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VICTORIAN LITERATURE

DRAMA.

away from the frigid classicism, so unattractive At the beginning of the Victorian period, to English audiences, and Hugo had ushered the English stage was still contentedly support in a kind of play which the English found ing the traditions of two preceding centuries, more to their taste. These new plays proved The objects and methods of both actors and easily imitable and adaptable in London, but plays were practically the same as they had been the habit of importation did not become wholeat the Restoration. In both, the rhetorical style sale until the advent of Scribe. Scribe perfected prevailed. The two Patent theaters created by the mechanics of story-telling in dramatic form, Charles II. still had the sole privilege of play- and in so doing largely deleted everything else ing the legitimate drama, and Macready was from a play-witty dialogue, atmosphere, localstriving to perpetuate the histrionic tradition ity, and characterization. Thus his plays, being which went back through Edmund Kean and simply stories, could be given anywhere with John Kemble, to Garrick and to Betterton. The equal effect, and as London managers could get plays themselves still kept, with slight modifi- them for nothing, his output and that of his cations, notably in the direction of morality, to school became an inexhaustible store-house for the Restoration models. of comedy which adaptation. derived from Molière with a slight infusion of The result upon the home product was twoJonson; and of tragedy which was either fold. It reduced to a minimum the meager band Elizabethan simple or Elizabethan Restora. of English writers, and those that remained no tionized. Since Goldsmith and Sheridan, lit- longer even attempted to represent English erature had showed a widening separation life and thought. Instead, they provided for from the stage which almost to their time the public an impossible mélange of French ideas had been its chief mouthpiece. This had and emotions served up in British dishes. In been mainly brought about by the great ex- the second place, the adaptation and imitation of tension of journalism and, later, by the signal Scribe's methods proved the finishing blow to success of the novel in the hands of Scott. the moribund rhetorical conception of comedy These two forms of literary endeavor were by bringing in a French realism of mounting offering larger and securer returns than play- and stage-setting. When a stage room had making, and thus naturally drew away from the three sides, a ceiling, and real doors, many theater men of mark and left only the adapters conventions of action and dialogue, unnoticed and the hacks. Such was the position at the when an interior consisted only of wings and a outset of Victoria's reign. Dramatic history back-drop with painted chairs, became ridiculous during her reign is, until the very latter end of and unendurable. Thus gradually a new ideal it, one rather of movements than of men. The was developed, by which the play was forced to changes which were to take place during her move a little nearer to the life now in a material occupation were brought about by social, eco- way presented with considerable reality. Innomic, and physical, as well as literary forces; ternally, however, the plays remained as artificial for more than any other artistic activity, the as they had been before, their characters puppets stage is responsive to the conditions under impelled by theatrical and absurd sentiments which it exists. These changes embraced the and exhibiting the crudest of psychologies. The decay of the old traditions, the even wider sepa- main dramatists of the period which this develration of the stage from literature, the birth of opment closes, were Bulwer, Tom Taylor and a new drama followed by a partial return of Charles Reade, and Dion Boucicault. Bulwer, literature to the stage, and finally the growth of under the influence of the Romantic revival in a serious conception of the drama as a criticism France, produced 'The Lady of Lyons' and of life, a conception already achieved by other Richelieu, and his comedy Money shared the European nations.

distinction of being the last representation of London, during the first 40 years of the cen- rhetorical comedy with Boucicault's London tury, had more than doubled its population, Assurance and Old Heads and Young and, as a result, the Patent theaters were on alí Hearts, with Taylor and Reade's Masks sides encroached upon by minor theaters which, and Faces, and with Taylor's 'Still Waters in spite of their legal disabilities, proved for- Run Deep. Boucicault, the arch-adapter and midable rivals. When the Act of 1843 abolished plagiarist of the period, had the good fortune the privilege of the Patent theaters, an era of to hit upon a type of his own in his series of more active competition began. This compe- very successful Irish plays, but they are tition naturally relied upon display as its best nearer real studies of life than the others of the means of advertisement; and the invention of period. The predominance of Scribe and his gas and lime-light about the same period—inven- school had paralyzed native authorship. tions of great significance to the stage-con- Into this lifeless world came T. W. Robertson firmed the universal tendency toward the -a dramatist whose pleasant work has no great spectacular treatment of plays. Inevitably there intrinsic value, although he possessed a strain set in the decline of the rhetorical drama, the of original genius—to create a new form of appeal of which, on a poorly-lighted stage, drama. It ignored not only the old rhetorical was primarily to the ear and not to the eye. tradition but the new French-English mongrel Meanwhile another cause was contributing not species. It was merely the comedy of manners only to destroy the rhetorical tradition but to clothed in natural speech and realistic setting, widen the gap between literary men and the but it seemed absolutely original and spontanetheater. What small demand there was for It viewed the commonplace social relaoriginal work would doubtless have in time tions from the outside, with a naïveté and recalled writers from the novel and the news- humor which disguised to an unsophisticated paper, but unfortunately the demand, just be- public the insipidity of its characters and the ginning to be feit in the early Victorian period, shallowness of their sentiments. Though he was checkmated by an outside influence. The brought new life to the drama, fortunately his Romantic revival in France had suddenly broken school, represented by H. J. Byron and Albery,

