Imágenes de páginas

spiritualizing life, letting light into the mind, inspiring and feeding shown the universe to be stable as to motion, but speaks with some the higher forces of human nature. In this view, the reading-book hesitation with regard to the forces of heat and light. The earth, becomes vastly more than a mere drill-book in elocution ; and it he intimates, may one day be destroyed by conflagration caused by becomes of the greatest consequence that it should be rigorously collision with some swarm of meteors, thus fulfilling the prediction shut up to the best, an not made the idle vehicle of the second of scripture. Professor Porter is wholly uncritical in his religious best. It must never be forgotten that the days of a child's life are views; for he believes not only in the future destruction of the precious : it has no choice within the walls of the school-room. In earth, but also in the literal resurrection of the body, in the docits hours for reading it must take what we give it. Be sure that trine that death is the result of Adam's fall, and much else that the standard which we set in our school reading-books will inevi liberal Christians of the present day have discarded. Indeed, his tably affect its choice of reading out of school; that the conceptions book is neither religious nor scientific in the higher sense of these which it forms of literature and the ideal life will be noble or ig- terms, and is not likely to make any impression on intelligent noble, according as we use our opportunities. It is for us to say minds. whether the American' child shall be brought up to have its rightful share in the great inheritance of America.”

Soaps and Candles. Ed. by J. CAMERON. Philadelphia, Blakiston. In the second essay, after pointing out the desirability of teach

12o. $2.25. ing nursery classics in school, the author says (p. 41), “The draw

This little book is one of a series of technical handbooks, of back to the use of these nursery classics in the school-room has

which those already published are on Brewing, Distilling, and been in the absence of versions which are intelligible to children of

Wine-Manufacture; ' Bleaching, Dyeing, and Calico Printing :' the proper age, reading by themselves. The makers of the graded

• Acetic Acid and Vinegar, Ammonia and Alum;' and 'Oils and reading-books have expended all their ingenuity in grading the Varnishes.' As in the preceding numbers of the series, the articles ascent. They have been so concerned about the gradual enlarge

in · Cooley's Cyclopædia' have formed the nucleus to which matement of their vocabularies, that they have paid slight attention to

rial has been added from various scattered sources. It is assumed the ideas which the words were intended to convey. But just this

that the reader has some knowledge of chemistry. gradation may be secured through the use of these stories, and it only needs that they should be written out in a form as simple, espe

Examples in Physics. By D. E. JONES. London and New York,

Macmillan. 16°, 90 cents. cially as regards the order of words, as that which obtains in the

As the author well remarks, reading-books of equivalent grade." And this fine passage serves

“it is quite common to find students more purposes than one to show why American classics should be

who have a correct knowledge of the general principles of physics, read in school : “ The common-school system is the one vast or

and can apply it intelligently in making a physical measurement, ganization of the country, elastic, adapted in minor details to local

but who are yet unable to solve an easy problem or to calculate the needs, but swayed by one general plan ; feeling the force of edu

results of their experimental work." Every one who has been cated public sentiment, and manipulated by the free, intelligent brought face to face with some numerical example in the course of association of teachers and superintendents. This organization

his study of physics has had cause to regret that he has not had affords the most admirable means for the cultivation and strength

more practice in such work, and it is just this opportunity for pracening of the sentiment of patriotism, and it avails itself of it in many

tice that ' Examples in Physics ’ is intended to supply in its more ways." We are perfectly safe in taking Mr. Scudder for our guide

than one thousand problems. in the matter of literature in the schools.

