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south of Lyons. The River Gère passes through servatoire at Brussels. A stroke of paraiysis, the town, and here joins the Rhone, after hav- however, in 1873, left his right arm useless and ing supplied motive power to a number of he was compelled to retire. He composed mills and factories. Vienne was the chief town numerous pieces for the violin, comprising conof the Allobroges, is mentioned by Cæsar, and by certos, fantasies, and dances. Martial, who calls it the rich Vienne; in the

Vigan, vē'gän, Philippines, pueblo and time of the Roman emperors it was the rival capital of the province of Ilocos Sur; on the of Lyons. Besides numerous water conduits, northern delta of the Abra River about three etc., of Roman construction, there are a Corinth- miles from the coast. It is open to the coast ian temple of Augustus and Livia, remains of a trade, is on the west coast road connecting it theatre and an obelisk, called The Eagle, 72 feet with 'Dagupan, and the Dagupan & Manila Railhigh; and the museum containing many relics road, and carries on an important trade with of Roman antiquity. The cathedral of Saint the interior of the province by means of the Maurice, partly Romanesque, partly Gothic, was river. It contains brick kilns, a boat building built in 1107-1231; Saint Peter's dates from the yard, and a carriage factory. It has broad 6th century. The town was prominent under streets, and a number of important public buildthe Burgundian princes, and its archbishop dis- ings, including the casa real, court house, proputed with his neighbor of Lyons the primacy vincial administration building, and the council of Gaul. In 1312 a council was held here, in seminary; it has been an episcopal see since which Pope Clement V. pronounced the suppres- 1755, and contains a fine cathedral and the sion of the order of the Templars. There are bishop's palace. manufactures of woolens, silk, paper, leather, and iron goods, and trade in grain and wine. dinavian scholar: b. Frakkanes, Iceland, 13

Vigfusson, vỉg'foos-són, Gudbrand, ScanPop. about 30,000.

March 1827; d. Oxford, England, 31 Jan. 1889. Vieques, vē-ā'kas, or Crab Island, West He was educated at Copenhagen University and Indies, a dependency of the United States; ad- lived in Copenhagen from 1849 till 1864, devotministratively, a district of the Department of ing himself to the study of old Icelandic litHumacao, Porto Rico; a fertile island with erature. His first work, "Timatal, the several commodious ports where the largest chronology of the Sagas, was published in 1855. ships can ride at anchor. It lies about 13 miles In 1858 he brought out the Biskupa Sögur, or east of Porto Rico; is 21 miles long and 6 wide; Lives of the Icelandic Bishops,' and in 1864 the has a fine climate, and produces almost all Eyrbyggja Saga. He then went to England varieties of fruit and vegetables that grow in to undertake the Icelandic-English lexicon, on the West Indies. The population of Vieques which he was employed from 1864 to 1871. In district (in which Culebra island was included 1878 the Clarendon Press published his (Sturas a ward) was given as 6,642 in the census of lunga Saga,' to which he prefixed the Prolego1899; of the town called Vieques, 2,646. The mena,' containing a complete history of the principal settlement is located on a bay on the classic literature of Iceland. This was followed southeast side; on the north is the town of Isa- by the "Corpus Poeticum Boreale (with F. bel Segunda. Latest statistics of the island York Powell), a complete collection of the anprepared under the direction of the War Depart- cient Icelandic poetry, with translation. In 1848 ment of the United States show: Native whites, he was appointed lecturer in Icelandic and kin2,545; foreign whites, 138; negroes, 1,036; dred subjects at the University of Oxford. mixed, 2,923; married, 688; single, 4.539; living

Vigil, the day and night preceding a festogether as huband and wife by mutual consent, tival in the Roman Catholic Church. In the 1,183; widowed, 230; inhabitants 10 years of age early period of the Church the night as well and over who attended school, 162; 10 years as the day was spent in prayer and fasting, of age and over who could neither read nor

but this practice, so far as the night was conwrite, 3,288; superior education, 22; inhabitants cerned, was found to promote immorality, and engaged in agriculture or fisheries, 1,396; trade it was given up, the vigil being celebrated in and transportation, 225; manufacturing and me- the day time only, except the Midnight Mass, chanical industries, 253; professional service, 39; before Christmas, which is a relic of the old domestic and personal service, 727; without custom. The term "vigil” is also applied to the gainful occupation, 4,002; total number of dwell- devotional exercises held on the evening preings, 1,273; number of farms, 120.