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VICTORIAN LITERATURE - VIDAURRI

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did not long survive him, else the stage would was due, no doubt, to the circumstances of their have found itself in almost as lifeless a way, as production, for his fine verse lacks vigor and he when he rescued it and with an artificiality has not seized upon the essential moments of different from, yet as great as, that against which his stories, the crucial parts of most of his he effectively protested.

dramas taking place behind the scenes. In Though W. S. Gilbert could not be called a

'Queen Mary' and 'Harold, however, he prefollower of Robertson, he made the same pro- sented genuine dramatic material. If the taste test against the fustian of the stage, and carried for the poetic play can be revived in the future, on the verbal flippancy which had vied with it must be as drama first and poetry afterward, sentimentality in the latter's plays. So thor- and drama conceived in a modern rather than oughly original was he that only the adjective Shakesperian type. Gilbertian can cover the precise blend of wit,

ALGERNON TASSIN, delicate fancy, satire, and extravaganza, which Lecturer in English, Columbia University. achieved some brilliant successes on the legitimate stage and which finally secured the aid of Vicuna, Pedro Felix, Chilian journalist : musical accompaniment in a long series of comic b. Santiago, Chile, 1806; d. there 1874. He was operas that stand, like their author, in a class well educated, and entered journalism at apart.

early age, becoming at 21 one of the founders In spite Robertson and Gilbert, however, and editor-in-chief of the Valparaiso El Merthe theater lapsed again into a period of adapta- curio. He was subsequently connected _edition from France. But there, meanwhile, had torially with El Telégrafo (1827); El Elecsprung up a larger type of social drama than tor' (1841;) 'El Republicano (1845) ; 'La Rethat of Scribe,-a type of which Diplomacy' forma' (1847); and other leading periodicals, is an illustration,-and imitation of this wider and in 1865 was elected to the national senate, species was less deadening than the former where he introduced the law abolishing imhad been. When, however, international copy- prisonment for debt. He wrote: Unico asilo right was at last secured and French works de las Repúblicas Hispano-Americanas (1837); could no longer be adapted for nothing, the Porvenir del Hombre' (1858); and 'La Haeffect of fair play for the English dramatist was

cienda Pública (1864). seen almost immediately. A group of young

Vicuna-Mackenna, mäk-kā'nä, Benjamin, writers arose who, beginning as imitators, were

Chilian historian: b. Santiago, Chile, 25 Aug. soon applying French methods to original and

1831 ; d. Santa Rosa del Colmo, Chile, 25 Jan. native purposes. Of this group, Mr. A. W. Pinero and Mr. H. A. Jones were pre-eminent. Chile, and early engaged in researches in na

1886. He was educated at the University of They sought their material at home and, ob

Anserving carefully, reproduced sincerely.

tional history. For his activity in the revoluother decade had to pass in experiment before tion of 1851-2 he was imprisoned and conthese men really undertook a drama which demned to death, but escaped to this country

and then went to Europe. În 1856 he returned, evinced anything like a serious psychology and a vital relationship with life. Not until 1890 and was admitted to the bar, but political disdid they dispense with elementary love-idylls turbances caused his exile in 1859-63. Upon

his return in the last named year he became and the kind of story which had been up to that time inevitable to every play, or set out defi- editor of the Valparaiso Mercurio," in 1864

was elected a deputy, and in 1865-6 was special nitely for a more thoughtful and virile drama covering the field of social intercourse.

