Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

army of the United States continues to be higher than that of any the Arabic Dialect of Cairo,' by C. H. Toy; 'The Babylonian foreign armies, except the British and Italian. The principal Caduceus,' and 'A Babylonian Cylinder from Urumia,' by William causes of deaths were pneumonia and shot-wounds.

Hayes Ward; ‘Note on the Arch of Chosroes,' by Talcott Wil

liams. Reports were read on ‘The Collection of Oriental Antiqui- Dr. William Osler, professor of clinical medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, has been appointed physician to the Johns

ties recently deposited in Washington,' by one of the curators of

the National Museum ; and on The Recent Purchase of CuneiHopkins Hospital, and professor of medicine in the Johns Hopkins

form Tablets for the University of Pennsylvania,' by a member of University. Dr. Osler took his degree in the McGill University,

the Chaldean Exploration Party. Montreal. He subsequently studied in London, Berlin, and Vienna, and in 1885 was appointed Gulstonian lecturer in the Royal Col

- The Colorado Ornithological Association has been re-organized lege of Physicians, London, and in 1886 Cartwright lecturer in the

under the title of Colorado Biological Association.' Its objects College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.

are the detailed investigation and recording of the fauna and flora

of Colorado, recent and fossil. Annual reports and special bulle– Prof. Simon Newcomb has gained great benefit from his so tins will be issued. The former are to contain a full bibliography of journ at Chelsea Hospital, and has now gone to Asheville, N.C.,

the published records for the State during the year. Mr. T. D. A. accompanied by his daughter, for the purpose of enjoying the fresh

Cockerell of West Cliff, Custer County, is secretary of the associamountain air there.

tion. — Major J. W. Powell, at the meeting of the Philosophical So - Benjamin B. Chamberlin, who has recently died, was born at ciety of Washington last Saturday, read a paper on · The Laws of Keeseville, Me., March 13, 1831. He was the son of the Rev. Corrasion,' explaining their methods of operation under various con Parmalee Chamberlin, a Methodist clergyman, formerly well known ditions ; Prof. E. B. Fernow also read a very important paper on in New York. After leaving school, he was apprenticed to Ben• The Influence of Forests upon Quantity and Frequency of Rains. jamin J. Lossing, then an engraver in New York, and subsequently The full text of the former, which is a very important discussion of went to Cincinnati to embark in business for himself. About 1865 a law first definitely announced by Major Powell in his letter to the he returned to New York. While in Cincinnati he turned his atNew Orleans Chamber of Commerce, and a full abstract of the tention to collecting, his first hobby being medallions; and after his latter, will be published in early issues of Science.

return to New York he took up the study of minerals, making a – The wisdom of the policy of Surgeon-General Hamilton in

specialty of collecting those of New York and vicinity. For this establishing a camp of refuge for persons fleeing from points in

work he had exceptional facilities, as the Fourth Avenue improvefected with yellow-fever is amply vindicated by the record of Camp

ment was then in progress, and blasting was going on in many Perry. The following despatch from Dr. Hutton, who is in charge parts of the city now built over. He leaves one collection at the of the camp. gives some interesting facts : “ Oct. 20: To-day com

Nyack Library. His foreign collection he sold recently to Mr.

Edward Pearson for the new school at Cloudland, N.J. He had pletes two months at Camp Perry; 810 refugees from infected points have been received : 721 have been discharged ; 25 cases of

been ailing for some years, but his death, which occurred at the fever developed ; 1 death Sept. 9; not a case contracted in camp.

home of his brother-in-law, Mr. E. H. Cole, at Nyack, on Oct. 13, Our 60 unacclimated employees, 5 of whom have been two months

was very sudden. At noon he had a severe hemorrhage, and at in fever-camp, not a single case of fever of any kind among them.

half-past two passed away, almost without a struggle. The cause

of his death is believed to have been rheumatism of the heart. He Not a known case of fever reported from the 721 cases discharged and scattered to all parts of the country. In view of these facts,

was buried at Nyack Cemetery, Oct. 16. how any sanitarians can consider Camp Perry as an infected place Mr. John Gilmer Speed has become the editor of The Ameriis incomprehensible. Drs. Faget and Posey of New Orleans, can Magazine. Mr. Speed was for several years managing editor Guiteras, and Geddings give this their emphatic indorsement.”

of the New York World, before it was purchased by its present

proprietor. Since then he has spent much time in foreign travel, Messrs. James W. Queen & Co., Philadelphia, have just issued

and has also been a frequent contributor to the magazines and a new catalogue of chemical apparatus. In this they have omitted

newspaper press. He has written a life of John Keats, and edited reference to old and obsolete forms, and endeavored to make a

his letters and poems.

