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INDEX.

[The reference is made to page and (in parentheses) to the article or articles of the
particular constitutional document appearing on that page. In a few instances, where
one article covers two or more pages, the reference in parentheses is to the section of
the article instead of to the article. Continued reference is indicated by a short dash,
e. g., 207 (45)-208 (62) or 207 (45–47). The lettern and a figure placed in italics
after the page number indicates that the reference is to the corresponding footnote on

Although the indexes under the individual countries are fairly complete, the
references under general subject-headings are in many instances merely selective.]

that page.

iii:

Abdul Hamid II, 481.
Aborigines : Liberia, 373(14); Nicaragua,

448 (38).
Academic degrees, see Degrees.
Acquaviva (Parish, San Marino), 550 (9).
Adolphus, Grand Duke (Luxemburg), 391,

396 nl.
Adrianople, Treaty of, 553.
Africans, 153(6).
Agriculture : Brazil, 69 (35) ; Bulgaria, 104

(161); Costa Rica, 130(12); Egypt,
183 (36), 186(42) ; Haiti, 296 (5) ; Hun-
gary, 29(14); Japan, 356 ni; Nica-

ragua, 442(6).
Ahmed, Mirza, 482.
Ain, Department of (France), 210(2).
Aisne, Department of (France), 210(2).
Akkerman Convention of 7 October 1826

(Serbia), 553.
Alabama (U. S. A.), 621 n2.
Alagoas (Brazil), 66 n3.
Alajuela, (Costa Rica), 143(116).
Alaska (U. S. A.), 621 n2.
Albania, 1.
Albert, King (Belgium), 53 n1.
Albert, Charles (Italy), 337.
Alexandria (Egypt), 177 (3).
Alexinatz (Serbia), 564 (81).
Algeria, 200 (11), 202 (20), n2, 208 n2,

210(2).
Alienation of territory : Bulgaria, 101

(142); Costa Rica, 130 (6); Nicara-
gua, 442 (14); Serbia, 554 (4) ; see also

Territory.
Allier, Department of (France), 210(2).
Alpes-Maritimes, Department of (France),

210(2).
Alsace-Lorraine, 219 n1, n2, 221 (6), 224 n4.
Amazonas (Brazil), 66 ns.
Ambassadors : China, 109 (34) ; France, 193

(3) ; Germany, 223(11); Greece, 277
(102); Italy, 341 (33); Liberia, 366
(1), 368 (5) ; Serbia, 567 (98); Turkey,
598 (62); United States, 611-615; see

also Diplomatic affairs.
Ameroietur, 241 (14).
American Acade" y of Political and Social

Sciences, Annals of, sce Currier, C. F.
A.; Rowe, L. S., and S. M. Lindsay ;

Vincent, J. M., and A. S. Vincent.
American Colonization Society, 374 (16).
American Constitutions, see Rodriquez, J. I.

American Journal of International Law,

Supplement to the (cited), 106 ni.
Amnesty : Brazil, 69(27) ; Bulgaria, 89 (15),
103 (159); China, 109 (40);

Costa
Rica, 138(12); Cuba, 162(10), 165
(15); France, 193(3); Greece, 267
(39), 273(81); Guatemala, 288(16) ;
Haiti, 305 (75), 313; Honduras, 324
(7), 328 (9); Japan, 353 (16); Li-
beria, 367 (1); Montenegro, 408 (12),
408 (13); Nicaragua, 441(85), 442
(23), 446 (111); Panama, 465(17),
468 (18); Portugal, 507 (18), 513(71);
Russia, 540(23); Serbia, 560 (51);

United States, 614(2).
Amparo, 335 (162), 454 (159).
Anderson-Porras Treaty, 113(5).
Andreas II (Hungary), 25.
Anglican Church, 57 nh.
Anhalt (Germany), 219(1), 221(6), 224 n4.
Anne of Denmark, 259 (3).
Annuaire de législation étrangère,

