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ictoria Nyanza, ni-ăn’za, or Ukerewe, the water on which they Aoat — an apparent
00-ke-rē'wě, Central Africa, the provision against submersion by changes in largest of the Nile lakes, and the river level. The leaf-tissues are full of airsecond in size of the fresh-water spaces and canals, which render the leaves so lakes of the world, extends from buoyant that they can support from 100 to 200
0° 45' N. to 2° 50' S., and from 32° pounds of weight; the crimson under-surface 30' to 35° E., and lies about 3,900 feet is reticulated with many veins, protected by above sea-level, between British and German stout, fleshy prickles. The water-lily-like East Africa. Since 1901 a railroad with flowers are more than a foot across, nocturnal, its terminus opposite Uvuma Island, near and open on two successive evenings. The first the northeast shore, connects the lake time a Victoria opens the inner petals over the through British East Africa with Mombasa stigma remain unexpanded, and the flowers on the east coast, and through German East are creamy white, with a delicious fragrance. Africa a line is being laid to connect Mwansa It closses the next forenoon, to open again at on the south shore with Tabora, on the rail- dark, this time expanding to its fullest extent, road running westward from Dar-es-Salaam on
but has become rose-red in color and with a the east coast to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika. disagreable odor.. The flower is then closed Including the numerous islands with which it forever and is withdrawn beneath the surface is studded, Victoria Nyanza has an area esti- of the water. mated at 27,000 square miles. In the southeast Victoria University, England. See OWENS the largest island, Ukerewe, by which name the COLLEGE. lake is locally known, is 25 miles long with a Victoria University, formerly situated at maximum breadth of 12 miles, but is uninhab- Cobourg, Ontario, Canada, now at Toronto, ard ited. In the Sesse archipelago in the northwest since 1890 in federation with the University of are a British government station, and Catholic Toronto. It was founded by resolution of the and Protestant missions. A few steamers and Conference of the Methodist Church in Canada, dhows ply on the lake. The lake receives nu
held at Kingston, in 1830, and was incorporated merous influents, the most important of which by Royal Charter, in 1836, under the name of is the Kagera, the head-stream of the Vile «Upper Canada Acadeiay. This Royal Char(q.v.), which enters it on the west. Other
ter was the first ever granted by the English tributaries of the lake are the Katonga on the government to a non-conformist' body for an west, the Nzoia on the northeast, the Shimiyu educational institution. In 1841, the charter on the south, and the Ruwana on the south
was extended by the Parliament of Canada, the east. The lake is supposed to be partly fed by
was changed to Victoria College, and springs. The outlet of the lake, or Somerset power was given «to confer degrees of Bachelor, Vile, which flows northwest to the Albert Ny- Master, and Doctor of the various Arts and anza, whence it issues as the Nile proper, was
Faculties. On 21 Oct. 1841, the first session of discovered by Speke on 28 July, 1862. While the college under the enlarged. charter was the western shore. cf the lake is mostly flat, opened, with the Rev. Egerton Ryerson as prinand the northern in many places marshy, the cipal, and with a full Arts curriculum. In eastern shore presents high mountains. The 1854-5, the Faculty of Medicine was added and Victoria Nyanza was discovered by Speke, who established in Toronto. In 1860, the Faculty of caught sight of its southern end near Mwansa Law and, in 1871, the Faculty of Theology were on 4 Aug. 1858, and it was afterward, in 1861-2, added. In 1883-4, Albert College, Belleville, visited and further explored by its discoverer, was united with Victoria College, and the name along with Grant, and between January and was changed to Victoria University. The OnMay 1875 it was circumnavigated by Stanley. tario Ladies' College, Whitby, Alma College, By the treaty of 1890 between Great Britain St. Thomas, and Columbian Methodist College, and Germany the northern portion forms part New Westminster, B. T., have since that time of British East Africa and the southern portion heen affiliated On 12 Nov. 1890, by proclamapart of German East Africa, the dividing line tion of the Lieutenant-Governor, Victoria Unibeing the parallel of 1° S. See UGANDA.
