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PRE FACE.

TH

HE conclusion of the war in the East Indies, has ne:

cessarily claimed our utmost attention in the History of the present year. Exclusive of the great national importance of that arduous contest, and the vast stakes which were played for by all the parties, the number and variety of military events, both by sea and land, of which it was so unusually productive, together with the superior abilities and extraordinary exertions of the principal leaders on all fides, must ever render the late war in India peculiarly interesting. Having got through this difficult, though pleasing task, we had only to gather up the gleanings of the war in other quarters, and then tracing those measures which led to the restoration of the public tranquillity, we have proceeded to take a view of the nature, circumstances, and consummation of that general peace, which has happily put an end to the ravages and calainities of war both in the Old and the New

World,

Having thus concluded the narration, and wound

up

the business of the late moft extensive and eventful war, we shall be able, in our next volume, to take a retrospective view of those political affairs and transactions in Europe, which however consequential they might have been deemed in other seasons, could not have been attended to during the din and tumult of arms, and while a rapid succession of the most interesting events were continually crowded upon the public attention.

It

It gives us no small concern to understand, that a passage in our History for the year 1773, should have been supposed to convey an imputation injurious to the honour and character of the Baron de Tott. Independent of our attention to historical truth, as well as to personal justice, we too much regard the fingular talents and eminent abilities of that Nobleman, not to regret, however innocently, that we should in any manner, have afforded means for wounding his feelings ; much less should we consent to its being understood, that we gave any fanction to a false and scandalous calumny. It is impossible, at this distance of time, to recollect any of the operative circumstances with respect to that passage, or even what our own sense of the subject then was. The Translator of his very curious and valuable Memoirs has, in his Preface, along with the charge, candidly furnished almost every thing which it would be necessary for us to say upon the subject, by quoting, from ourselves, the uncertainty of the information which could then be obtained, relative to the circumstances of the Russian and Turkish war, and still farther, by his own subsequent acknowledgment, that the calumny, to which the passage in question is supposed to allude, however maliciously raised, was publicly prevalent. We shall only add, that we are in ourselves convinced of, that Guys, the French consul or deputy, and the real renegado, was the person to whom we really pointed, however the Baron's actions might at first have been mistakenly attributed to him. Time has cleared up the truth, and done ample justice to his character.

T H E

ANNUAL REGISTER,

For the Y EAR, 1783.

THE
HISTORY

RY E U R O P E.

OF.

C'H A P. I.

Retrospective view of affairs in India. Benares. Transactions which led to the

dependance of that country on the East India company. The Rajah Bulwant Sing, having taken a decided part in their favour, in the war against his paramouni lord, Sujah Ul Dowlah, his territories are secured to him by the treaty of Illahabad. Investiture of Cheit Sing, upon the death of his father Bulwant, and a new treaty concluded in favour of the family by. Major Harper. A third treaty, in confirmation of the truo former, concluded by Mr. Hastings, who is himself a party to it, and renders the company guarantees of the Rajah's possessions. Upon the death of Sujah Ul Dowlah, the Nabob via zier, the sovereignty of Benares is transferred by his successor to the company. Extraordinary subsidies demanded and levied from the Rajah, Cheit Sing, 012 occasion of the war with France, lay the foundation of those differences which took place between him and the government of Calcutta. A supply of 2000 cavalry demanded from the Rajah. ; Charges of disaffe&tion and contumacy laid against him. Governor general's progress from Calcutta, to settle the affairs of Benares, and other countries. Proceeds up the Ganges to Buxar, where he is met by the Rajah, with great attendance and number of boats. Different accounts of the conference on the water. Rajah's visit ar Benares forbidden. Rajah taken into custody : rescued, and the Jepoys, with their offia ficers, masacred. He flies firft to Ramnagur, and from thence retires in the night to ibe fortress of Lutteefpoor. Ousaun Sing appointed by the governor general to adminifter the affairs of the country in the place of the Rajah. Vol. XXVI.

Rams

Ramjiewaun, garrisons Ramnagur for the Rajah. Scheme for the reduction of that place frustrated by the rafhness of Capt. Mayaffre: who is killed in an ill-judged attack, and the party repulsed with great loss. Country immediately in arms. Design of attacking the governor general in his quarters obliges him to retire by night to Chunar. Repeated proposals made by the Rajah for an accommodation, produce no effect. Embarralment occafioned by the Nabob vizier's visit. The commotion in Benares spreads the flame in the adjoining countries. Cheit Sing's manifefto. Attack on the Rajah's camp at Pateetah. Great reinforcements arrive at Chungr.. Bundoo Cawn, a native, proposes the means by which the Rajah's forces might, wikout much dificulty, be difpoffid of their strong holds. The scheme adopted by Major Popham; who privately dispatches Major Crabbe, with a strong detachment, to penetrate the mountains, under the guidance of Bundoo Cawn, and attack the enemy in the rear, while he engagés them in front. The design succeeds ; Major Crabbe carries the strong pass of Suckroot; the enemy abandon the fortress of Lurteefpoor; The Rajah, fries to Bidjeygur, and all his forces disperse. Country immediately resúmes its usual tranquillity. Governor general returns to Benares; jetiles the government ; appoints à new Rajah; and increases the revenue. Diffurbances in the neighbouring countries quelled. Treaty of peace and alliance happily concluded with Madajee Scindia by Colonel Muir. "The Rajah, Cheit Sing, toally abandons his country. Strong fortress of Bidjeygur iaken, upon corditions, by Major Popham. Great treasure found, and ffoil made by the army.

a

common

or

HILE other parts of India fensive manners, poffeffed such

, desolated by present and by former wars, the to a whole country," the face of sequeftered and happy country a garden in the highest state of Benares, generally had the for- of culture and beauty; and whose tune to escape the common cala. labours were

bene. mity. Besides the security de. fit to all, who either lived near rived from the great distance of the had occafion to approach fea, the sacred character ascribed them. to that city, which had through The Ganges, before it yet be. many ages been considered as tlie comes too vast for health and sa. repository of the religion and learn. tisfaction, winding through the ing of the Bramins, coul) not but variegated face of such a country, endear it in the highest degree could not but greatly heighten the to the Hindoos; and the foreign picturesque beauty of the scene; ravagers of India, if they paid and lying, as it does, under the no respect, found it neceffary, happiest influence of the beavens, at least, to shew some attention to it is not to be wondered at, that the prejudices of the conquered. under such favourable circum. Hostility indeed was not much stances, Benares had long been provoked by a people, who, along confidered as the paradise of In. with the inoit gentle and inof. dia. The capital was not less

diftin.

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