In conducting the magazine, it is Mr. catalogue the most complete and useful ever issued in this country.

Speed's purpose to make it all that its name implies, - an illusThe catalogue will be mailed to any address on the receipt of fifty

trated monthly, representative of American thought and life. cents. The firm has added to its manufacturing facilities, and is

E. and F. N. Spon announce as in preparation, ‘A Treatise on prepared to make all kinds of scientific apparatus. Their facilities

Masonry Construction,' by Ira O. Baker; ‘Metallic Alloys,' by W. for making platinum ware are especially to be noted.

T. Brannt; ‘Notes in Thermo-dynamics and Steam-Engine Experi- The autumn meeting of the American Oriental Society in ments,' by Prof. C. H. Peabody; and · A Practical Treatise on ModPhiladelphia, Wednesday, Oct. 31, was the first to be held in that ern Printing Machinery,' by F. J. F. Wilson and D. Grey. —A. city, the society accepting at its May session the invitations ex & C. Black, Edinburgh, will publish this month the twenty-fourth tended on behalf of the University of Pennsylvania and the Oriental and concluding volume of the 'Encyclopædia Britannica,' which Club of Philadelphia. On Wednesday, at 3 o'clock P.M., the society has been under way nearly ten years. A general index to this met in the chapel of the University of Pennsylvania ; and on encyclopædia is also in press, and may be looked for some time Thursday morning and afternoon, in the hall of the Historical So next year. Arrangements are being made, it is reported, with ciety. The following is a list of the papers read : “Report on the the sanction of the German Emperor, for the publication of an Exhibit of Oriental Antiquities of the Cincinnati Exposition,' by English translation of the • Reminiscences of Ludwig Schneider," Cyrus Adler; •On a New Testament Manuscript, Peshito Version, who was for twenty-six years the reader, secretary, and confidendated A.D. 1206, with a Text of the Traditions of the Apostles,' tial friend of the Emperor William. Schneider's diaries were reguby Isaac H. Hall; 'A New Vedic Text on Omens and Portents, larly revised by the Emperor every year, and his book is a work of by J. T. Hartfield ; 'Qualitative Variations, in the Calcutta and great interest and importance. He accompanied the Emperor Bombay Texts, of the Mahabharata,' and on the Later Puranas throughout the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71, and one of the (in Sanscrit Literature),' by E. W. Hopkins; 'A New Reference in most interesting passages is his Majesty's own account of the the Avesta to “the Life-Book” Hereafter,' by A. V. W. Jackson ; battle of Rézonville. Much of the genuine value of the AtlanOn Transposed Stems in the Babylonian Talmud,' by Marcus tic lies in the terse, clean-cut, and vigorous articles on American Jastrow; 'On a Fragment of the Grammatical Works of Abu history by John Fiske, the latest of which is entitled “The Eve of Zakarijjah Hajjug,' and 'On Symbols of the Sun-God and the Independence.' Mr. Fiske's historical articles are worthy of the Word Kuduru,' by Morris Jastrow, jun.; ‘On a Samaritan Hebrew highest praise. Lillie B. Chace Wyman continues her “Studies of Manuscript in the Library of Andover Seminary,' by George F. Factory-Life;' Miss Murfree, her serial story entitled “The Despot Moore ; ‘On Rome Assyrian and Babylonian Royal Prayers,' and of Broomsedge Cove;' and William Howe Downes, his papers on *The Pantheon of Assur-banipal,' by D. G. Lyon ; 'Remarks on • Boston Painters and Paintings.' William Roscoe Thayer con

tributes an article on •The Makers of New Italy,' and John Trow elsewhere; but, in the present state of our own tariff question, this bridge writes on Economy in College-Work.' - The issue of new presentation of them will attract attention, and doubtless be The Youth's Companion for November contains the article, written useful. expressly for that periodical by Mr. Gladstone, on ‘The Future of the English-Speaking Races.' Outing for November contains,

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. besides other notable features, the commencement of a series of arti "Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is

in all cases required as proof of good faith. cles on the Outdoor Life of the Presidents,' from the pen of John

Twenty copies of the number containing his communication will be furnished P. Foley; and the • Progress of Athletism,' by Charles - Turner. free to any correspondent on request.