NOTES AND NEWS. Children's Stories of the Great Scientists. By HENRIETTA

The National Geographic Society signalized the beginning of CHRISTIAN WRIGHT. New York, Scribner. 8°. $1.25.

the second year of its successful work by publishing almost simulThe present volume, which is accompanied by eight good en taneously with its first meeting of the season Vol. I., No. 1, of The gravings, – portraits of some scientists, – describes the life and National Geographic Magazine. In outward appearance it is as work of a number of the most energetic and successful workers in attractive as its contents are creditable to the society, by which it natural science, the author's object being evidently to bring out the is not only edited, but written. Its outward covering is of the, at lesson taught by their lives, more than to state the results of each present, fashionable brick-color, upon which is printed in plain type one's labor; at least, such we should consider the prime object of the title of the magazine, the seal of the society, and the place of biographies of scientists intended for children. In some instances publication. The paper is of good quality, and the typography the author has well succeeded in bringing out the instructive part clean and sharp, so the page is easily read. But the contents are of the lives of these men, and these we consider the best stories most deserving of praise. Besides the opening announcement, incontained in the book ; but in others a mere compilation of events troductory address by the president, proceedings of the National and discoveries is given, while the character and importance of the Geographic Society, and facts relating to it, there are six carefully man cannot be understood from the description. Among this latter prepared articles. Their titles are, 'Geographic Methods in Geoclass is, for instance, the chapter on Alexander von Humboldt. logic Investigation,' by William M. Davis; 'Classification of GeoMany of the discoveries of physicists as described in the book will graphic Forms by Genesis,' by W. J. McGee; ‘The Great Storm hardly be intelligible to children, as they deal with the most diffi of March i to 14, 1888,'. two articles, the first a brief one, by cult problems of science. As an introduction into the history of Gen. A. W. Greely, and the second a very elaborate study of its natural science, the book has, however, a certain merit. The entire history, by Everett Hayden. The latter paper is illustrated seventeen men whose lives and works are described are the most by six carefully prepared colored charts, upon which is shown prominent of the last centuries; and whenever the author pays at- graphically almost every known fact relating to this great storm. tention to their struggles and sufferings for the sake of their science, This paper, with the charts, has also been reprinted in a pamphlet. as is done in many cases, the descriptions are suggestive and in The two remaining papers are, “The Survey of the Coast,' by structive to the child.

Herbert G. Ogden ; and · The Survey and Map of Massachusetts,' by Our Celestial Home. By J. G. PORTER. New York, A. D. F.

Henry Gannett. In the introductory announcement the editors say:

The National Geographic Society has been organized ‘ to increase Randolph & Co. 16o. $1.

and diffuse geographic knowledge,' and the publication of a magaThis book is written by an astronomer, and is an attempt to zine has been determined upon as one means of accomplishing these prove that heaven is somewhere in the stellar universe, though the purposes. It will contain memoirs, essays, notes, correspondence, author is careful not to say where. He contends, that, according reviews, etc., relating to geographic matters. As it is not intended to the Bible, heaven is a material place, and not merely a happy to be simply the organ of the society, its pages will be open to all state of existence, and must therefore be somewhere in the universe persons interested in geography, in the hope that it may become a that we see around us. He gives a chapter to the subject of the channel of intercommunication, stimulate geographic investigation, immensity of the universe as made known by the telescope, and and prove an acceptable medium for the publication of results. then considers the question of its stability. Science, he thinks, has the magazine is to be edited by the society. At present it will be

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issued at irregular intervals ; but, as the sources of information are agreed to unanimously, the rules of the British Association being increased, the numbers will appear periodically. The national adopted until the first general meeting. In accordance with a capital seems to be the natural and appropriate place for an associ resolution passed at the meeting of delegates, the election of officers ation of this character, and the aim of the founders has been, there for the year 1888 took place in Sydney in March of the present fore, to form a national rather than a local society. As it is hoped year: Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., government astronomer of to diffuse as well as to increase knowledge, due prominence will be New South Wales, being elected president ; Sir Edward Strickland, given to the educational aspect of geographic matters, and efforts K.C.B., F.R.G.S., honorary treasurer; and Professor Liversidge. will be made to stimulate an interest in original sources of infor M.A., F.R.S., and Dr. George Bennett, F.L.S., honorary secretaries. mation. In addition to organizing, holding regular fortnightly meet The formation of the general council was afterwards proceeded ings for presenting scientific and popular communications, and with, each society electing one representative for every hundred of entering upon the publication of a magazine, considerable progress its members. Practically every society coming within the scope of has been made in the preparation of a physical atlas of the United the association has one or more representatives on the general counStates. The society was organized in January, 1888, under the cil. The association is thoroughly Australasian in its character laws of the District of Columbia, and has at present an active and members, and the succeeding general meetings are to take membership of about two hundred persons. But there is no limi place in turn in the capitals of the other colonies, the executive oftation to the number of members, and it will welcome both leaders ficers being elected year by year by the colony in which the meetand followers in geographic science, in order to better accomplish ing is held. It has been decided, however, that Sydney shall be the the objects of its organization."