versity was federated with the University of Victoria Regia, a magnificent water-lily, Toronto. (See Toronto, UNIVERSITY OF.) New of gigantic size, which is found in South Amer- buildings
erected in Queen's Park, ican streams, especially in the tributaries of the Toronto, and the federation was consummated Amazon. It was discovered by Haenke in Boli- in 1892. The Faculty of Arts then assumed the via in 1801, and, later, was introduced with work and relation of a college in the University great difficulty to horticulture. The first flower of Toronto, teaching such subjects as that bloomed in England was presented to assigned by the Act of Federation to the colQueen Victoria, in honor of whom the genus leges. For all other subjects the students have was named. The Indians of British Guiana access to the lectures and laboratory practice of called it the water-platter, in reference to its the University of Toronto under the regulations remarkable floating leaves, which are six feet of which all degrees, except those in Divinity, or more across, and are circular with an up- are conferred. In addition to the work in Arts turned rim several inches high. These gigan- above mentioned provision is made for courses tic leaves are orbicular peltate and provided in theology, both elementary and advanced. with prickly petioles longer than the depth of
A. R. BAIN, Registrar. VOL. 20-1
VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE - VICTORIAN LITERATURE
POETRY AND PROSE,
Victorian Architecture. See ARCHITECTURE. story-teller, socialist, and manufacturer; and
Victorian Period in English Literature. Algernon Charles Swinburne. With them is to The name “Victorian” is popularly given in hon- be named Christina Rossetti, sister of D. G. or of the late Queen Victoria (1819-1901), and Rossetti. the literature designated by that adjective is
In some respects, Tennyson more than any roughly coincident with her reign (1837-1901), other poet of the century, is representative of and is limited to England. The death of Scott these three groups. Beginning, in his first (1832) is commonly taken as the most
volume (1827), under the spell of Keats, he venient date for fixing the term to the brilliant had within a decade produced much original literary movement of the last years of the 18th work and by 1860 established his reputation as
In much century and the early decades of the 19th: the best-beloved poet in England. and, from this point of view, Victorian literature of his earlier work, he treated subjects from stands for the new literary impulses that suc
human life not unlike those of Browning, ceeded the decline of the great work of Burns, though with more calm and repression and Cowper, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shel- less lively vigor. The ethical ideas of his time ley, Keats, Scott, and their contemporaries. The found, as in Arnold and Clough, a current and literary movement of the Victorian period may lasting expression in many of his shorter lyrics, best bé defined by the main tendencies in poetry, such as 'The Two Voices and ‘Locksley Hall, prose, and the drama.
as well as in the longer 'In Memoriam' (1850) and as 'Idylls of the King' (1858-). Through
out his poetical career, Tennyson was a most Poetry. The first, the most popular, and the distinguished and careful workman, and in this most prolific poets of the period were Alfred respect he is akin to the poets who were spoken Tennyson and Robert Browning. Three main of in the third group, as, like them, he is, in interests may be observed in their work and some respects, a reteller of tales. Unlike them, that of their contemporaries and successors. however, an ethical and not chiefly an æsthetic The ideal interest in humanity. best represented motive is dominant in him. in the preceding epoch by Shelley, found its Besides these chief poets, there should be most vivid expression in Browning, whose work, mentioned William Barnes, the painter of the at first written under the spell of the great lyric homely life of Dorsetshire; two distinguished poet, early took on those traits of vigorous writers of vers de société, Frederick Lockerinterest in the experiences of mankind which Lamson, and Charles Stuart Calverly; Tennyare the source of its originality and popularity. son's own less celebrated brothers, Frederick Browning's poems are distinguished for their Tennyson and Charles Tennyson Turner, Covpervasive feeling for the moods and the expe- entry Patmore, and many other poets who have riences of many people of all ages and for the written in a touching way of simple things: dramatic vigor of their expression. In these and above all, Edward Fitzgerald, whose transrespects he represents a very important move- lation of the Rubaiyát' of Omar Khayyam is ment of the century, and many of the same not only classical in its finish but also not uncharacteristics inform the poetry of his wife, representative of much of the melancholy of Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
the poetry of the century. Of contemporary In the second place, the serious moral poetry English poets, the greatest amount of popular of Wordsworth, the poetry "of man, of nature, fame has fallen to Mr. Rudyard Kipling. and of human life," justly celebrated as one of Prose.- Important as is the poetry of the era, the chief glories of English literature, had a it is many ways surpassed by the amount and legitimate successor in the grave, reflective richness of the prose. During the period the poetry of Matthew Arnold and Arthur Hugh great popular form of imaginative literature vas Clough. They began writing a few years later the novel. Sir Walter Scott, in the preceding than Tennyson and Browning. Like many of part of the century, did more than any one else their contemporaries, of whom they are the in the history of English literature to establish best mouthpieces, they were oppressed by the the widespread vogue of fiction, and in the field melancholy of life, and, to a greater degree than of historical romance he remains an object of their literary prototype, they deal with morals, the detracting envy and real despair of his sucwith duty, with the vanity of human effort, and cessors. The main development of the novel ini with the eternal note of sadness.” Their the Victorian period was, however, along a poetry, particularly that of Arnold, is brilliant different line from that established by Scott, in style and finely finished, and a high place is whose
immediate successor, Edward accorded to them as exponents of the graver Bulwer-Lytton, a prolific writer, marked a and more solemn side of the poetry of the cen- decadence of the romance from the standard tury. Their temper is expressed in a of the great master. Rather the novel developed sentimental strain in such poets as Arthur according to the principles laid down and exO'Shaughnessy.