The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of The November Century begins the thirty-seventh volume and the journal. nineteenth year of the magazine ; and the number is made notable

Dream Excitation. by the beginning of several new series, or magazine features.' The direct influence of slight sense-stimuli upon the flow and The most important of these is the first instalment of The Century make-up of our dream consciousness is a well-known fact, which *Gallery of Old Masters,' engraved by T. Cole, and described by can be proved by artificial experiment (see MAURY, Le Sommeil et W. J. Stillman and by Mr. Cole himself. The engravings in this les Rêves, p. 132, etc.), but which it is difficult to confirm under series were made in the presence of the original pictures themselves. ordinary circumstances, since we seldom waken after a well-marked They are actual copies, and unique in the history of art; for such dream experience in time to catch the stimulus, or without altering careful copies have never before been made on wood. Another the stimulus by movement, etc. On the night of Oct. 22 I had a series begun in November is Mr. Cable's Strange True Stories of dream which perfectly fulfilled the conditions of this experiment. Louisiana.' After a preface by Mr. Cable himself, comes the ex I fell asleep about eleven o'clock, and found myself with a comtraordinary story of 'The Young Aunt with White Hair,' from an panion in a wood, watching a number of wood-cutters at work. old French manuscript. Among the leading contributions to this After looking at them for some time, one of the workmen drew my number are instalments of the Life of Lincoln' and of George attention quite suddenly by giving forth a strange sound, half muKennan's papers on the Siberian exile system. The guilds of the sical and half speech, by which he seemed to be trying to express city of London are described by Norman Moore. Other contri- something to his neighbor; and the sound came with every blow butions include · Bird Music: The Loon,' by Simeon Pease Cheney; of his axe in regular rhythm. The sound seemed to me distinctly *Mammy's Li'l' Boy,' a negro dialect crooning song, by H. S. Ed familiar and yet very strange, and I turned to my friend and said, wards, illustrated by E. W. Kemble ; • Memoranda on the Civil “What an apology for conversation !” Just as I spoke, I awoke, War;' Open Letters by George Kennan, Rev. T. T. Munger, and the sound of the peculiar tone of a clock down stairs striking Richard Hoffman, and others; etc.

twelve broke in upon my consciousness. The four remaining – Dr. John C. Branner, in the first volume of the Proceedings

strokes of the clock preserved exactly the rhythm of the woodof the Lackawanna Institute of History and Science, gives an in- chopper's axe; and not only so, but the sense of familiarity which teresting sketch of the effects of glaciation in the Lackawanna-Wy had puzzled me in the dream was relieved with a glow of pleasure oming region, his principal object being to attract special atten as I recognized the sound of the clock. tion to a detailed study of these phenomena. He also publishes a This experience illustrates also the remarkable swiftness with list of localities at which glacial striæ have been observed in that

which new sensations are assimilated to the character of a previ. region, for the guidance of those who may take up the work where ous dream consciousness. Before the clock began, the men were he was obliged to leave it on being appointed director of the Geo- simply cutting, without order or distinction. But when the sound logical Survey of Arkansas.

broke in, it was at once accommodated to the scene by important

modifications. One workman is singled out: he begins to ply his — The Boylston medical prize of four hundred and fifty dollars has

axe in the regular time of the clock-beats, and to give forth a sound been awarded by Harvard University to Dr. George H. F. Nuttall

which preserves in its general character the peculiarities of the real of San Francisco, for a dissertation entitled ' A Contribution to the

sound. Now, since I experienced in the dream no less than four Study of Immunity.'

beats, as the rhythm was perfectly established and clear in my - The Journal of Economics for October opens with a paper consciousness, and there remained four beats after I awoke, this by James Bonar on the Austrian economists. Their principal work

whole accommodation must have taken place in the interval behas been on the theory of value, which they profess to present in

tween the first and the fifth beat (for it was then twelve o'clock). an entirely new light; but Mr. Bonar shows that their view, though

I have since measured the interval between the strokes of the clock, expressed in new terms, is not so different from that of the English and find it to be two seconds. The whole time from the first to writers as they seem to suppose. Their discussion of 'subjective the fifth beat was therefore eight seconds. From this should be value' is in his opinion their principal contribution to economics.

taken the time occupied by the dozed state between dreaming and Another theoretical article is that by Stuart Wood on · A New

waking, – say, at least one interval of from two to four seconds. View of the Theory of Wages.' The author starts with the fact