permanent headquarters of the association, and that Professor

Liversidge shall be the permanent honorary secretary. The first - Lieut. Robert Platt, U.S.N., has been ordered from the Wash

general meeting was held at the Sydney University, the opening ington Navy-Yard to command the United States Fish Commis

ceremony taking place on Tuesday evening, Aug. 28, when the sion steamer · Fish Hawk.'

presidential address was delivered. On the following day the sec- As the stormy season on the North Atlantic approaches, the

tional meetings commenced; and all the sections, with one exception, Hydrographic Office at Washington again reminds navigators, in a

brought their proceedings to a close with the end of the week. note on the November Pilot Chart, of the great advantage to be

About a hundred and ten papers were sent in by gentlemen of disderived from the use of oil to prevent heavy seas from breaking on

tinction in the various branches of science, literature, and art in the board. The forcing of the attention of mariners to this subject, so

different colonies, and a considerable number of the papers are to that now no careful master of a vessel goes to sea without provid

be published in full in the first volume, soon to be issued by the asing for the use of oil in storms, has been one of the most impor

sociation. It may therefore be anticipated that the work done by tant results of the work of the Hydrographic Office.

the association during the first year of its existence is of a highly

important and useful character. The more solid work of the meetProf. Harry King of the Geological Survey has returned to

ing was lightened by excursions to various places of interest to Washington from Clark County, where he has been roughing it,

geologists, botanists, and others, and every effort was made to much improved in health.

provide for the entertainment and comfort of visiting members.

numerous entertainments being given by leading citizens. It has In the summary of Mr. J. W. Osborne's paper on 'Substances been decided that the next meeting shall be held in Melbourne, and Feebly Sensitive to Light,' which appeared in Science of Oct. 26, the Baron Sir Ferdinand von Mueller, the government botanist of Vicfact that it was read before the Washington Philosophical Society was toria, is the president-elect for the year. In 1890 the association is accidentally omitted. In the same issue, by some slip of the pen to meet in New Zealand. The rules are practically the same as or types, Mr. J. B. Smith was represented as saying that he had those of the British Association, and, at the time of the meeting, the captured and identified four distinct species of June-bugs in the new association numbered about 850 members. It is confidently District of Columbia. The number was really twenty.

anticipated that this number will be considerably augmented, if not The titles of the papers read at the meeting of the Biological

actually doubled, by the time the next general meeting is held. Society of Washington, Nov. 3, were, 'Fossil Wood and Lignites The learning peculiar to the pedagogue ofttimes brings the of the Potomac Formation,' by Mr. F. H. Knowlton ; Observa pedagogue to contempt." In the ‘Second Lessons in Arithmetic' tions on the Modifications of the Gill in Univalve Mollusks,' by W. (Houghton, Mifflin, & Co.) we are glad to note that the object of H. Dall; 'Characteristics of the Scatophagida,' by Dr. Theo. Gill; the editor, Mr. H. N. Wheeler, has been to prepare a text-book ‘Description of a New Species of Arvicola from the Black Hills which, by its method of developing the mind of the learner, by the of Dakota,' by Dr. C. Hart Merriam. Some notice of the first of emphasis that it places on fundamental principles, and by the omisthese papers will be given in a future number of Science, if space

sion of useless subjects and arithmetical terms known only in the permits.