(cited) (Bulgaria), 87 ni, ng, n4, 88 n1,
106 n1; (Cuba), 151 nale; (Persia),

481 n2, 549 n2, 554 n3, 555 n2, 566 ni.
Annual Register (cited), 1 ni.
Antivari (Montenegro), 421 (129).
Antwerp, 44(1).
Arab Bedouins, 177(3).
Ardèche, Department of (France), 210(2).
Ardennes, Department of (France), 210(2).
Ariège, Department of (France), 210(2).
Arizona (U. S. A.), 621 n2.
Arkansas (U. S. A.), 621 n2.
Army, see Military affairs.
Arndt, A., Verfassung des deutschen Reichs

(cited), 229 ni.
Arrest and prosecution : China, 106 (6), 108

(25) ; Costa Rica, 116 (30) ; Cuba, 154
(16, 20); Guatemala, 282 (30) ; Haiti,
296 (9); Liberia, 366 (11); Liechten-
stein, 376 (9–11); Nicaragua, 435 (26) ;
Panama, 460(23) ; Portugal, 501 (16) ;
Russia, 541 (31) ; Serbia, 559(9);

United States, 610 (6).
Arringo generale (San Marino), 549.
Arsenals : United States, 611(8).
Artibonite' (Haiti), 299 (37).
Arts : Brazil, 69 (35); Cuba, 156 (31) ;

Panama, 465(13); Persia, 491(18);
United States, 611(8).

Assembly, right of: Austria, 17(11) ; Bel-

gium, 46 (19); Brazil, 79(8); Bul-
garia, 95 (82); China, 106 (6) ; Costa
Rica, 117 (36) ; Cuba, 155 (28) ; Greece,
266 (10) ; Guatemala, 282 (25) ; Haiti,
297 (20); Italy, 341 (32–33) ; Japan,
353 (29) ; Liberia, 360 (5); Luxemburg,
394 (24) ; Montenegro, 427 (213) ; Nica-
ragua, 437 (48); Panama, 460 (20);
Portugal, 501(14); Roumania, 521
(26) ; Russia, 541 (36); Serbia, 558

(24); Turkey, 605 (120).
Assiut (Egypt), 177 (3).
Association, right to form : Bulgaria, 95

(83) ; China, 106 (6); Germany, 221
(16); Greece, 263(11); Guatemala,
282 (25) ; Honduras, 320(58) ; Japan,
353(29) ; Luxemburg, 395 (26) ; Persia,
492 (21) ; Portugal, 501 (14) ; Rouma-
nia, 522 (27) ; Russia, 542 (38) ; Serbia,

558 (25) ; Turkey, 592 (13).
Assuan (Egypt), 177(3).
Asylum : (Honduras) 335(162) ; Nicaragua,

433(12), 454 (159).
Atlantic Ocean, 431(1).
Attainder : United States, 613(10), 616(3).
Aube, Department of (France), 210 (2).
Aude, Department of (France), 210(2).
Austria: 5, 11-24, 217.
Administrative and executive power,

23-24.
Armed forces, under supreme command

of Emperor, 24 (5).
Assembly, right of, 17(11).
Austria, Lower, 14(1), 15 (6).
Austria, Upper, 14(1), 15 (6).
Banks, 17 (11).
Bohemia, 14(1), 15(6).
Budget, preparation of, 16(11).

Bukowina, 14(1), 15 (6).
Carinthia, 14(1), 15(6).

Carniola, 14(1), 15 (6).
Census, 17 (11).
Citizens : equality before the law, 12(2-3,

4), 14(19); liberties, civic and re-
ligious, 12(4, 7, 8), 13(13-18); rights,
in general, 12(10)-13(13) ; domicili-
ary, 12(6, 9); of property, 12(5-6);
suspension of rights and liberties,
14 (20); vassalage, 12(7); and com-

mercial and political treaties, 16(11).
Citizenship, 11(1), 17 (11),
Commerce, 16–17.
Compromis of 1867, 11.
Cracow, 14(1), 15 (6).
Credits, 17 (11).
Dalmatia, 14(1), 15 (6).
Domain, public, see Public domain.
Domicile : inviolability of, 12(6, 9) ; legis-

lation concerning, 17 (11).
Education, 17(11).
Emigration, 12 (4).
Emperor : amnesty, right of, 23(13) ; ap-

points and dismisses ministers, 23(3) ;
concludes political treaties, 24(6);