ceding a festival. Vieta, François, French mathematician: b. Vigilance Committee, a term used in the Fontenay-le-Comte 1540; d. Paris Feb. 1603. United States to denote á band of citizens orHe practised law until 1589, when he was ap- ganized to summarily punish crime, or prevent pointed maître des requêtes under the Parlia- the commission of crime, in such instances as

at Paris, subsequently holding various the civil and lawfully constituted authorities civil offices. He was the founder of modern

seem powerless to enforce the law. The most algebra and the foremost algebraist of his time. noted committees in the history of the country His works were collected and published by Van were those formed in San Francisco, and conSchooten (Leyden 1646).

tiguous territory in the Western States, and in Vieuxtemps, Henri, on-rē vē-e-ton, French New Orleans, in the Southern States. In the composer and violinist: b. Verviers, Belgium, earlier years of San Francisco the city was so 2 Feb. 1820; d. Mustapha, Algiers, 6 June 1881. overrun with the lawless element among the He studied at Vienna and at Paris, and miners and adventurers that the administration made his first appearance at Paris in 1841. of justice became in the hands of the constiHe visited the United States in 1844-5, tuted authorities but a travesty. It was then 1856, and 1870, was solo violinist the that the work of the vigilance committee, or emperor of Russia in 1846–52, and in 1870 Vigilantes, as they were styled, began. That was appointed to a professorship at the Con- work was short, sharp, and terrible. Thieves




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and murderers were hanged on every side, while at the Alabama Claims Commission at Geneva; others were forced to seek safety in flight. In and in 1873 a delegate from the United States New Orleans the last instance of the organiza- to the International Metric Conference. He was tion of a vigilance committee was in 1891, when appointed second secretary of the American lea body of citizens took from the city jail a gation at Paris in 1875, and first secretary in number of Italians, suspected of being members 1882, retaining this position when the legation of the Italian fraternity of murderers, known as became an embassy. He has written L'A11the Mafia, and accused of being the murderers thropologie) (1861); Critical and Bibliographof Chief of Police David Hennessey, and put ical Notices of All Voyages which Preceded and them to death by shooting and hanging. This Prepared the Discovery of the Route to India action produced serious complications between by Diaz, and to America by Columbus): «Tosthe Italian government and that of the United canelli and Columbus the Letter and Chart of States.

Toscanelli on the Route to the Indies by way of Vigilius, vì-jil'i-ŭs, Pope: b. Rome; d. the West (1902); (Toscanelli and Columbus Syracuse 555. During the pontificates of Aga- Letters to Sir Clements R. Markham and C. petus I. and Sylverius, Vigilius was apocrisiarius Raymond Beazley) (1903). (an office nearly corresponding to the later one The publication of his (Toscanelli and Coof papal nuncio) at Constantinople, and having lumbus) provoked considerable controversy; its sided with the imperial government against Pope aim was to impugn the purely scientific origin Sylverius, was sent to Rome to procure the of Columbus' discovery. imprisonment and exile of Sylverius. This being accomplished, Vigilius was proclaimed pope in

Vignola, vēn-yo'lä (GIACOMO BAROZZI), 537, but was not acknowledged by the entire Italian architect : b. Vignola, near Modena, 1 Church as such till 540, when Sylverius died. Oct. 1507; d. Rome 7 July 1573. He received It has been said that, according to a promise his art training at Rome, later spent two years

at the French court; was architect to the pope given to the empress of Constantinople, he wrote in 5.38 a secret letter to the heads of the Mono- and after the death of Michelangelo (1564) physites, in which he approved of their views, architect of St. Peter's. The two small cupolas and condemned the anti-Monophysite decisions are his additions to that building and the prinof Pope Leo I. Modern critics all agree in pro- cipal other works which he produced are Capranouncing this letter apocryphal; and later (after rola Palace near Viterbo and the Church of 540) he refused to issue a decree in favor of the Jesus at Rome, which was completed after his Monophysites, declaring that he would abide death by Giacomo della Porta, but not in the decisions of the four æcumenical councils cordance with the original plans. His buildings and the decrees of Popes Agapetus and Leo.

are marked by taste and harmony, although When Justinian in 544 condemned the so-called chilling in their severity of design. He has (Three Chapters” (the writings of Theodore of had more influence as an architect through his Mopsuestia, of Theodoret against Cyril, and the work Rules of the Five Orders of Architecture Epistle of Ibas), and the western bishops gen- (1563), which for a long time was considered erally threatened resistance to this, Vigilius the standard authority, although on his theory was summoned to Constantinople (546) and the antique builder was restricted by narrower prevailed upon to condemn likewise the «Three rules than ever actually were in vogue. Chapters, in a document called Judicatum