school-room, will meet the wants of those teachers and business

men throughout the United States who demand that the essentials - At the second meeting for the season of the National Geo of arithmetic shall be better taught than heretofore, and that the graphic Society at Washington, Nov. 2, the paper of the evening non-essentials shall be omitted. Mr. Walter Besant has written was presented by Mr. Marcus Baker, on · Classification of Surveys.'

a biography of the author of the 'Gamekeeper at Home' and the Science hopes to give an abstract of this paper in an early issue. • Amateur Poacher ;' and this ‘Eulogy of Richard Jefferies' will - The Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science

be shortly published in New York by Longmans, Green, & Co.

Mr. Besant has a sympathetic and tender touch, and his account of held its first meeting in August of this year. The formation of the

the struggles of unfortunate Jefferies is pathetic and affecting. association was first suggested by Professor Liversidge of the Sydney University, during the exhibition in Sydney in 1879; but, The late Prof. Edward Tuckerman made a choice collection matters at that time not being considered quite ripe for it, the for of books and papers relating to lichens, some four hundred nummation of the association was again brought forward through the bers in all, which has been presented by Mrs. Tuckerman, in acpress in the year 1884. It was then suggested that the first general cordance with his own wish, to Amherst College Library. It is meeting should be held in Sydney on the one hundredth anniversary proposed to keep the collection by itself, under the name of the of the foundation of the colony, as it was at that time thought there • Tuckerman Memorial Library,' and to make it worthy of the name would be an international exhibition in Sydney to celebrate that by making it as complete as possible in its own department. Supevent. In furtherance of the project, a preliminary meeting of posing that some persons interested in this specialty might like to delegates from various scientific societies was held in Sydney in assist in maintaining and completing the collection (with the under1886 (November), the project having thus early met with the ap- standing that it is always available to public use), the librarian of probation and support of the majority of the learned and scientific Amherst College, William I. Fletcher, has issued a circular giving societies of Australasia. At this meeting the formation of the opportunity for any who care to do so to contribute, either in money Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science was or in material (especially rare monographs that may have escaped

Professor Tuckerman's notice), to this memorial to a model scholar Second, as to culture. Although I am far from professing that and scientist. Whatever money may be contributed will be kept ancient American culture has borrowed any thing from Europe, as a fund, of which only the income will be employed in making Asia, or Africa, neither do I positively deny the contrary until furadditions to the collection, or in repairs and rebinding. The sum ther evidence. of a thousand dollars would probably suffice as such a fund.

The science of archæology, as Dr. Brinton himself admits, only

came into being at a comparatively recent date. If this be true of – An interesting incident of the statistics showing the social, sanitary, and economic condition of women employed in shops

archæological science in general, it is more so of American archæand factories of the United States, which are to be published in

ology in particular, and we are consequently very far from having

exhausted it. The different branches of ancient American culture, Col. Carroll D. Wright's annual report of the Bureau of Labor, is

from the arid regions of the South-west to Peru, have not yet been that they were collected by women who were employed as special

studied systematically enough, and in connection with ethnology agents of the bureau for that purpose. More than seventeen thousand women were interviewed.

(as they should be), to permit us at present to draw any certain

conclusions as to whether they contain any foreign elements, MonProf. Aug. Kerckhoffs, of Dutch origin, but who has long golian or otherwise. been settled in Paris as a teacher of languages in a commercial There is no need whatever as yet of hurrying Americanists, as school, will succeed the late Herr Johann Martin Schleyer as head Dr. Brinton wishes, to recognize the absolute autochthony of native of the Volapükists. Father Schleyer published his first book on American culture. The coming-forth of truth from studying a Volapük in 1879, and nine years later, at the time of his death, a branch of science cannot, and never will, be forced: it grows, gradmoderate estimate puts the number of his followers at not less than

ually and slowly, in the same proportion as our knowledge ina quarter of a million persons. Professor Kerckhoffs is the most

creases. distinguished of his pupils.