emplified by the great writers of the 18th cerContemporaneous with the decline of this tury, Richardson. Fielding, and Smollett, and impulse, which spent itself in the endeavor to brilliantly carried on in the early 19th century express some solution of the enigma of exist- by Maria Edgeworth and Jane Austen. Accordence, there arose the third school of poets, who, ingly the great fiction of the Victorian period is foregoing this quest, gave themselves up to largely realistic in tendency. The most brilliant the search for beauty of form and sentiment, and most popular, as well as the earliest of the who busied themselves with the retelling of old men of the period, was Charles Dickens, who, in iales, who were concerned with romance, and the type of story and the method of narrative, who strove, for the most part, to
followed the school of LeSage and Smollett, but picturesque and ideal world. Three names added to the English novel, considered as stand
conspicuously: the painter-poetwhole, a new kind of buoyant humor and a Dante Gabriel Rossetti; William Morris, poet, warm and polemic hatred of wrongdoing and
oppression. Almost contemporary, though has exhibited various phases of human temperaflowering later and declining earlier, ment, and has tried to express what is most William Makepeace Thackeray, often spoken native and fundamental to human action. He of as the chief of English novelists. Like that and Mr. Thomas Hardy are the foremost living of Dickens, his material was largely drawn English novelists of the day; the latter, however, from contemporary life, but he wrote of higher has, in a long series of brilliant novels, been social strata, and viewed his world more as a less concerned with the problems of the indipanorama, calmly and with less personal inten- vidual soul and the expression of types of sity and less polemic sense. Almost contempo- human temperament, than with the workings rary with the finest work of these masters, was of an external and unaccountable chance and represented a very different and highly original caprice in human destiny, and in this respect, impulse in Charlotte Bronté, whose Jane Eyre as in his beautiful pictures of rural life, Hardy (1847) is the prototype of the intense personal also is a great specialist. With them, in a novel from time to time in vogue.
totally different field, that of the romance built Of the types of material furnished by these on the tradition of Scott, but embodying more novelists, that represented by the humanistic allegorical and figurative elements, is Robert novels of Dickens was the most conspicuous in Louis Stevenson. the group of slightly less great novelists of this Quite as important and striking as either early Victorian period. The purposeful spirit the poetry or the fiction of the Victorian period, found a very interesting expression in the is the large body of humanistic, critical, and religio-historical, and modern ethical, novels scientific prose that is regarded by Victorian of Charles Kingsley, the gist of whose teach- writers as among the chief glories of English ing is that no earthly happiness exists, save in literature. During the period, the essay form, the surrender of self to the faith of Christianity owing largely to the growing prevalence of (understood in an Anglican sense); in Eliza- magazines and reviews, was, and still is, in beth Gaskell, whose classic and charming Cran- vogue, but it was used more and more widely ford' (1865) is less representative of her for other than strictly literary purposes. There interest in social questions than such earlier have been practically no important successors of novels as Mary Barton' (1848); and in the such essayists as Lamb, Hazlitt, and DeQuincey vigorous and voluminous Charles Reade, who, (who, like Landor, falls also into the early besides being a writer of historical fiction, was Victorian period). The ancestry of the literaalso a vehement champion of the oppressed and ture of 1830-1900 is rather to be traced back, a challenger of injustice. These writers were, in in humanism, to Burke and the French Revomany respects, akin to Dickens. The most dis- lution, with some diffusion and dispersion; in tinguished representative of the more realistic criticism, to Coleridge: in history, to Gibbon; school, in many respects a follower of Thack- in economics, to Adam Smith and Bentham; in eray, was Anthony Trollope, a writer of pleasant science and philosophy, to Hume and Bentham; stories of English life, and one of the most con- with the infusion, from time to time, of ideas sistent of the realists.