Vigny, vēn-yē, Alfred Victor, COMTE DE, (548); saving, however, the authority of the French author: b. Loches, Indre et Loire, 27 council of Chalcedon, which has refrained from March 1797 ; d. Paris 17 Sept. 1863. He entered condemning them. As this satisfied neither the the army at the Restoration, but resigned from opponents nor friends of the “Three Chapters, the service in 1827. By this time he had pubVigilius called an ecumenical council, the Fifth, lished two books of verse, Poèmes) (1822) and to settle the dispute. In the eighth session, the Poèmes Antiques et Modernes (1826), the lat«Three Chapters” were condemned in nearly the ter containing the Moise'; and Cinq- Mars' same terms used by Pope Vigilius in his Judica- (1826), a work of fiction which, despite the autum. As a matter of prudence to allow the agi- thor's study of sources, is far from being true to tation occasioned by the controversy to subside, history. This work owes much to Walter Scott. the Pope waited some months before announcing De Vigny made good translations of Othello' to the Catholic world that the “Three pters) and the Merchant of Venice, and won a great had been regularly condemned by the council

. triumph in 1835 with his drama of Chatterton. Vigilius then obtained the emperor's leave to return to Italy, but died at Syracuse on the way however, follow up his success; and he printed

At the highest point of his reputation, he did not, back.

nothing further but a few poems in the Revue Vignaud, vēn-yo', Jean Henry, American des Deux Mondes.? He was elected to the diplomatist and author: b. New Orleans, La., 27 Academy in 1845. Many critics regard his SerNov. 1830. He taught in the schools of his na- vitude et Grandeur Militaires? (1835) as his tive city in 1852–6, and at the same time wrote finest work. It is a collection of short stories of for Le Courrier and other papers. In 1857–60 the army, and was based to some extent on his he was editor of L'Union de Lafourcheat own experience. Its tribute to martial heroism Thibodeaux, La., and in 1860-1 was one of the was highly appreciated soon after the Napofounders and the editor of "La Renaissance leonic time. His dramas and prose fiction, parLouisianaise, a weekly journal. In 1861 he ticularly Cinq- Mars,' are much better known joined the Confederate army as captain in a than his verse, though it is chiefly by the latter Louisiana regiment, and was captured at New that literary historians have appraised him. He Orleans in 1862. The next year he was ap- is,” says Dowden, he thinker among the poets pointed secretary of the Confederate Diplomatic of his time” in France. His few informing philCommission at Paris; in 1872 he was translator osophical ideas he treated with great, though un


equal skill. His general attitude was one of a Vilas, vi’las, William Freeman, American rather stoic acceptance of things, and his manner lawyer and politician: b. Chelsea, Vt., 9 July has a corresponding dignity. Other volumes by 1840. He went to Wisconsin with his parents him are Les Destinées! (1864), and Stello in 1851, and was graduated from the University (1832), the former verse, the latter prose. Con- of Wisconsin in 1858, and from the Albany Law sult Paléologue, Alfred de Vigny (Grands School in 1860. He was admitted to the New Ecrivains Français) 1891); Dorison, Alfred de York bar, but returned to Wisconsin, was adVigny, Poète et Philosophe! (1892); Montégut, mitted to the bar there, and had just begun the

Nos Morts Contemporains,' ist series (1882); practice of his profession, when he joined the Sainte-Beuve, Portraits Littéraires, Vol. VIII., Federal army (1862). He was promoted lieuPortraits Contemporains, Vol. II., and Nou- tenant-colonel, and commanded his regiment veaux Lundis, Vol. VI.

during the siege of Vicksburg; he resigned from Vigo, vē'go, Spain, town in the province the army in 1863 and returned to his law pracof Pontevedra, situated on the Bay of Vigo, 20

tice in Madison. In 1868 he was appointed promiles southwest of Pontevedra. It has some Wisconsin, holding that position till 1885; and

fessor in the Law School of the University of sardine and tunny fisheries. The town is old in 1897 became a regent of the University. and irregularly built, but picturesque, and the After the Civil War he was an active member surrounding country, which is very attractive, of the Democratic party; from 1876 to 1886 he is rich in wine, oil, and fruits. Pop. 15,044.