Third, as to physical peculiarities. Putting aside for the present - In Science, No. 300, p. 207, line 21, for ito' read 'Trbo.' linguistic and cultural affinities between Mongolians and native

Americans, to deny that the American aboriginal belongs by his

physical characteristics to the Mongoloids is equal to denying that LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.

the Basques and the Fins belong somatologically to the white race, *,'Correspondents are requested to be as brief as possible. The writer's name is or to claiming that the Hottentots and the Negritos do not form in all cases required as proof of good faith.

branches of the black race. Twenty copies of the number containing his communication will be furnished The comparative study of physical characteristics is perhaps the free to any correspondent on request.

only satisfactory way of classifying the human races; and, although The editor will be glad to publish any queries consonant with the character of

I cannot deny that any other classification, linguistic or sociologic, the journal.

has its value and right of existence, we never ought to try to harOn the Alleged Mongolian Affinities of the American Race:

monize and to unite them, as is often done. As the different clasA Reply to Dr. Daniel G. Brinton.

sifications have as many absolutely different points of view, their A few days ago a paper of Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, entitled “On union can only lead to erroneous estimations. This illustrates, the Alleged Affinities of the American Race'(Science, Sept. 14, 1888), that, even admitting that the languages and cultures of the native came to my knowledge.

American are not Mongoloid or Mongolian, nevertheless the physiThis paper, which purports to be a refutation of the asserted cal peculiarities of these races may be the same. Mongolian affinities of the American natives, contains, in my esti Before I continue, let me state what I call, on purely somatologimation, such wrong interpretation of acknowledged facts, and such cal grounds, the Mongoloid race. Mongoloids, or Mongolians, in illogic argumentation, that, although I generally avoid discussions the widest sense, are, to me, a number of zoological varieties (vaof this kind, I cannot help making an exception this time.

riété hériditaire, in the sense of A. de Jussien) of the same subIt would be worth while to examine and criticise thoroughly all species or race, distributed promiscuously, and in different proporthe arguments brought forward in Dr. Brinton's paper, but a gen tions in the sense of Kollman's penetratio : see Kollman's studies eral review will sufficiently show the nature and value of Dr. Brin on European and American anthropology, in Archiv für Anthroton's refutation.

pologie and Zeitschrift für Ethnologie), over parts of northern Unfortunately, for the present I am compelled to discuss the and eastern Europe, the greater portion of Asia, the Indian Archimatter in a rather incomplete way, as I am travelling, and do not pelago, Polynesia, a part of Madagascar, and originally over the have the necessary works at hand from which I should like to whole American continent with its numerous islands. The term quote, in order to prove what I say. I have therefore to make all • Mongoloid,' as I understand it, is in the main synonymous with my statements and quotations from memory.

Oscar Peschel's · Mongolenähnliche Völker,' and with the 'races Let us examine now Dr. Brinton's arguments against the as- jaunes' of French anthropologists. serted Mongolian affinities of the native Americans, as existing in The varieties of this great race differ somatologically much less language, in culture, and in physical peculiarities.

among themselves than the varieties of the white and black races. First, as to language. In claiming that there is no linguistic con I will now consider, one by one, the arguments of Dr. Brinton nection between the American and Mongolian languages, which against the racial relationship between Mongoloids and American may be true, Dr. Brinton forgets that also in the (his) Mongolian natives. race the various latguages are far from showing any connection First, as to color. Dr. Brinton forgets, that, in condemning one with another, and yet he considers the peoples who speak these Cuvier for the confusion of the American with the Mongolian race, different languages as being of one race. Moreover, in the Cau because he based his racial scheme principally on the color of the casian and negro races of Blumenbach's classification, which Dr. skin, he equally condemns Blumenbach, whose division Dr. BrinBrinton seems to adopt, widely different languages, not showing the ton first calls · eminently scientific. We know that Blumenbach remotest linguistic connection, have been grouped together. For divided mankind into a white, yellow, brown, red, and black race, instance : the Basques, the Caucasians proper (of the Caucasus), a division at least just as much an “a priori hypothesis,' as it the Semites, and numerous other groups of peoples, are considered pleases Dr. Brinton to call Cuvier's divisions. Blumenbach had to be of one race, the white or Caucasian. The African negroes, probably seen just as few pure Mongolians and American natives the Melanesians, the Negritos of the islands of south-eastern Asia, as Cuvier ; otherwise he would not have called the Americans red. and the Australians, are equally regarded as forming another, the True 'redskins' do not exist. The American aboriginal is asblack or negro race. Although there is no linguistic affinity be suredly more yellow than red. tween the different groups just mentioned, they are affiliated by As far as my own observations among Indians go, in North and physical characteristics, and each forms respectively one great race. South America and in Mexico, and among Chinese, Japanese, and As long as we accept this, we have a perfect right to group the Malays, I have come to the conclusion that they all have the same Ural-Altaic, and other Mongolian languages, with the native color of skin, which we might best call yellowish brown, but in a languages of America.