Fol- envoy to Peru and to the United States. He

was senator in 1871-6, and in 1875 he was a lowing their lead, Oscar Wilde and Mr. Bernard Shaw developed the social comedy into a more

candidate for the presidency. His works in

clude: 'El Sitio de Chilian en 1813' (1849); serious content. Wilde's pyrotechnic brilliance

Revoloción del Perú (1861); Historia de la of dialogue and inverted epigram concealed at

Administración de Montt' (5 vols., 1862-3); first his genuine dramatic quality and adroit constructiveness as a playwright. Mr. Shaw

Historia de Valparaiso' (2 vols., 1868); Histook up the stage as a lively form of presenting (1881); Al Galope' (1885); etc.

toria de las Campañas de Arica y Tacna? himself and his social propaganda, but, though his brilliant plays hardly succeed as drama, Vidaurri, vē-thowr'rē, Santiago, Mexican there can be no question of their success with soldier: b. Nuevo Leon, Mexico, about 1803 ; the public and as literature. These men with d. City of Mexico 8 July 1867. He came of a Mr. Pinero and Mr. Jones have once more ele- wealthy family of Indian extraction, was well vated the English drama not only to the level educated, admitted to the bar in 1826, and enof continental drama but of the literature of tered political life. He was engaged in several their own land.

civil wars, rose to the rank of colonel, and in The poetic drama during the reign is repre- 1852 was elected governor of Nuevo Leon. He sented by Westland Marston, Talfourd, Brown- assisted in the overthrow of Santa Anna in ing, and Tennyson. The formal dramas of the 1854-5, though refusing to act in conjunction first two are long forgotten. Masterly as are with Alvarez, and was an unsuccessful candisome of Browning's plays, they seem remote date against the latter for the presidency in from the purpose of the stage, and when some 1855. He assumed a species of dictatorship of them got there it was discovered that they over the states of northern Mexico, forcibly could be only recited, not acted: at any rate, annexed Coahuila, and was ong suspected of they can be successful, if at all, only in the a design to establish a separate republic. He manner of the rhetorical tradition for which withheld recognition of Comonfort as successor they were conceived. Tennyson's plays, al- of Alvarez until 1856, but was then forced to though loosely constructed in the loosest of grant it in order to retain his control of the Elizabethan formulas,—the chronicle history states Nuevo Leon and Coahuila. He at first have been acted with considerable success. This participated in resistance to the French interVIDIN - VIENNA

vention in 1862-4; later became an officer in Germain and Vincent'; Dædalus and Icarus); the cabinet of Maximilian. He resigned in 1867, and Cupids at Play? (all in the Louvre). His but after the fall of the City of Mexico he was principal claim to importance lies in the fact captured and shot as a traitor.

that he was the teacher of David. Vid'in, Bulgaria. See Widdin.

Vienna, vi-ěn'a (German, Wien, vēn), Vidocq, vê-dõk, Eugène François, French Austria-Hungary, the capital of the empire, on adventurer and detective: b. Arras, France, 23 the right bank of the Danube and on the DonauJuly 1775; d. 10 May 1857. He was appren- kanal, a narrow arm of the river, into which ticed to his father, á baker, at 13, and after fall several small streams, 380 miles south by constant pilfering robbed the shop of 2,000 southeast of Berlin, and 650 miles east by south francs and fled to Ostend. He soon lost his of Paris. It stands in a plain with the conmoney, and after living a life of vagabondage spicuous Wiener Wald Mountain boundaries at entered the French army, from which he de

10 or 12 miles distance on all sides. Most of serted to the Austrians, but later returned to the the city rises from the right bank of the Donau French army. His career as a soldier was one kanal, on a considerable acclivity. The older of miserable intrigue and disgraceful adventure portion was separated from the newer by a and he was finally implicated in a forgery for wall and ditch, forming what is called the which he was sentenced to eight years impris- "Lines,” but this has largely given place to an onment. He escaped and after further discred- encircling street or boulevard. The nucleus of itable escapades settled in Paris, where he the city, the Innere Stadt, forms a small part of gained employment on the secret police force. the whole inside the Lines. It was formerly His wide knowledge of the criminal classes surrounded by a rampart, fosse, and glacis, but enabled him to render efficient service, and in these were leveled in 1800 and the space occu1812 he was made chief of the brigade de sureté. pied by the Ringstrasse, a handsome boulevard His activity in the service cleared Paris of averaging 55 yards broad, forming one of the great numbers of the criminals with which it finest thoroughfares in Europe. The inner or was infested, but in 1827 he was removed from old town is still the court and fashionable quaroffice. His subsequent career was one of ob- ter of the city, and contains some of the finest scurity and failure, though he apparently en

mansions of the mobility. The streets here are deavored to live an honest life, and he died in often narrow and crooked; but on the whole wretched poverty. His Mémoires (1828) are

Vienna is handsome well-built town, with fine not regarded as authentic.