was the Wisconsin member of the Democratic Vihara, vì-hä'ra, a word originally mean- National Committee, and in 1884 was permaing in Sanskrit pleasure or relaxation; afterward nent chairman of the National Convention; and signifying a pleasure-ground, and hence a meet- in 1885 was elected to the Wisconsin legislature. ing-place. The temples being meeting-places for In the same year he was appointed postmasterthe Buddhist monks — just as places of worship general of the United States, and in 1888-9 in New England are called meeting-houses -- the was secretary of the interior. His course as word was used to designate a Buddhist temple, postmaster-general was marked by an improveand hence it came to be applied to a Buddhist ment of the foreign mail service, economy of monastery, which in complete íorm includes the management, and the negotiation of postal treaimage-house, with images of Buddha, the dagaba, ties with Mexico and Canada. In 1891 he was a bell-shaped dome, solid in structure, under elected to the United States Senate for a six which a relic of Buddha is supposed to be buried, years' term. In 1896, being opposed to the freethe sacred Bo-tree, surrounded by a stone ter- silver movement, he was one of the organizers race, and supposed to be a descendant of the Bo- of the National or Gold Standard Democratic tree, or sacred fig-tree, under which enlighten- party, attended their convention at Indianapolis, ment came to Buddha; also a hall for preaching, and was chairman of the committee on resolua hall of assembly, and sleeping-rooms. See tions. He edited (with E. E. Bryant) the ist, BUDDHA; INDIA,

2d, 4th and 6th-20th volumes of the Wisconsin Vi'king (from the Icelandic vik, a bay or

Supreme Court Reports.) fiord, and the termination ing, implying one who

Vilayet, vil-a-yět', in the Turkish empire, belongs to or is descended from: literally one the most important administrative division, govwho lurked in bays and issued thence to plunder, erned by a vali, or governor-general, and a couna rover belonging to one of the bands of North- cil. Each vilayet is divided into livas or sanmen who scoured the European seas during the jaks. eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries. This word has been frequently confounded with sea-king, a and Anglo-American sense means a rural, sub

Villa, vila, a word which in the English term which is applied to a man of royal race, who urban, or sea-coast dwelling, as distinguished took by right the title of king when he assumed from 'a farm-house, and which is occupied usuthe command of men, although only of a ship's ally in the summer months by a person who has crew; whereas the former term is applicable to also a residence in a town or city. In the Latin any member of the bands. The Scandinavian it had a similar meaning, but also meant origvikings were excellent ship-builders and expert inally a small collection of houses, and as the seamen, and were able to navigate in the open country home of a rich Roman would be likely sea by the aid of the sun, moon, and stars. Not- to have around it a cluster of dwellings of rewithstanding the origin of the term, which is tainers and slaves, it is probable that the coununpleasantly suggestive of the methods of Ma- try house became known as a villa from this lay pirates of present or recent date, it has come fact. The French and Spaniards have enlarged to be the recognized designation of the Scandi- on the Latin meaning, and with them it is equivnavian adventurers who, by daring, hardihood, alent to the English word town," either as desand endurance, fought their way to thrones, and ignating an urban community, or as distinguishestablished kingdoms, principalities and duke- ing town from country. Italians give about doms in all parts of Europe, from southern Rus- the same meaning to the word as their Roman sia to Britain. See NORTHMEN.

predecessors. Vilaine, vê-lān, France, a western river Villa Adriana, vēl'lä ä-dre-ä'nä, or Hawhich rises in the department of Mayenne, flows drian's Villa, the ruins of a splendid palace, west past Vitré to Rennes, where it receives the temples, baths, theatres and other buildings Ille from the north, and with a southwesterly erected by the Emperor Hadrian, near Tibur, course reaches the Atlantic at Pénestin, in the now Tivoli, about 15 miles east-northeast of department of Morbihan, after a course of 130 Rome. The emperor spared no expense to make miles, 80 of which are navigable. With the Ille it the most beautiful palace in Italy. Many of it gives its name to the department of Ille-et- the statues now in Roman museums were found Vilaine.




Villa Albani, äl-bä'nē, a modern Roman were signed here on 11 July 1859. Pop. about villa containing many works of art.

It was

10,000. founded in 1760 by Cardinal Alessandro Albani.

Village Communities,

Communities, supposed upon The first Napoleon caused many of its art treas- ample evidence in the present as well as the ures to be removed to Paris. These were re- past, to have been the primitive form of organstored to the Albani family in 1815, and were

ized human society. In Africa, the South Sea sold, and are now in the Glyptothek at Munich, Islands, and among the American aborigines and other collections. Prince Torlonia bought who have progressed beyond savage isolation, the villa in 1866.

the village community exists, a survival of a Villa Aldobrandini, äl-do-brän-dē'nē, system which was probably universal in the prenoted villa at Frascati, near Rome, built for historic period, and was prevalent throughout Cardinal Aldobrandini about the close of the a large part of Europe, as it is to-day in Rus16th century, and afterward owned by the Bor- sia, long after Greece and Rome had built flourghese family.