great variety of shades, which often occur among the same people


or tribe, and depend upon age, sex, and general health. Ex very frequent among children, both of Mongolians and native posure, mode of living, climate, and altitude are, furthermore, the Americans, as also among women, more than in any other race I main factors which determine the many different shades of the know of. As it is admitted that in all races women and children color of the skin, not only among the Mongoloids, but also among show certain racial characteristics, especially those belonging 10 the white and black races.

physiognomy, better than men, we may safely call the Mongolian Let us suppose for a moment that the color of a Mongolian were eye a racial characteristic, though perhaps of less importance. yellow, and that of an American red : would it ever occur to a As regards the nasal index, before we can draw any conclusions modern anthropologist to classify them for this reason in a separate from it, we have to make a distinction between the nasal index of and distinct race ?

the living (sur le vivant) and the nasal index of the bony skull, There is no race in which both the color of the skin and the color which often are in no correlation at all. Such is the case among of the hair vary more than in the white. Think of a blond, florid the Eskimo, who are leptorrhinic, and belong at the same time to complexioned Teuton, and an Italian with raven-black hair and the same group as the American and northern Asiatic tribes. dark skin. And yet, on account of the rest of their physical char To come to Dr. Brinton's last argument against the asserted acteristics, they belong to the same race.

Chinese traits of certain American tribes, I must say. that, although After this, what Dr. Brinton said about the difference between I never have seen any living Botocudo, I have examined their crathe character and color of the hair of Mongolians and Americans nia, and find that there is a certain resemblance between them and needs no further refutation.

those of the Eskimo. If I am not wholly mistaken, Dr. Ph. Rey, Although I have probably studied somatologically more Ameri who has also lived among the Botocudo, has pointed out this simican Indians, and have examined more of their skulls, than any other larity in his anthropological study on this tribe (Paris, 1880). anthropologist living, as yet I hesitate to name “ a positive cranial I cannot say whether the tribes of the North-west Pacific coast characteristic of the red race." At any rate, Dr. Brinton is mis have

any Chinese traits, as I have not seen them myself ; but this taken in thinking that the os Incæ is found in its extreme develop I can state, that among several tribes in North and South America ment in the “ American race," and in its greatest rarity among the (for example, Iroquois, Apaches, Hualapais, Maricopa, Pima, Carib, Mongolians. What in the days of Von Tschudi seemed true, has Arowak) I have seen persons who strongly resembled not only Chibeen refuted since. As I write this without any books at my dis nese, but also Japanese and other Mongolians, and even Malays. posal, and simply quote from memory, I cannot now give any sta In some of them this similarity was so marked, that once on the tistics of the relative frequency of this anomaly in different races, Demerara River, in British Guiana, I questioned some Indians of but would refer to Virchow's and my own investigations on this the Ackawoio tribe, to convince myself that they were not Chinasubject (VIRCHOW, Veber Merhmale niedrer Menschenracen am Schädel; TEN KATE, Craniologie der Mongoloiden).