There remains a period of four to six seconds as the time of acthat in some employments a certain work can be done either by. commodation. This may be called, in a very rough way, the relabor or by capital; and from this he deduces the law that in such

action time for a complex case of constructive imagination; for the cases the price paid for a given amount of labor will be equal to

constructive imagination is nothing more than the free play of imthe interest on the capital that can be substituted for it. Then the

ages in forms of ideal composition, due to the influx of additions rates of interest and wages thus established will also prevail in all from the sensorium. There is no direct way of measuring this other employments. According to this theory, wages depend on

time in the waking state, since the attention interferes with the prointerest; but what interest itself depends on, the author neglects

MARK BALDWIN, to say. Professor Dunbar's paper on Alexander Hamilton shows Lake Forest, Ill., Oct. 23. that in his sinking-fund scheme, and in establishing the Bank of the United States, Hamilton followed English precedents, though

Chemical Action between Solids. with some variations; but that his plan for establishing the APROPOS of Messrs. Spring and Hallock's controversy (Science, national credit on a firm basis was so comprehensive and so suc

xii. p. 184), I think that the re-actions between silica and the mecessful as to entitle him to rank as a great financial statesman.

tallic oxides at temperatures far below the melting-point, not only The article on · The Australian Tariff Experiment' is a compara

of both components but even of the silicate itself, have generally tive exhibit of the effects of free trade in New South Wales and of

been regarded as occurring directly between solids. When cerprotection in Victoria. The general outcome is to show that manu

tain mixtures of lime and silica are strongly heated, though there factures have prospered as well in the free trade colony as in the

be not the slightest indication of fusion, yet some chemical action protected one, while in commerce and in growth of population the

seems to occur, for the silica now separates in the gelatinous state former has taken the lead. Wages are essentially the same in both;

when acted on by hydrochloric acid (PERCY, Fuel, p. 46, 1875). so that in this case, at least, protection has not raised wages. The

HENRY M. HOWE. .acts given in this paper have been published in different forms Boston, Oct, 28.

cess.

SCIENCE

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 9, 1888.

The detachment seen consisted of thirty men. They stated that

Stanley was two days ahead. The expedition had suffered greatly THE PAST SEASON has been one of unusually successful activity

on the march through a thick forest, where it was impossible to with the United States Fish Commission, a review of whose work

advance more than a mile and a quarter daily. They had also sufis published elsewhere in this issue of Science. Probably the most

fered in the marshes, where many had disappeared or died. Forty important accomplishment during the year has been the establish

were drowned in crossing a great river flowing from east to west. ment, at Gloucester and Wood's Holl, of stations capable of hatch

One white man had died. Stanley was obliged to fight some tribes ing four hundred million codfish-eggs, and which, with favorable

that refused to supply him with provisions. The expedition had weather, may be expected to put at least one-fourth of that number

often halted in the expectation of receiving re-enforcements from of cod-fry into the Atlantic Ocean during the present season. The

the Kongo. The rear guard, at the time met, had only been on the problem of restocking the coast of New England with inshore cod,

march five days after a halt of three weeks, due to the illness of which has become so scarce except in Ipswich Bay, has been defi

Stanley and a great part of the escort, who had been attacked with nitely solved. It is only a question of time, and a very short time

fever. The Arabs estimate the total strength of the expedition, at that, before codfish can be made to be more plentiful on the

after all losses, at two hundred and fifty men. The health of Stancoast of New England than they were years ago, and a lost in

ley was then good. The rear guard, which consisted of natives of dustry restored that will be worth millions of dollars to that sec

Zanzibar, stated that Stanley had decided that he would no longer tion of the country. The only probable causes of delay are bad

advance in a north easterly direction, but would strike toward the weather during the hatching-season, and anchor-ice, which kills the

north, hoping to avoid the swamps. After getting a certain dissmall fishes. It is known that only an infinitesimally small propor

tance north, he intended to take an oblique line to the eastward, tion of the fry hatched out at the fish-commission stations, and put

and go straight to Wadelai, where it was thought he would arrive into the rivers and lakes and the ocean, ever survive to reach ma

fifty days later, — about the middle of January, 1888. The Arabs turity. It is only by planting an enormous quantity of the fry that

were of the opinion that the expedition was still strong enough to the supply of fish is increased. It is claimed, that, of those artifi

reach Wadelai.” We hesitate to accept this news as authentic, as cially propagated, a much larger proportion survive than when the

it corresponds too closely to the views recently expressed in numereggs re deposited naturally in the stream. In order to ascertain

ous newspapers, particularly regarding Stanley's intention to turn whether the number of small fishes to survive might not be enor

northward. Sanga, which is mentioned in this despatch, was mously increased, Commissioner McDonald placed in a pond in

visited by Junker in 1882, and marks the south-eastern limit of our Washington, in June, two million shad-fry. Eight hundred thou- knowledge of this region. The Arabs, who claim to have met part sand of these are still alive, – breathing fishes from three to four

of the expedition, must have penetrated beyond the limits of inches long each. These will be kept until spring, and then placed Unyoro. It will be remembered that on Lake Mvutan Nzige and in the Potomac. As a rule, they will by that time be able to take

