness slates, and no drinking cups; but on each floor in a schoolroom, adjustable seats and desks, is a drinking fountain where the children can school baths, and the like were vagaries of drink from a continuous stream of water with- university theorists; now they have concrete out the need of cups. Wire matting at the embodiment in the best schoolhouses. It doors, individual lockers for wraps, and the will, of course, be argued that the cost of such facilities for bathing do much to insure clean a model schoolhouse makes an approximation clothing and clean children.
to it impracticable. The natural answer to Space is lacking to describe details, but this objection is that any community that will among other special features are the following: weigh the health of the children against dolElectric lights in all rooms, telephones connect lars and cents must be the product of a pering each room with the office, chemical fire verted system of education. But, if it be necextinguishers in the corridors, adjustable seats essary to argue the question on a financial and desks, special emergency rooms, and toilet. basis, the economic value of hygiene can rooms on each floor, and in the playrooms in easily be shown. Not only does the work of the basements warmed platforms where the teachers and pupils lack efficiency when the children can sit and dry their clothing in wet conditions are unsanitary; and not only when weather.
disease is prevalent does the community have Hygiene is regarded in grading the school, to pay for services that are not rendered bein the arrangement of the period of study and cause the pupils are absent from school, but the like. Physical condition, as well as epidemics are most expensive, and acute or scholarship, is considered in the questions of chronic disease among the children of a family promotions, and pupils with pronounced physi- is the one cause of expense that drives the cal or mental defect are taught in a special sober workman to despair. The citizen with school. The teachers devote half their time economic perspective will demand that the to class instruction, the other half to helping conditions in the school as well as in the home
be made hygienic. And if the essentials of concerned with the conditions of healthy dehygiene were considered first and ornamenta- velopment is omitted from the normal school tion second, the cost would often be no curriculum, or taught incidentally with some greater than at present. It should be noted other subject-psychology or the like. The also that defective schoolhouses are very ex young teachers leave the training school and pensive. A most serious waste of public enter upon their work with devotion to money is often due to an ignorant or criminal arithmetic, geography, grammar and the rest, policy of building schoolhouses before devising and insight into defects of method and discithe plan of heating and ventilating them, of pline, but lacking hygienic instinct. They rejecting the economical mechanical system teach children who are worried, overworked, of ventilation by fans because the initial cost excited or ill, and do not know it. They give is greater than that of a natural system, and, children work too fine and too difficult, and finally, of installing an elaborate and costly are not aware of it; they permit things to be apparatus for heating and ventilating and en done in a way that hygiene has condemned trusting it to an ignorant janitor or broken for twenty-five years and are innocent; they down politician.
work in rooms where the temperature is
eighty degrees Fahrenheit and do not feel it, METHODS OF REFORM
and where the atmosphere is worse than in Old schoolhouses are long-lived, and all prison cells and do not smell it. The teacher, means of remedying existing evils should be untrained in practical hygiene, is inevitably so adopted. First, there should be an investiga- pressed with scholastic duties that she is not tion of the facts. In every city and town
In every city and town- likely to think of the essentials of health. ship a commission of competent persons
Concrete illustrations of ignorance and lack should ascertain and report the actual sanitary of hygienic apperception on the part of condition of all the schools. The wholesome teachers might be cited. A single instance effect of such investigations has been shown must suffice. In a New England town, as in Washington, Buffalo and other cities re the report has come to me, a case of whoopingferred to. Moreover, parents should feel an cough occurred in the school. The head of individual responsibility. If they would in the school, with a pathetic zeal for a good vestigate the sanitary condition of the schools record of attendance that marks the schothat their own children attend, evils like those lastically conscientious teacher, told her pupils mentioned above would not long be endured. that probably the rest of them would have the The fact that parents are so busy trying to disease, but that she wanted them to come to earn the wherewithal to give their children school just the same. the conventional means of education that The teacher should be trained to prevision they have no time to look after their actual ed of matters essential to the health of the ucation is a practical paradox of our civilization. children. Not to mention the concrete details
Second, there should be regular and com of hygienic knowledge necessary, four general petent health inspection of the schools, not facts should be realized by the teacher and all merely medical inspection to check contagious school officials in some such way as they are diseases and to care for the more serious realized by the expert, namely: cases of physical disorder, but inspection of (1.) That sitting still in a schoolroom is the physical condition of all the pupils and of unhygienic for children under the best conthe sanitary condition of the schoolhouse and ditions, that normally they should be active its surroundings, under the direction of a and out of doors. competent health officer having both power (2.) That one-third of the school-children and responsibility.
are chronically ill or physically defective. Third, a knowledge of school hygiene (3.) That the individual differences in should be required of all teachers and super- ability to work, to resist fatigue and the like intendents, and special courses in the subject are so great that some children are always in should be given in all training schools for danger of overstrain from what teachers. It seems absurd to be obliged to reasonable amount of work. plead for this. A consensus of educators (4.) That many things may be injurious puts normal, healthy development as the end to a child in the period of growth and developof education, but the one subject especially ment that are harmless enough to an adult.
THE RECENT GROWTH OF WEALTH
WHY THE ACCUMULATED CAPITAL OF RECENT DECADES IS GREATER
CHARLES A. CONANT
NE of the most remarkable phases of exchange. This was hardly the case prior to
recent material progress is the ease 1870. The United States at that time had in
with which the capital has been found operation 52,914 miles of railway, but the for the many great works of modern civilization. mileage was almost doubled up to 1880, when Such works as railways, mills, water works, the amount was 92,147 miles, and was again and other public improvements can be built increased more than two-thirds up to 1890, only from capital saved beyond immediate when it was 164,359 miles. The construction requirements. These works increase the re since that time has been less-only about sources and producing power of the com 27,000 miles—because the country then be munity when they are completed, but the came almost fully equipped with railway capital employed in creating them is not im- accommodations. The history of railway demediately productive during the process and velopment in Europe is equally recent. has to be saved in advance by the community. the whole of Europe, according to a recent It was said by Bagehot that a citizen of Lon- article in one of the foreign financial journals, don, in Queen Elizabeth's time, “would have the railway equipment in operation doubled thought that it was no use inventing railways between January 1, 1875, and January 1, 1899, (if he could have understood what a railway when it was 165,000 miles. The estimated meant), for you would not have been able to railway mileage of the whole world in 1896 collect the capital with which to make them.” was about 445,000 miles, representing a cost All this has changed since the efficiency of of nearly $33,000,000,000. machine production increased many fold the The creation of railways is cited only to productive power of the unaided human hand. show the comparatively modern character of The growth of capital has gone on in a sort the industrial equipment of the civilized world. of geometrical ratio. Every new invention The figures regarding the development of which has increased the efficiency of labor has various industries, so far as they are available, not only resulted in a definite saving, but this are equally striking. This is especially true new saving has added to the funds for making of those industries which minister to the new machines, which in their turn have added luxuries of civilized life and of the professional to the capacity for saving.
classes whose growth is possible only after The rapidity with which the rate of saving the more pressing wants of the community has been increasing within the last few years have been provided for. has not yet apparently made its full impression One of the most interesting demonstrations upon the public mind. Much of the saving of the growth of capital is afforded by the prior to 1870; and even up to within a few tabulation prepared every year by the leading years of the present time, was in the nature financial journal of Belgium of the issues of of providing the machinery for later pro- negotiable securities. These returns include duction. The invention of railways was a government loans, new banks, railways and great step in human progress, but its effects industrial stocks and bonds, and all other only began to be seriously felt when the rail- enterprises which are represented by securities ways had actually been built sufficient to join on the stock exchanges. The point of view together the great centres of production and from which the figures are made up does not