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THE

AMERICANA

A Universal Reference Library

COMPRISING THE ARTS AND SCIENCES,
LITERATURE, HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY,
GEOGRAPHY, COMMERCE, ETC.,

OF THE WORLD

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

FREDERICK CONVERSE

CONVERSE BEACH

EDITOR SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

MLA VAGING EDITOR

GEORGE EDWIN RINES

ASSISTED BY MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND OF THE MOST EMINENT

SCHOLARS AND AUTHORITIES IN AMERICA AND EUROPE

1ssued under the Editorial Supervision of

Tbe Scientific American

IN TWENTY VOLUMES

ILLUSTRATED

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN COMPILING DEP'T

225 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

1911

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THE AMERICANA

DEPARTMENT AND ADVISORY EDITORS
ASTRONOMY

ELECTRICITY
SIMON NEWCOMB, Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc.

WILLIAM MAVER, JR., C.E.
PHILOSOPHY

Consulting Electrical Engineer, New York JAMES E. CREIGHTON, A.M., Ph.D. ENGINEERING AND MACHINERY Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University

WILLIAM MOREY, Jr., C.E.
PHYSICS

Consulting Civil and Mechanical Engineer

New York
ROBERT S. WOODWARD, Ph.D., LL.D.
President of Carnegie Institution

STEEL
PURE MATHEMATICS

ALBERT SAUVEUR, S.B.
CASSIUS J. KEYSER, M.A., Ph.D.

Professor of Metallurgy, Harvard University
Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia
University

JUDAISM

ABRAM S. ISAACS, A.M., Ph.D. EDUCATION

Professor of Semitic Languages, New York ANDREW SLOAN DRAPER, LL.D.

University
Commissioner of Education, State of New York

HISTORY OF THE NATIONS
ZOOLOGY
DAVID STARR JORDAN, Ph.D., LL.D.

UNITED STATES
President of Leland Stanford Jr. University

ANDREW C. MCLAUGHLIN, A.M.

Editor of "American Historical Review
ENGLISH LITERATURE
WILLIAM P. TRENT, A.M., LL.D.

CANADA
Professor of English Literature, Columbia

GEORGE MCKINNON WRONG, A.M. University

Professor of History, University of Toronto WILLIAM T. BREWSTER, A.M.

CHARLES WILLIAM COLBY, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of English, Columbia University

Professor of History, McGill University AMERICAN LITERATURE

MEXICO EDWARD EVERETT HALE, S.T.D., LL.D.

ELISHA HOLLINGSWORTH TALBOT Author of “ The Man Without a Country"

Author Commercial and Industrial Mexico CLASSICAL LITERATURE

GREAT BRITAIN JAMES H. KIRKLAND, Ph.D., LL.D. HALFORD JOHN MACKINDER, M.A. Chancellor of Vanderbilt University

Director of the School of Economics and Polite ARCHITECTURE AND THE FINE ARTS

ical Science in the University of London

GERMANY
RUSSELL STURGIS, F.A.I.A.

HUGO MÜNSTERBURG, Ph.D., LL.D. Author of “ Dictionary of Architecture"

Professor of Psychology, Harvard University RELIGION AND THEOLOGY

FRANCE
SYLVESTER BURNHAM, D.D.

HON. HILAIRE BELLOC
Dean of Hamilton Theological Seminary, M.P. for Salford (Eng.); Author of “Danton,"
Colgate University

"Robespierre," " Paris," etc. REV. P. A. HALPIN

ITALY Saint Angela's College, New Rochelle, N. Y.

J. S. KENNARD, Litt.D., D.C.L., L.H.D. MEDICINE

Author of “ Italian Romance Writers," StudiSMITH ELY JELLIFFE, M.D., Ph.D.

Danteschi,” “Romanzi e Romanzieri Italiani,”

“Les Femme dans le Roman Italien,” “The Editor “ Medical News."

Fallen God," etc.
CHEMISTRY

JAPAN
ALLAN DOUGLAS RISTEEN, Ph.D. GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD, D.D., LL.D.
Hartford, Conn.

Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Yale UniMINERALOGY

versity; Lecturer on Philosophy, Western

Reserve University; Lecturer on Education
GEORGE LETCHWORTH ENGLISH in the universities of Japan.
New York

AUSTRALIA
LAW

HON. JOHN GREELEY JENKINS
HENRY M. EARLE

Premier of South Australia 1901-5; Agent-
New York

General in London for South Australia

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