squares, and straight and spacious streets well Viele, vēʻle, Egbert Ludovickus, American kept. The houses are frequently built four or soldier: b. Waterford, N. Y., 17 June 1825; d. five stories high, and occupied in flats with comNew York 22 April 1902. He was graduated

mon stairs. The chief public park is the Prater, from West Point in 1847, engaged in the Mex- river itself, about four miles long and two

on the island between the Donaukanal and the ican War in 1847-8, and in the Indian warfare broad, beautifully laid out, planted, and decoof 1848–52. He resigned from the army in 1853 rated, and regarded as the finest public park in with rank as lieutenant and in 1854-6 was chief

Europe. engineer of the State of New Jersey. He was chief engineer of Central Park, New York, in fine public buildings are the imperial palace or

Among the more important of the numerous 1856–7, and later of Prospect Park, Brooklyn. At the outbreak of the Civil War'he entered Hofburg, on the south west of the inner town, a the army and was appointed brigadier-general a fine new façade constructed in 1890–3; the

conglomeration of parts of various dates, with of volunteers. He was second in command of the land forces at Port Royal, and held chief fine grounds, in the suburb of Hietzing; the pal

imperial summer residence, Schönbrunn, with command at Fort Pulaski, Ga., planned and conducted the march to Norfolk, Va., and par- perial palace, modern and handsome, as are

ace of the Archduke Albert adjoining the imticipated in the capture of that city. He was military governor of Norfolk in 1862–3. He The palace of the Prince of Liechtenstein, those

those of the Archdukes Victor and William. afterward continued the practice of his profes- of Duke Philip Alexander of Würtemberg; sion in New York, was appointed park com, missioner in 1883, and president of the board others of the nobility are also noticeable.

Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and of commissioners in 1884. He served in Con; Specially must be mentioned the Parlamentsgress in 1885-7. He wrote: Active Service) (1861); Topographical Atlas palast, in which the legislature met for the first of the City of New York (1865) ; etc.

time in November, 1883; the magnificent Gothic

Rathhaus (1872-83), the courts of justice, the Viele, Herman Knickerbocker, American twin museums of art and of natural history, the novelist, son of E. L. Viele (q.v.): b. New mint, the imperial and civil arsenals, the barYork 31 Jan. 1856. He studied engineering racks, the exchange, and the national bank. with his father and practised as a civil engineer The university was founded in 1237, and refor some time in Washington, D. C. He has organized by Maria Theresa. It occupies a fine published The Inn of the Silver Moon' new building, and has over 350 professors and (1900); The Last of the Knickerbockers' instructors, and an attendance of about 6,000 (1901); Myra of the Pines) (1902).

There is in immediate connection with it an Vien, vē-on, Joseph Marie, French painter: admirable botanic garden and several valuable b. Vontpellier 18 June 1716; d. Paris 27 March collections. The Josephinum, an academy for 1809. He was a pupil of Natoire, went to army surgeons, has an extensive series of Rome 1744 and returned to open a school of anatomical preparations in wax. The Polytechpainting in Paris (1750). In 1775 he was di- nic Institute instructs about 900 pupils in engi. rector of the Academy at Rome but returned neering and other practical arts. The Semina to Paris. Napoleon I. made him senator and rium, a Roman Catholic institute, is devoted ennobled him. His chief works are: Saints to the special training of priests; there are also

VIENNA -VIENNE

Hungarian and Protestant theological institutes. Vienna, Concordat of, also known as the An academy of oriental languages, a military Concordat of Aschaffenburg, between Pope academy, an academy of the fine arts, a con- Nicholas V. and the imperial estates of Gerservatory of music, and a number of gymnasia many, in February 1448, by which that eminent and real schools are among the leading educa- pontiff agreed to certain changes in the relational appliances of the metropolis. There are tions between the papacy and the empire in the many libraries and museums open to the public, spirit of the Concordat of Constance, made in The chief among the former are the imperial 1418 by Pope Martin V. with the representalibrary with 900,000 volumes and 20,000 MSS., tives of Germany, France, England, and other and the university library with 320,000 volumes. countries. The imperial museum of natural history is one of the finest in Europe. The imperial cabinet assembled 'after the first overthrow of Napoleon