from Germany. Charlotte Bronté and her sisters may be This last was the initial source of inspiracalled specialists in representing emotional in- tion of one of the greatest humanists of the tensity. The term "specialist" may also be century, Thomas Carlyle. Beginning with applied to several writers of the early Victorian translations of German writers and essays and period. Frederick Marryat was a specialist in excursions into German ideas, Carlyle, not far ihe writing of sea-stories, and some of his nauti- from the opening of the reign of Victoria, beal creations are famous. Charles Lever dealt came at once the prophet and the scourge of
hiefly with the military hero. An interesting his countrymen. Moved by the same spectacle picture of the out-of-the-way life of peasants that had stirred Dickens and Kingsley, he proand gypsies is to be had in the works of George ceeded somewhat illogically but very eloquently Borrow. A popular · writer on school and col- to demonstrate the futility of contemporary lege life was Thomas Hughes. There may be institutions, to decry the impotence of the named also Benjamin Disraeli, G. P. R. James, democracy, and to point out the one way of Samuel Lover, and of a somewhat later period, salvation, the dominance of the hero whom he coatemporary with George Eliot, Richard Dod- illustrated in several important works, dridge Blackmore and Margaret Oliphant. Heroes and Hero-Worship’ (1841); Crom
Since the time of the great panoramic novel- well (1845); and “The History of Friedrich 1.' ists of the early Victorian period, the novel has (1858-1863). It would be wrong to say that tended to specialization, such as has been de- the mantle of Elijah fell upon the Elisha of scribed, though of a larger kind. Among John Ruskin, for the careers of the two overlap writers belonging to the so-called later Victorian by many years. But Ruskin continued veheperiod, stands out the name of the great special- mently the task of upbraiding his countrymen it in states of the human mind, in questions of for their failure to observe what was of good Guty, in ethics, “George Eliot” (Marian Evans report. Starting his career as a critic of art, Cross). Though in one two novels, as and trying to reform the taste and the æsthetic Middlemarch' (1871-72). she attains the pan- manners of the time and to lead his readers back oramic view, and produces classical types, her to a true idea of the beautiful and the good, he, interest was chiefly centered in the problems men- by the middle of his career, 'Unto This Last tioned, which she illustrated, for the most part, (1860), broadened the scope of his interests so in the lives of people of humble and rural cir- that they included economic and social, as well cumstance. Her artistic aim was to make in- as literary and artistic, questions. His influence teresting the life of the lowly. Contemporary has been very widely diffused, like that of with her, but continuing his production down Carlyle, and their contemporary humanist, almost to the present date, is Mr. George Emerson. A third great chastiser of the evil Meredith. In a series of powerful novels, he which men do and think was Matthew Arnold,
already mentioned as a poet. From about 1870 ing the sins of his fellow men to become a to 1880, his literary energies, originally devoted literary critic of lasting influence. The main to poetry and next to literary criticism, were stream of critical tendency, up to the time of directed toward trying to make his stubborn the modern scientific and philological schools, island countrymen think rightly on political, had sprung from the stimulating power of the literary, and religious matters in accord with German-derived Coleridgeianism. The chief that formula which he continually characterized tenets of that influence were the casting aside as "culture.”
of authority in favor of appreciation: any work With these spiritual guides is to be named of art contained in itself the reason why it was the great humanist, the friend and contemporary good: and consequently an author's purpose, of Carlyle, John Stuart Mill, who besides being his range, his total production, and his vogue an admirable technical student and expounder were things to be taken into consideration. This of logic and political economy, attempted to principle passed naturally in the later Victorian disseminate the principles of moderation, of period to the criticism of types, wherein critijustice, of right reason, and in all his works, as cism tended to become characterization rather in his famous essays 'On Liberty' (1859) and than censure or commendation.