Muta Nzige no information was obtained by explorers regarding, care of themselves. The remarkable success of this experiment may

the regions farther west, and that there seems to be little comcause an entire change in the methods of artificially propagating

munication in this direction. Therefore the report would imply shad. A new scheme of gathering up the small indigenous fishes

that the Arabs had recently succeeded in opening this country to hatched in ponds and lakes on the borders of Western and South

their trade. Besides this, their route must have led along Lake ern rivers after their annual overflow, and planting them in the

Mvutan Nzige, where Emin had re-established, a year since, his rivers, which, in many cases, have been depleted by over-fishing

influence. Therefore it seems somewhat remarkable that no menand the destructiveness of the floods, was put into successfulopera

tion is made of Emin Pacha. Another despatch which was retion this year. A hundred thousand fishes were thus rescued from

ceived on Aug. 1 in Zanzibar is undoubtedly an invention. It was sure death, when, later in the season, these lakes and ponds dry up.

stated that two messengers had arrived there who had left the inOn the Pacific coast the steamer • Albatross' has done the pre

terior about the beginning of April, and who reported that Stanley liminary work of developing the extremely valuable halibut-fish

had not arrived at Wadelai up to that time. The messengers

stated that in the month of March Emin Pacha did receive some ing grounds that lie off the coast of Washington Territory and Vancouver's Island, convenient to the ports of Puget Sound, de

vague and indecisive news of the explorer, which had filtered fined the boundaries of several deep-sea codfishing banks off the

through from tribe to tribe, but that the reports were very conflictcoast of Alaska, and will devote the winter to similar work in lower

ing. Some declared that Stanley, after losing a number of men latitudes. The results of her first season's work are expected to

and a large portion of his supplies, was hemmed in by hostile tribes be of very great economic value to the Pacific coast. These are

between the Mabode country and the Mvutan Nzige, while other but a few of the branches of work accomplished by the United

rumors were to the effect that he had been attacked by the tribes States Fish Commission during the past season, though probably

in the Matongora-Mino district, and after several conflicts had the most important. This commission is the most profitable of all

diverted his course in an unknown direction. The wording of this the bureaus of the government, and ought never to lack for money.

despatch is almost exactly the same as that of another received

about fifteen months ago, and therefore it cannot be accepted as On Nov. 2 the following telegram was sent from Zanzibar :

genuine. “ Couriers from Tabora bring direct news from the Stanley expedi

THE ERUPTION OF KRAKATOA. tion, a portion of which was met at the end of November, 1887, by Arabs trading between Lakes Victoria Nyanza, Mvutan Nzige, and

The Krakatoa committee of the Royal Society has made its final Tabora. These Arabs met Stanley's rear guard at a point west of

report,' which forms a large quarto volume, and contains a mass Mvutan Nzige, south-east of Sanga, just as the expedition was pre

of material of the greatest interest. After the remarkable phenom

1 The Eruption of Krakatoa, and Subsequent Phenomena. Ed. by G. J. SYMONS. paring to cross extensive swamps. The Arabs did not see Stanley. London, Trübner.