Vienna, Congress of, a congress of powers of coins and antiquities contains 140,000 coins and medals, 12,000 "Greek vases, fine cameos and disturbed by the conquests of France. The

to reorganize the political system of Europe, intaglios, and other treasures. The Treasury, Congress assembled on 1 Nov. 1814. The prinamong other imperial treasures, contains the cipal powers represented in it were Austria, regalia of Charlemagne, taken out of his grave Russia, Prussia, England, and France. Spain, at Aix-la-Chapelle. The imperial picture gal- Portugal, Sweden, and other minor powers were lary contains about 2,000 pictures. The Acad- also consulted on matters more nearly concernemy of Arts has also a gallery, and there are a number of well-known private collections. ing them. The emperors of Austria and Russia, Charitable, sanatory, and other institutions are

the king of Prussia, and many other German numerous. There is a general hospital with princes were present in person. The leading 3,000 beds, a general lying-in and foundling hos territorial adjustments effected by the Congress pital, and other benevolent institutions too

were the following: Austria recovered Lomnumerous to mention. The Academy of Sci- bardy and Venetia, while Tuscany and Modena

were conferred on collateral branches of the ences, the Austrian Geological Institute, the Imperial Geographical Society, the Polytechnic imperial house. The Infanta Maria Louisa, Institute, the Imperial Agricultural Society, and queen of Etruria, received the duchy of Lucca the Austrian Philharmonic Society are the prin- in exchange for Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla. cipal of such associations. Gardens, cafés, and

which were given with the title of empress to similar places of amusement are numerous. The

Varia Louisa, ex-empress of France. The Leprincipal theatres are the Hofburg and the Stadt gations, Benevento, and Ponte Corvo were retheatres, the fine Opera House, etc.

stored to the pope. The king of Sardinia reAmong the churches the most remarkable is covered Piedmont and Savoy, with the addition the Domkirche, or cathedral of Saint Stephen, of Genoa. Murat retained Naples. Holland a lofty cruciform Gothic structure, with a main and Belgium were erected into a kingdom for tower (erected in 1860–4 to replace a former the Prince of Orange, William I. Hanover, with unstable structure), tapering with regularly re

the title of king, returned to the king of Engtreating arches and buttresses to a height of land, and the lonian Isles were as å republic 453 feet. The tower contains a bell of 18 tons' placed under the protectorate of Great Britain, weight, made of cannon taken from the Turks. which, also retained Malta, Helgoland, and The richly groined roof is supported by 18 several conquered colonies. A federative conmassive sculptured pillars, and the interior is stitution, with a diet at Frankfort, was estabadorned with numerous statues and monuments, lished for Germany. The kings of Denmark and a superb pulpit. The windows present and the Netherlands were admitted in virtue of fine specimens of ancient painted glass. The their German possessions to the diet. Bavaria Hofpfarrkirche (1330) is a finely-proportioned was reinstated in her Palatine possessions with edifice; the Capuchin Church contains the im- Würzburg, Aschaffenburg, and Rhenish Baperial burying vault; the Votivkirche (1856-79) varia, in return for her restorations to Austria. is one of the finest specimens of modern Gothic.

The demands of Prussia caused a dispute which Vienna is the first manufacturing town in the nearly broke up the congress, but she was finally empire. Its manufactures include cotton and satisfied with the duchy of Posen, the Rhine silk goods, leather, porcelain, arms, musical in- Province, and a part of Saxony. The construments, hardware, and numerous other arti- gress was suddenly broken up by the restoration cles. There is also a large inland trade. It of Napoleon; but its acts were signed by the is the centre of a great railway system. The powers interested on 9 June 1815. diversion and deepening of the channel of the

The Congress of Vienna showed a disposiDanube, which brings the river nearer the tion also to interfere in American affairs, and city, has largely increased its shipping trade

an attempt was made to introduce monarchy in between eastern and western Europe. În 1890 the South American countries then engaged in many suburbs were incorporated with the city, liberating themselves from the Spanish yoke, by which is now divided into 19 districts.

the establishment of a French prince as Vienna appears to have been a Roman station ereign over the Argentine provinces. The peoin the ist century. It was afterward included ple of Argentina rejected the proposition. in Upper Pannonia, and received the name of These and other meditated European aggresVindobona. It was taken and pillaged by Attila sions, encouraged by the hostile attitude toward about 450. It was conquered by Charlemagne republican institutions of most of the powers about 791, became the capital of the Margraviate represented at Vienna, led to the declaration of of Austria about 1142, a free imperial city in principle known as the Monroe Doctrine, which 1237; it was besieged by Solyman in 1529, by for a time put a quietus on monarchical plots Kara Mustapha in 1683, and was occupied by against American republics. Napoleon, 13 Nov. 1805 and 12 May 1809. Pop. Vienne, vē-ěn, France, an ancient town in about 1,700,003.

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