Dr. Brinton admits that the Eskimo “possess in some instances Although it is true that the glabella is more prominent in Amer a general physiognomical similarity," concluding that “this is all." ican skulls than in Altaic or northern Mongoloid crania, this is no and “not worth much as against the dissimilarities mentioned.” argument to separate them racially from each other. The African Does not Dr. Brinton know that physiognomy is really a very imnegroes, for instance, seldom have a prominent glabella ; the Aus portant consideration in racial distinctions ? Every anthropologist tralians, on the contrary, have, as a rule, an exceedingly strongly knows that physiognomy is a complex of different traits, several of developed glabella; but nevertheless both African negroes and which are first-class racial characteristics. I will only mention the Australians are considered as belonging to the same race.

general shape of the forehead, the implantation and form of the As far as the “ Aymarian depression " is concerned, one might as nose, and the breadth and length of the face. If physiognomical well call all different artificial deformities of the skull, those in Eu characteristics had as little value as Dr. Brinton seems to think, rope included, racial characteristics. They are merely incidental, then we might as well give up the study of physical anthropology and belong as much to the domain of ethnology as to that of phys- altogether. ical anthropology.'

To recapitulate my criticism, I wish to say that Dr. Brinton's It is not quite correct to assert, that, “ of all the peoples of the

argumentation against the affinity between Americans and Mongoworld, the Mongols, especially the Turanian branch, are the most lians is based upon entirely wrong reasoning. If the reasons he brachycephalic."

gives were correct, then the classification of the other races of the Many years ago, in the days when our craniologic knowledge human species would be equally wrong; for in each of them peowas very limited, we had reason to believe this to be a fact ; but ples are grouped together, which, although related by physical since one armchair anthropologist copied this statement from the characteristics, are linguistically and ethnologically entirely different other, and since Aitken Meigs studied craniology after very imper from each other, not to speak of the difference in their psychologifect methods, facts have accumulated to show that in America also cal and social evolution. we find extreme brachycephaly, as well among the prehistoric as When I admit that the native Americans are Mongoloids, I do among the historic peoples, from British America to Patagonia. not necessarily imply that America has been populated from Asia At the same time extreme dolichocephaly is found, besides among or elsewhere. However, if we accept the theory of evolution, this the Eskimo, throughout the American Indian tribes, from north to

is the most probable explanation of the observed facts. But, leavsouth ; but it cannot be considered an American craniologic char ing the doubtful origin of the Americans, and of their languages acteristic, for among the Asiatic tribes dwelling nearest to the Es and arts, out of the question, I maintain that there is a physical kimo (the Aleuts, for example), dolichocephaly in a marked degree similarity, racial affinity, and relationship between the indigenous is found, which fact is in absolute contradiction to Dr. Brinton's Americans and the Mongolians in the widest sense. assertion (see, among other works, DE QUATREFAGES and HA This is, in the present state of anthropological knowledge, an MY, Crania ethnica ; KOLLMAN, · Die Autochthonen Amerika's,' undeniable fact. He who denies it does not believe in physical anin Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 1883: TOPINARD, Eléments d'An thropology; and not to recognize this branch of science is equal to thropologie générale; and my own publications in American and denying natural history in general.

DR. H. TEN KATE. Asiatic anthropology).

Mexico, Oct. 8. The value of the so-called Mongolian eye' (l'oeil bridé) may have been exaggerated as a racial characteristic: it is nevertheless

Queries. 1 Although Dr. Brinton does not mention any ethnologic peculiarities as having

38. WHEN WAS THE BILLION CHANGED? -- Can any of the been asserted in favor of the affinity between Mongolians and Americans (for they readers of Science state at what time, and from what incentive (by have been asserted), I think it would have been worth while to discuss them. What I

what fatuity), the people that has proposed a system of metrology said above about the study of archæology is equally true in regard to ethnology. Systematic and comparative, and, above all, empiric ethnological researches, both among

for universal adoption depreciated the arithmetical billion (the secthe native Americans, especially the northern, and among different Mongolians, par ond power of the million) to a nominal • trillion,' making the anomticularly the Siberian tribes, would throw much light upon their relationship. I think, for example, that we will never be able to understand thoroughly the ethnology of the

alous • billion 'one-thousandth of its explicit value ? Tinné tribes, as long as the Mongolians proper, and certain erratic tribes in the Gobi,