ena following the eruption of Krakatoa on Aug. 27, 1883, became volcano to its antipodes and back is shown on a number of interfirst known, and when the optical phenomena attracted increasing esting maps. The principal results of the inquiry into the moveattention of the whole civilized world, the Royal Society of Eng ments of this disturbance are, that it had very nearly the characterland, on Jan. 17, 1884, passed the following resolution : “ Resolved, istic velocity of sound, ranging from 648 to 726 English miles an That a committee, to consist of Sir F. Evans, Professor Judd, Mr. hour, and that its mode of propagation by an aerial oscillation of Norman Lockyer, Mr. R. H. Scott, General Strachey, and Mr. G. comparatively short duration was also closely analogous to that of J. Symons, with power to add to their number, be appointed, to sound. Waves travelling with and against the direction of the collect the various accounts of the volcanic eruption at Krakatoa, earth's rotation show differences of velocity of about twenty-eight and attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for English miles an hour. This may probably be accounted for by their preservation, and promote their usefulness." A history of the the circumstance that the winds along the paths of this portion of work of the committee is detailed in the preface, its expansion by the wave would, on the whole, have been westerly, which would fusion with a committee of the Royal Meteorological Society and have caused an increase of velocity in the wave moving in the opby election of new members, and its method of proceedings. At posite direction ; so that the observed difference of twenty-eight the end of November, 1884. the discussion of the data collected miles could be produced by an average westerly current of fourteen was commenced, which were divided into five portions, each going miles per hour, which is not unlikely. to a separate sub-committee, and each giving a separate report, The author continues, “ There is some appearance of a greater which forms the present volume. Thus the work is divided into retardation of the wave in passing in a direction opposed to the five parts : 1. “On the Volcanic Phenomena of the Eruption, and earth's rotation over the northern European stations as compared on the Nature and Distribution of the Ejected Materials,' by Prof. with those in the south of Europe, which may possibly be due to J. W. Judd ; 2. 'On the Air-Waves and Sounds caused by the the lower temperature of the more northern part of the zone travEruption, prepared in the Meteorological Office, and presented by ersed. This difference is not to be traced in the wave moving in Lieut.-Gen. R. Strachey : 3. 'On the Seismic Sea-Waves caused the opposite direction, which may be accounted for by the path of the by the Eruption,' by Capt. W. J. L. Wharton ; 4. On the Un wave, when approaching Europe from the west, having lain for a usual Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere, 1883–86, including long distance over the Atlantic, where the differences of temperaTwilight Effects, Coronal Appearances, Sky Haze, Colored Suns, ture between the northern and the southern borders of the zone Moons, etc.,' by the Hon. F. A. Rollo Russell and Mr. E. Douglas traversed would have been relatively small. Archibald ; 5. “Report on the Magnetical and Electrical Phenom “ The path of the wave that passed over the Canadian and ena accompanying the Eruption,' by G. M. Whipple.

United States stations, and Havana, lies nearly on the meridian While the Dutch report by Verbeek deals with the local phenom drawn through Krakatoa, and must have crossed both the polar ena, the English committee paid specal attention to the meteoro circles near the poles. The velocities obtained from these stations logical and other occurrences which took place all over the earth. are peculiar. The direct wave from Krakatoa, which travelled

The most interesting part of Professor Judd's account is his nearly due north and close to the north pole, and its repetitions theory as to the part played by water in causing or aiding eruptions. after passing round the earth in the same direction, had nearly the He believes that the disengagement by heat of volatile substances same velocities as those observed at the European stations, with an actually contained in the lava is the primary cause of volcanic ac apparent decided retardation in the intervals between the first and tivity. He proves that the melting-point of all lavas of Krakatoa third passages, and (but to a less extent) between the third and of different ages, although of the same chemical composition, vary fifth. The wave that passed through the antipodes before reaching to a great extent according to the amount of water contained in the North American stations went nearly due south close to the them, their fusibility being greater when water is present. In south pole; and its velocity on this its first partial passage round this case, on melting, they develop a great amount of gases. “In the earth was very decidedly reduced ; but in its next complete this way the actual nature of the volcanic manifestations at any circuit the velocity appears to have been much increased, almost · particular vent are seen to be determined, not so much by the reaching the full rate of the true sound-wave. It is difficult to acmineralogical constitution of the lava, as by the circumstance of count for this, but the fact seems to be indisputable. Probably an the quantity of water contained in the magma. Where this is explanation of this peculiar feature of the phenomena may be found great, the lava will be perfectly liquid, and will be almost wholly in the conditions of the wind and weather in the southern ocean thrown out in the form of pumice and dust. On the other hand, during the days on which the wave passed over it, which are not lavas containing little water will require a very high temperature

known to us. for their fusion, and they will be characterized by great viscosity In the second part of General Strachey's report a list of places is rather than perfect liquidity. It is through the introduction of the given at which the sounds of the explosions at Krakatoa were heard sea and other surface waters into rock masses by slow percolation on the 26th and 27th of August. In all directions the sound was from above, and the consequent formation of new compounds, heard at a distance of two thousand miles from the volcano, while more readily acted upon by subterranean heat, that I am disposed south-westward it was even noticed at Rodriguez, very nearly three to regard volcanic phenomena as being brought about. In this we thousand miles from Krakatoa. find an explanation of the proximity of volcanoes to great bodies of Captain Wharton, in his discussion of the seismic sea-waves water, which, it seems to me, is far more in accord with the actual caused by the eruption, distinguishes two descriptions of waves, phenomena than the supposition that water finds access to volcanic long ones, with periods of over an hour; and shorter but higher foci by means of actual open fissures."