ishing cities, and established new forms of civVilla Borghese, bór-gā'sě, just outside the ilization. In the Russian mir, a word which Porta del Popolo, Rome. The founder was

signifies union, all the land is held in common, Cardinal Scipio Borghese, nephew of Pope Pius and is divided for use among the several fam

ilies. V. The original museum was purchased by

Such was the system of land tenure Napoleon I. and sent to the Louvre, and an

among the ancient German tribes, when they other has been established in its place. The first came within the observation of the Romans, villa contains many fine sculptures.

and although at a very early date — probably

before the tribes from the North swept down Villa Ludovisi, loo-do-vēssē, formerly one on the Roman dominions — private proprietorof the chief attractions of Rome until the palace ship of land had become a fixed institution and gallery of statues, and a large part of the among them - the village continued to have its grounds, gave way to the march of local im

common or "green,” which every villager had provement. The villa was built in the early a right to use and enjoy. This communal land part of the 17th century by Cardinal Ludovisi system was brought to the New World by the on the site of the Gardens of Sallust, and large first settlers, being represented by the Boston sums were expended in beautifying the grounds Common, and the commons of New York and adorning the gallery of statues with col

now known as City Hall Park, and other simlection of antique sculptures, including the fa- ilar public reserves. mous Ludovisi Juno and Mars. These were

It is unnecessary to trace the village comremoved in 1891 to the Piombino palace, and munity from its primitive condition through the only building remaining of the Villa Ludo- the feudal and more recent periods to the presvisi is the Casino dell'Aurora.

ent day. Throughout all changes something of Villa Medici, mā'dē-chē, a famous Roman the commercial system survived, and the comvilla, south of the Pincio, with a fine collection mon enjoyment of land, which had been nearly of casts. It was built in 1540 for Cardinal effaced by private proprietorship, is being reRicci de Montepulciano, became the property of vived in the creation and the extension of pubthe Medici family about 1600, and passed into lic parks, open to every citizen. In Russia, on the possession of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany, the other hand, the mir, or village community, the younger branch of that family. Here Gali- is giving way to private proprietorship, Russia leo was confined, when his sentence to impris- in this, as in some other respects, being in a onment in a dungeon for advocating great as- period of transition from which western Europe tronomical truths was commuted to detention evoluted centuries ago. in the villa of the Grand Duke of Tuscany at Rome. In 1801 it became the home of the cisco, Spanish soldier and colonial governor:

Villagran, vēl-yä-grän', or Villagra, FranFrench Academy of Art, founded by Louis XIV. It is one of the most interesting features b. Astorga, Spain, 1507; d. Concepcion, Chile, of the Eternal City.

15 July 1563. He accompanied Valdivia to

Peru, was engaged with him in the conquest of Villa Nazionale. See NAPLES.

Chile in 1540-5, and in 1547-9 was deputy Villa Pallavicini, päl-lä-vē-chē'nē the cele- governor in the absence of Valdivia. Upon the brated residence of the Marchese Durazzo, at death of Valdivia in the Araucanian uprising of Pegli, on the Gulf of Genoa, Italy. Nature and 1553-4 Villigran became governor. While proart are combined to make it one of the most ceeding to march against the Araucanians was picturesque and enchanting spots on the globe. severely defeated at Mariguenu in February The decorations display taste and magnificence, 1554. He, however, continued the

war for and the gardens are luxuriant with the choicest months, killing the famous Indian chief Lantaro plants of that genial climate, while statues, grot- at Mataquito in 1556. He was superseded by toes, fountains, a Christian chapel, a mosque, Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza in 1557; and that a Roman temple, a triumphal arch with sculp- governor, in order to be rid of his dangerous tures, and other works of art add to the grand- rival, sent Villigran a prisoner to Peru. On eur and beauty of the scene. The villa com- his release he went to Spain, secured a royal mands an extensive view of the Mediterranean. commission to succeed Mendoza and returned

Villafranca di Verona, vēl-lä-fräng'kä dē in 1561 to take charge of the colony. He pushed vā-ro'nä, Italy, a small town in the province though much harassed by the uprisings of the

the Spanish conquests beyond the Andes, and of Verona, 10 miles south-southwest of Verona. Araucanians, continued in office until his death. It is aof mediæval appearance, surrounded by walls and moats. The castle is now in ruins.

Villain, or Villein. See VILLEINS. The preliminaries of a peace between Francis Villard, vil-ärd', Henry, American journalJoseph of Austria and Napoleon III. of France ist and capitalist: b. Speyer, Bavaria, 11 April

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