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The regulations concerning military discipline and disciplinary penalties are published by royal ordinance.

ART. 198. No one can enter the service of the State, if he has not, according to the prescriptions of the military laws, performed his service in the army, or if he is not exempt from the service.

ART. 199. Foreign troops can not be taken into the service of the State. Every convention stipulating that a foreign army shall occupy the Serbian territory or traverse this territory is valid only if it is consented to by the National Skupshtina. Likewise the Serbian army can not be placed at the service of another State without the consent of the National Skupshtina.

PART XV.--THE REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION.

ART. 200. Propositions tending to introduce modifications or additions to the Constitution or to interpose one of its provisions may be presented by the King or by the National Skupshtina.

A proposition of this kind must contain the formal enunciation of all the points of the Constitution on which can be brought forward amendments, additions or proposed interpretations.

If the proposition is presented by the King, it shall be communicated to the National Skupshtina. The Skupshtina shall then be dissolved, and the Grand National Skupshtina shall be convoked within a period of four months at the most.

If, on the contrary, a proposition of this kind proceeds from the initiative of the Skupshtina, it must be voted by the Skupshtina at two different times and with 10 days' interval between the two consecutive votes.

The proposition shall be considered as adopted, if the absolute majority of the deputies determined by the Constitution has voted in favor of the proposition.

The proposition having been adopted in this manner, the Skupshtina shall be dissolved, and the Grand National Skupshtina shall be convoked within a period of four months at the most, counting from the day of the adoption of the proposition.

In each of the two cases, the Grand National Skupshtina shall have power to decide only on the amendments and additions to be introduced into the Constitution and the interpretations of the Constitution contained in the proposition in view of which it has been convoked.

The decisions of the Grand National Skupshtina adopted by the absolute majority of the deputies determined by the Constitution shall be executory when they shall have been sanctioned by the King.

1 As amended, 5/18 June 1903.

TRANSITORY PROVISIONS.

Art. 201._1. King Peter I shall take the oath prescribed by Article 60 of the present Constitution before the national representation. This national representation shall preserve its mandate until the first elections of the Skupshtina.

II. At the moment of the publication of the present Constitution the following laws are recalled into force, in so far as they are not in opposition with the provisions of the present Constitution:

1. The Electoral Law of 25 March 1890,with the modifications and additions of 28 January 1891. The periods indicated by this law must be advanced, regard had to the day fixed for the election (Article 100).

2. The Law on the Internal Regulation of the National Skupshtina of 1 November 1889, including the modifications of 28 January 1891.

3. The Law on Ministerial Responsibility of 30 January 1891.

4. The Law on the Organization of the Council of State of 21 December 1901, and the Law on the Internal Regulation of the Council of State of 31 January 1902.

5. The Law on the Organization of the Court of Accounts of 1 May 1892..

6. The Law on the Administrative Division of the Kingdom of Serbia of 15 March 1890, with the modifications and additions of 31 March 1891, 9 May 1894, 17 February 1896, 5 January 1899, 24 January 1900, 31 March 1902 and 10 April 1902.

7. The Communal Law of 21 March 1902. 8. The Law on Public Meetings and Associations of 31 March 1891. 9. The Law on the Press of 31 March 1891. From this moment all laws and ordinances, so far as they are contrary to the present Constitution, or indeed to the laws just mentioned, shall be considered as abrogated.

III. The King shall name by decree and from this moment the president, the vice-president and the members of the Council of State, who shall have to fulfill the functions specified by the present Constitution, until the first National Skupshtina at its ordinary session shall have proceeded to their nomination conformably to the provisions of Article 140 of the present Constitution.

The present councilors of State are relieved from their functions.

The president and the members of the Court of Accounts shall continue to fulfill their functions until they have been reappointed conformably to the provisions of the present Constitution and during the first ordinary session of the National Skupshtina.

Likewise, the presidents and the judges of the Court of Cassation, of the Court of Appeal and of the tribunals of first instance shall continue to fulfill their functions.

As soon as the Council of State shall have been constituted conformably to the present Constitution (Article 140), it shall proceed to the election of the president and the members of the Court of Cassation and shall submit to the King the list of the chosen.

1 As amended, 5/18 June 1903.

This and all the dates mentioned in this article are old styler. 88381–1938

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The president and the members of the Court of Cassation shall enter upon their functions as soon as the King shall have appointed them.

The president and the members of the Court of Appeal are chosen and appointed conformably to Article 154 of the present Constitution.

The presidents and the judges of the tribunals of first instance are chosen and appointed in the manner provided by Article 154 of the present Constitution.

IV. The law on the budget of the State of 4 April 1903 shall remain in force.

ART. 202. From the day of the promulgation of the present Constitution, the Constitution of 6 April 1901 [old style] shall be abrogated, as well as all laws and ordinances, in so far as they are contrary to the present Constitution.

The Council of Ministers is required to promulgate immediately the present Constitution in the Official Journal.

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SIAM.

Siam is an absolute monarchy, in which the King exercises the executive power, supported and advised by a Cabinet (Senabodi) consisting of the heads of the various departments: Foreign Affairs, Interior, Justice, Finance, Public Instruction, Public Works, War, etc. Many of the portfolios are held by the King's half-brothers and uncles. There is no written Constitution. The Law of 8 May 1874, constituting a Council of State, has now been superseded by the Royal Decree of 10 January 1895, creating a Legislative Council, which is composed of the Ministers of State (ex-officio members) and others, not less than twelve in number, appointed by the King. In the preamble of the Royal Decree it is stated that the object of this body is to revise, amend and complete the legislation of the kingdom. It is to meet at least once a week, and it may appoint committees of three or four members, with the addition of competent outsiders who must not outnumber the members. An important article gives the Legislative Council power to promulgate laws without the royal assent in the event of any temporary disability of the King. At other times the royal signature is indispensable. This Council has shown considerable legislative activity. Through the Declaration, signed at London, 15 January 1896,1 the integrity of Siam was assured by France and Great Britain.2

1 English and French texts in parallel columns in the British and Foreign State Paper8, 88: pp. 13–16; the English text also appears in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1896 (Washington, 1897), pp. 139–140.

* These paragraphs are based upon The Statesman's Year Book (1918) and Paul POSENER, Die Staatsverfassungen des Erdballs (Charlottenburg, 1909), p. 934.

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