waves, with irregular and much briefer intervals. The greatest Professor Judd shows very clearly that the effect of the inrush of disturbance which followed the great explosion of the volcano rewater upon lava is quite different, and, especially in the case of sulted in waves about fifty feet high in the Strait of Sunda, and Krakatoa, resulted in the formidable violence of the eruption. caused the vastest destruction. The speed of both classes of When the volcano became so far eviscerated as to give access to waves was about the same, and it is remarkable that it was in all the water of the sea, the latter cooled the surface of the mag cases less than the depth of water would demand according to ma, and as a result the activity of the volcano diminished. As, theory. To the north and east in the Java Sea the long wave can however, the disengagement of volatile substances actually con be traced for 450 miles, but it was at this distance reduced to a tained in this material continued, the formation of this crust would very small undulation. To the west, on the other hand, the long have the same effect as fastening down the safety-valve of a steam wave travelled over great distances, and reached Cape Horn and boiler, while the fires below were maintained in full activity. This the shores of Europe. The shorter waves did not extend beyond constant augmentation of tension beneath Krakatoa, in the end Ceylon and Mauritius. South-eastward the disturbance did not gave rise to the tremendous explosions which made the eruption of continue beyond the west coast of Australia; the disturbances the volcano so remarkable.

noted in New Zealand and in the Pacific evidently being caused by In the second part, General Strachey discusses the remarkable other seismic action, and having no connection whatever with the atmospheric oscillations, which, starting from Krakatoa, moved as eruption of Krakatoa. many as seven times over the earth. Their propagation from the By far the greater portion of the report is taken up by the dis

cussion of the unusual optical phenomena of the atmosphere, of much larger extent subsequently deprived of their blue components which so much has been written. This part is divided into a num by the ordinary dust and vapor particles of the lower atmosphere. ber of sections, of which the first describes fully the phenomena, It was therefore mainly an intensification of ordinary twilight pheand is illustrated by two magnificent chromolithographs. In the nomena, consequent on the presence, at a lofty altitude, of solid long discussion on the proximate cause of the unusual twilight particles not usually existent there, phenomena, F. A. Rollo Russell arrives at the conclusion that a The whole volume is full of information of the greatest value, dry haze at a great altitude was their cause. The physical con and the mass of material collected, as well as its thorough discusditions of this phenomenon were the reflection of sunlight on small sion and the clear mode of its treatment, deserves our fullest advitreous surfaces when the intervening air is darkened. He rejects miration. the theory that condensed vapor caused the unusual twilight phenomena, for a number of reasons, principally because spectrum ob

THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION'S WORK servations and the nature of the corona do not support this view.

DURING THE PAST SEASON. Besides this, the structure of the haze resembled more that of The United States Fish Commission has accomplished more, smoke than that of the highest clouds; and previous effects seen in both of practical work and in the line of original investigation lookyears of great eruptions, and in places affected by an excess of dust ing to practical work in the immediate future, this year than durin the air, are very much like those observed in 1883 and the follow ing any previous season of its history. A brief review of its work ing years. In the same section of the report the colored appear in both of these departments is given herewith. ances of sun and moon, which were confined to the tropics, the sky An account of the shad-hatching operations of the commission haze, and the corona, are discussed. E. Douglas Archibald, who last spring, and a description of the experiment of shipping lobsters is the author of the last-mentioned part of the report, describes to California, and the planting of them in the Pacific Ocean north the corona, which is generally known as “Bishop's ring,' very and south of San Francisco, were given in Science (xi. 246, xii. 27) thoroughly, and shows that it was probably formed in the haze several months ago. In connection with shad-hatching, Comstratum, and that it was formed by diffraction. Its great size missioner McDonald has been trying this summer a very important proves that this haze was composed of exceedingly small particles, and interesting experiment. It is well known that the young shadthe diameter of which is computed at .00159 of a millimetre. The fry hatched at the United States Fish Commission stations are not occurrence of a corona at a very high altitude, as well as the gen kept until they become little breathing fishes. No means of aceral absence of accompanying refractive halos, tends to show that commodating them have heretofore existed. It is also known that the particles through which the diffraction took place were solids the mortality among young shad is far greater in the earlier than and dust rather than ice. Although the corona was associated in the later periods of their existence. The longer they live, the with the twilight glows and colored suns in being produced by the better the chance they have of continuing to live. It is known that same elevated haze, it was physically distinct from either, and only an infinitesimally small percentage of the shad-fry placed in probably contributed only very slightly to the glows after the sun rivers in the spring survive and come to maturity ; but so enormous sank below the horizon.