Austria-Continued.
Emperor-Continued.

confers titles, 23(4) ; has supreme com-
mand of armed forces, 24 (5) ; his per-
son sacred, 23(2) ; oath, 24(8) ; par-
don, right of, 23(13) ; peace, con-
cluded by, 24 (6); right to coin money,

24(7) ; war, declaration of, 24 (5).
Executive power, 23–24.
Finance, competence of Reichsrat in,

16-17.
Foreigners, 12(3), 17(11).
Galicia, 14(1), 15(6).
Gemeindevertretung, 12(4).
Goerz, 14(1), 15(6).
Gradiska, 14(1), 15(6).
Haus der Abgeordneten, 14 (1) ; see House

of Representatives.
Herrenhaus, 14(1); see House of Lords.
House of Lords: clergy, higher, members

of, 14(4) ; heads of noble families are
hereditary members, 14 (3) ; life mem-
bers appointed by Emperor, 15(5):
number of members, 15(5) ; president
appointed by Emperor, 16(9) ; princess

are members of, 14(2).
House of Representatives : apportionment

of members to election districts, 15(6);
conduct of elections, 16(7); election
of substitutes, 15(7); elegibility to,
15(7); membership, 15(6); president

appointed by, 16(9).
Imperial Court: competence of, 21(2);

laws concerning, 17 (11) ; sessions at

Vienna, 21(5).
Industry, 17 (11), ni.
Istria, 14(1), 15 (6).
Judiciary: amnesty, right of, 23(13) ;

action brought against state or judicial
officer, 22(9); courts established by
law, 22(2); courts may determine val.
idity of ordinances, 22(7); criminal
proceedings, 22(10); Imperial Court,
17(11m), 21 (2, 5); judges appointed
for life by Emperor, 22(5); judges are
independent, 22(6); judicial power ex-
ercised in name of Emperor, 22(1);
jury trial assured, 23(11); justice sep-
arated from administration, 23(14);
legislation of matters common to Aus-
tria and Hungary, 17(11) ; legislation
of matters particular to countries,
17 (11), oath of judicial officers,
22(8) ; pardon, right of, 23(13) ; pro-
ceedings before judges are public,
22 (10) ; Supreme Court of Justice and
Cassation, Vienna, 23(12); see also

Imperial Court.
Landesordnung, 18 ni.
Landespräsident, 18 ni.
Laws : officers of State responsible for

observance of, 24 (12); published in
name of Emperor, 24 (10) ; special laws,
24(11).

Austria-Continued.

Letters, secrecy of, 12(10),
Loans, 16 (11).
Lodomeria, 14(1), 15(6).
Mails, see Post.
Military affairs, 16(11), 24(5).
Ministers : entitled to take part in delib-

erations of Reichsrat, 20(21) ; respon-

sible for their acts, 24 (9).
Monetary system, 16(11), 17(11), 24(7).
Monopolies, 17 (11).
Moravia, 14(1), 15(6).
Navigation, 17(11).
Nobility : seats in House of Lords,

14(2, 3).
Occupation, freedom of, 13(18).
Passports, 17 (11).
Patents, 17(11).
Peace, conclusion of, 24 (5).
Person, freedom of, 12(8).
Petition, right of, 13(11).
Post, 17 (11).
Press, freedom of, 13(12), 17(11).
Property rights, 12(5).
Public debt, 16 (11).
Public domain, legislation respecting,

16(11c).
Public health, 17 (11).
Public office, 12(2-3).
Race, equality of, 14 (19).
Railways, 17(11).
Reichsgericht, 20(1) ; see Imperial Court.
Reichsrat: adjournment, 20(19); com-

petence of, 16(11); composition of,
14(1); convened annually by Emperor,
16(10) ; House of Lords, 14(1) ; House
of Representatives, 14(1); is the repre-
sentative body, 14(1) ; legislation be-
longing within power of provincial diet,
17(12); members elected for 6 years,
19(18); members eligible for reelection,
20(18); members, freedom from arrest,
19 (16) ; members must personally exer-
cise right to vote, 19 (17) ; members re-
ceive no instruction, 19(16) ; ministers
to take part in deliberations, 20(20) ;
quorum, 19 (15) ; right to propose laws,
18(13); right to propose emergency
legislation, 18(14) ; sessions are public,
20 (23) ; sessions may be secret, 20