Two great 'The Subjection of Women (1869), sowed the critics are illustrative of the tendency: Walter seed of righteousness. For a discussion of Mill's Bagehot (1826-1888), unexcelled for the vigor work as an economist and a philosopher, the gen- and brilliancy of his characterizations of types eral articles and the special article on Mill should of mind and art, and Walter Pater (1839-1894), be consulted, since it is out of the province of the polished expounder of artistic personality. the present article to touch on scientific studies The same tendencies, with different material and of the century except in so far as they relate to different emphasis, are to be observed in the work literature.
of such distinguished modern critics as Leslie The humanistic movement in its earlier phases Stephen, John Addington Symonds, Mr. John is often regarded as an aspect of what is called, Morley (1838-), and others. Matthew Arnold, for the purposes of classification, the romantic poet and humanist, second to none in importance movement, the impulse, that is, which expressed as a critic, represents a reaction in favor of a the desire for individual expansion rather than more abstract and ideal standard. Historically the submission to the limits imposed by author- important as having done much to enlarge the ity, and which implied the manumission of the confines of English criticism and to rid it of human spirit and intellect from current and insularity, he, nevertheless, was at variance with traditional bonds. In the religious field, the his contemporaries (as in matters of religion so-called Oxford Movement of 1833-1841 is and politics) in asking for more authority sometimes called romantic in that it was the and standardization of judgment, which standwork of a few young men who revolted at the ard is largely a matter of his own predilecreligious custom of the time and endeavored to tion. re-establish an earlier, and as they conceived it, Much of the critical study of literature a purer form of belief and worship. The Ox- during the period was dominated by the histoford Movement received at once its best exposi- rical and the scientific method. That aspect of tion and severest criticism in the controversial criticism, except in such invaluable work as autobiography of the originator of the move- Stephen's Dictionary of National Biography ment, The Apologia Pro Vita Sua' of John and other excellent biographical works, is, howHenry Newman, written in defence of his con- ever, less important in the field of literature version to Catholicism. Newman stands in proper than that of history and science. Though English literature as one of the great masters these subjects do not properly enter into the of finished prose of a formal but winning cast present article, they are so important that menand as a specialist in somewhat technical reli- tion of them cannot be wholly ignored. In gious controversy. The orthodox Anglican feel- history, besides such men as Carlyle, who wrote ing of the time is best represented in the histories, and Symonds, the historian of the sermons and writings of Frederick Denison "Renaissance,' there were, in the Victorian period, Maurice, Frederick William Robertson, and since the time of Hallam, such distinguished Charles Kingsley, the novelist.
as Milman, Grote, Macaulay, Harriet The more strictly critical movement, as re- Martineau, Kinglake, Froude, Buckle, Freeman, lated to literature, goes back to Coleridge and Gardiner, J. R. Green, Lecky, and Mr. James Germany. The dogmatic manner and air of Bryce. In philosophy and science the names finality which distinguished the pronouncements of Lyell and Spencer are eminent, and_the of the Edinburgh and Quarterly reviewers, theory of natural selection as presented by Darfound its descendent chiefly in the common-sense win and expounded by Huxley has profoundly criticism of Macaulay. Most of the critics of influenced the whole train of 19th century the early decades of the century, Lamb, Haz- thought since the publication of 'The Origin litt, De Quincey, and others, were, in one way or of Species (1859). another, frankly personal or deliberative rather Bibliography.-References are so numerous than er cathedra in their attitude, and in that it is impossible for the preceding and the Coleridge criticism tended to the ascertaining following section to make more than a general and expounding of principles rather than the reference to the lists contained under the assertion of dogmas. The early work of Car- articles on the writers specifically named, though ļyle, the next important critic after the group such books as Saintsbury's History of Ninejust named, was largely critical, and it busied teenth Century Literature, Stedman's Victoitself with the exposition and interpretation of rian Poets, Siopford Brooke's English LiteraSchiller, Goethe, Richter, and other contem- ture,' and Palgrave's Golden Treasury' (second porary German writers, for the benefit of his series) may be cited. countrymen. Carlyle, however, was too busy
WILLIAM T. BREWSTER, exploiting the doctrine of the “hero" and sound- Professor of English, Columbia University,