is the number hatched and planted, that those that do escape the A long list of dates of the first appearance of optical phenomena scores of enemies they encounter are sufficient to stock abundantly, - a result of a careful scrutiny of numerous periodicals, logs, and in a few years, the stream in which they are placed. of an extensive correspondence serves as the basis of a study of This year Colonel McDonald secured on a government reservathe geographical distribution of the various sky phenomena, which tion in Washington the use of a pond about six acres in extent. In proves that it spread rapidly westward, having a velocity of about this he caused to be placed, in June, two million shad-fry, and there seventy-six miles an hour.

are now in the pond eight hundred thousand young breathing shad The researches of E. Douglas Archibald on the height of the from three to four inches in length. These will all be turned into glow stratum are of great interest. We will not enter here upon the Potomac next spring, when they will be much larger than now ; his discussion of Professor Kiessling's theories, as this was the sub and the result will be that the number of fishes put into the river ject of a letter recently published in Science (No. 298). The prin at the opening of the next season will be three times as great as the cipal results of his inquiry are the following: In the brilliant number taken out last season. The percentages of survivals is glows which began in the tropics after the eruption of Krakatoa on probably some thousands of times greater than if the fry had been Aug. 26 and 27, there is distinct evidence of a primary glow caused placed in the river soon after they were hatched. In connection by the direct rays of the sun, and of a secondary glow succeeding with the work of stocking other streams, and in view of the success this, and due to reflection of the primary glow through the same that has attended this first experiment, much attention will herestratum. These primary and secondary glows correspond to the after be given to the propagation of shad in ponds. first and second crepuscular spaces of ordinary twilight, the main During the past summer a new and very important branch of difference between the secondary of the present series and the or work has been taken up. When a freshet occurs in the Lower dinary second crepuscular space being that the former was colored, Mississippi River, it inundates a belt of country of an average whereas the ordinary second twilight is white, and seen only from width of about sixty miles, and the territory along its tributaries is high altitudes or in peculiarly favorable circumstances. The glow covered with water to an extent varying with the topography of the causing material appeared suddenly and at about its greatest height country and the sizes of the rivers. These floods carry with them, at first near Krakatoa, and on its subsequent spread into the extra of course, enormous quantities of the indigenous tishes of the rivers ; tropics it appeared at a lessened altitude. The height of the upper and when the waters recede, ponds and lakes are left in the freor middle part of the stratum progressively diminished from 121,000 quent depressions of the surface. These often actually swarm feet in August, to about 64,000 feet in January, 1884. By April, with fishes and with the millions of fry that have been naturally 1884, a considerable portion of the larger reflecting particles had hatched in them. But later in the season a majority of these ponds sifted out by gravitation, causing a minimum duration and brilliancy and lakes dry up, and not only the mature fishes, but the millions of the secondary glow. As this occurred simultaneously with a of young ones perish. Colonel McDonald this year sent to these maximum development of the corona, it appears probable that a Western and Southern rivers the cars of the Fish Commission, large portion of the finer material remained in suspension at nearly with a sufficient force to seine these ponds and lakes, gather up the the same height as at first, and that, having become more homo small fishes, and to plant them in the rivers where they naturally geneous than at first, it was rendered capable of exerting its max belong, many of which have been depleted by over-fishing and by imum diffractive power. In the autumn and winter months of the effects of the floods. More than a hundred thousand young 1884 and 1885 the brilliancy of the glows was partially renewed, and fishes were thus planted during the past season ; and it is the inthus it is rendered impossible to arrive at any certain deductions tention of Commissioner McDonald, in restocking the rivers of the regarding the rate of descent of the stratum as a whole. The final West and South with indigenous fishes, to utilize in the way deeffects of the glow-causing material were produced by the pro scribed nature's great hatcheries, instead of incurring the much longed reflection from the lofty stratum of rays partly deprived of greater risk and expense of artificial propagation. their red component by the action of the stratum itself, and to a The rivers operated upon during the past season were the Ohio

« AnteriorContinuar »