(23) ; term, length of, 19 n2.
Religion : freedom of, 13(14–15) ; higher

clergy in House of Lords, 14(4).
Salzburg, 14(1), 15 (6).
Science, freedom of, 13(17).
Seignorial rights, 17(11).
Silesia, Lower, 14(1), 15(6).
Silesia, Upper, 14(1), 15(6).
Statthalter, 18 n1.
Styria, 14(1), 15(6).
Taxes, levy of, 16(11).
Teaching, freedom of, 13(17).
Territory, alienation of, 16(11).
Trade-marks, 17(11).

Austria-Continued.

Treaties, 16(11), 24(6).
Triest, 14(1), 15 (6).
Tyrol, 14(1), 15(6).
Vassalage abolished, 12(7).
Verordnungen, 22(7).
Voralberg, 14(1), 15(6).
War, declaration of, 24 (5).

Weights and measures, 17(11).
Austria, Lower, 6(8), 14(1), 15(6).
Austria, Upper, 6(8), 14(1), 15(6).
Austria-Hungary (The Dual Monarchy):

3-10; see also Austria (11-24), and

Hungary (25–41).
Affairs not common to, 4(2).
Affairs common to: 4(1); administra-

tion of such affairs, 5(5); common ad-
ministration of Bosnia and Herze-
govina, 9-10; common legislative mat-

ters, 5(6).
Army, management and conduct of be-

longs to Emperor, 5(5).
Austria, Lower, 6(8).
Austria, Upper, 6(8).
Austrian Law of 21 December 1867, 3,

4-9.
Austrian Law of 22 February 1880, 9–10.
Berlin, Treaty of, 3.
Bohemia, 6(8).
Bosnia and Herzegovina : incorporation

in Austria-Hungary, 3; administration

of, by Austria-Hungary, 9-10.
Bukowina, 6(8).
Carinthia, 6(8).
Carniola, 6(8).
Commercial affairs not common to Aus-

tria and Hungary, 4(2).
Cracow, 6(8).
Customs : legislation not common to Aus-

tria and Hungary, 4(2); of Bosnia

and Herzegovina, 10(4).
Dalmatia, 6(8).
Defense, systems of, not common to

Austria and Hungary, 4(2).
Diet (Hungarian): 5(3, 6), n2, 6; see

also Legislative body.
Dual Monarchy: formation of, 3; or.

ganization of, 4-10.
Emperor, 5(5), 9 (36).
Expenses : common to Austria and Hun-

gary, 4(4); may be fixed for one year
by Emperor, 5(3); of Bosnia and

Herzegovina, 10(3).
Finances, common to Austria and Hun-

gary, 4(1).
Foreign affairs, common to Austria and

Hungary, 4(1); Minister of, 4 ns.
Galicia, 6(8).
German language, use of, in joint legisla-

tive body, 8(30).
Goerz, 6(8).
Gradiska, 6(8).
Hapsburgs, throne of the, 3.
History of, 3.

Authors-Continued.

462 (40); Roumania, 521 (24) ; Serbia,
557 (22); United States, 611(8) ; see

also Writers.
Autocratic power (Russia), 538(4).
Aveyron, Department of (France), 210(2).
Avlona, 1.

Austria-Hungary--Continued.
House of Lords: shall choose 20 mem-

bers for Reichsrat, 5(8).
House of Representatives : shall choose 40

members for Reichsrat, 6(8); composi-

tion, 6(8).
Hungarian language, use of, in joint legis-

lative body, 8(30).
Hungarian Law 12 of 12 June 1867, 3,

4 n2, 14, 5 n1.
Hungarian Law 6 of 1880, 9 n4.
Istria, 6(8),
Laws: 21 Dec. 1867, 3, 4; Austrian Law

of 22 Feb. 1880, 9; Law of 21 Dec. 1867,
3, 4; Law concerning administration,

9-10.
Legislative body, joint to both monarch-

ies: composition, 5(7)-6 (12) ; Em-
peror's approval of enactments on mat-
ters not common to both monarchies,
9 (36); functions, 5(6), 6(13) ; func-
tions in matters not common to both
monarchies, 9 (36); joint presidents,
8(31-32) ; legislative procedure, 6
(14)-7 (22); 8(28)-9 (36) ; quorum, 8
(33) ; sessions, 8(26–27, 29), 9 (34) ;
rights of the joint ministry in, 8(28),

9 (36).
Loans, joint, 5 (3), 13.
Lodomeria, 6(8).
Military and naval affairs common to

Austria and Hungary, 4(1); defense,
system of, not common to Austria and

Hungary, 4(2).
Ministry: rights in

and coordination
with the joint legislative body, 9(36) ;

minister of foreign affairs, 4 n3.
Monetary system and standard not com-

mon to Austria and Hungary, 4(2) ; of

Bosnia and Herzegovina, 10(4).
Moravia, 6(8).
Naval affairs, not common to Austria and

Hungary, 4(1).
Pragmatic Sanction of 19 April 1713, 3.
Public debt, 5(4), n4.
Railways : regulation of, not common to

Austria and Hungary, 4(2); construc-
tions of, in Bosnia and Herzegovina,

10 (3).
Reichsrat (Austrian): 5(3, 6, 7), n2,

6(9-12), 7(20–25), 8(26, 30), 9(35);

see also Legislative body.
Salzburg, 6(8).
Silesia, Lower, 6(8).
Silesia, Upper, 6(8).
Styria, 6(8).
Taxes, indirect: not common to Austria

and Hungary, 4(2); of Bosnia and

Herzegovina, 10(4).
Triest, 6(8).
Tyrol, 6(8).

Voralberg, 6(8).
Authors: Cuba, 156 (35); Guatemala,

281 (20); Honduras 321 (68), 324 (16) ;
Nicaragua, 437 (59), 441(85) ; Panama,

Bacau (Roumania), 525 (62).
Bács-Bodrogh (Hungary), 35 (4).
Baden (Germany), 219 (1), 221 (6), 224 n4,

231 n3.
Bahia (Brazil), 66 ns.
Ba hai Honda (Cuba), 174 ni.
Bail: Great Britain, 257 ; Liberia, 361 (10) ;

United States, 619(8).
Ball, Alice M., iv.
Ballot: United States, 619(12).
Bandars, 183 (37), 184(2).
Banishment : Brazil, 80 (20), 82(80) :

Cuba, 156 (30), 157 (4) ; see also

Exile.
Bank of France, 202 m3, 205 n2.
Bankruptcies: United States, 611(8).
Banks and banking: Austria, 17(11) ; Bra-

zil, 63(7), 68(8); Costa Rica, 130(8);
France, 202 n.3, 205 n2; Germany,
220(4), 224 (3) ; Nicaragua, 443(26);

Portugal, 506 (11); Turkey, 599 (6).
Barillas, Don Manuel Lisandro, 292(4).
Basses-Alpes, Department of (France),

210(2).
Basses-Pyrénées, Department of (France),

210(2).
Bassa County (Liberia), 364 (5).
Pavaria (Germany), 219(1), 221 (6), 224

n4, 231 n3.
Bedouins, 177 (3).
Beggars : Brazil, 78(70).
Behera (Egypt), 177 (3).
Belfort (France), 210(2), 214(3).
Belgium, 43–59.

Albert, King, 53 ni.
Anglican Church, 57 n4.
Antwerp, 44(1).
Appeal courts, 55 (104).
Army: armed police, 58(120); citizen

militia, 58 (122, 123); contingent voted
annually, 58(119); foreign troops not
allowed to cross or occupy territory,
58 (121) ; King confers grades, 52(66) ;
method of recruiting determined by
law, 57 (118) ; right of soldiers to hon-

ors, 58 (124).
Authority: emanates from the people,

46(25) ; initiative rests with the are
branches, 46 (27) ; legislative power er-
ercised collectively by King, House and

Senate, 46 (26).
Brabant, 44(1).
Brussels, 58(126).
Capital city, 58 (126).
Catholic Church, 57 n4.
Citizen militia, 58(122, 123).

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