W. B. T. have not been studied.

Washington, D.C., Oct. 31.


otherwise have been effected. One very important one is the examination of pilots for color blindness, the establishment of new

hospitals, the perfecting of the hospital regulations, which amounted THE DRIFT OF PUBLIC discussion in England, not only among

to a thorough reorganization of the service and its general advancescientists, but also among athletes and others interested in physical

ment, until, as Colburn's United Service (London) has declared, it training, seems to be against the acceptance of Professor Roy's de

is “the gem of the mercantile marine of the world." The means fence of stays and corsets, at the recent meeting of the British

of preventing the spread of epidemics have been so simplified by Association. Some of the leading journals of London were instant

Dr. Hamilton that most places subject to epidemic visitations have in their approval of Professor Roy's theories; but where they have

practically adopted the methods brought into use in this country done so, immediate protests have come from their readers. The

by him. Dr. Hamilton's remarkable energy will soon make its Spectator, for instance, in a recent number, after quoting Professor

effect felt in the pages of the Journal. Nothing is slow or dull that Roy's assertion that the desire for waist-belts is instructive, and has

he has to do with, not even medical journal. He will force others been displayed by all athletes, and persons of whom exertion is re

to quote from him, instead of making the Journal, as too many quired, since the beginning of history, adds, “ It will be observed

similar publications now are, a judicious selection of extracts from that this argument, which is certainly true of all runners, Asiatic or

the exchanges. His Washington friends, of whom there are many, European, applies to men equally with women, though men gird

for he is personally very popular, will regret the loss of his society themselves only to meet special calls upon their strength.” To this but rejoice at his promotion. a recent graduate from Cambridge, where he was distinguished as a runner and long-distance bicycle-rider, protests that neither runners nor experts upon the wheel, at that university, ever used, or showed a

THE LAWS OF HYDRAULIC DEGRADATION.' desire to use, tight waist-belts. On the contrary, it was their custom

The lands of the earth are degraded by water, by ice, and by to gird themselves as loosely as possible in order to allow free move

winds; hence in discussing geological degradation it becomes ment of the diaphragm. If rowers even wear waist-belts, they are

necessary to recognize hydraulic degradation, glacial degradation, so loose as to cause no interference with the freest movements of

and æolian degradation. all the muscles of the body. It is probable that the habit of “gird

In hydraulic degradation three methods may be distinguished. 1.

The surface of the land is disintegrated by various methods and ing up the loins” preparatory to physical exertion originated in

washed away by rains and melted snows. The rains gather into Oriental countries, where in ancient times, and now as well, the

streams, as brooks, creeks, and rivers, and transport the disintepeculiar form of the prevailing costume made it necessary in order

grated rock from one region to another. This general surface to secure free movement of the limbs. A custom once established,

degradation may be called 'erosion.' 2. During the process of needs no further explanation. It may survive long after there is this transportation the streams carve channels for themselves, and any reason for it. The Hittites wore peaked-toed, turned-up shoes this channel-cutting may be called 'corrasion. 3. By erosion, and thousands of years after their ancestors had come from the moun also by corrasion, cliffs are produced, and these cliffs are broken tains of the north, where the form of their snow-shoes suggested down by gravity. This method of degradation may be called 'sapthe peculiar fashion ; and the daily life of every people is full of in ping.' stances that might be cited. Nobody to day places restraint upon

Thus there are three methods of hydraulic degradation, any of his organs if he desires to excel in feats of strength or speed.

sion, corrasion, and sapping. He may wear a waist-belt, but it is never so tight, as has already disintegrated; (6) the disintegrated material is transported in

There are three processes involved in erosion : (a) the rocks are been remarked as to rowers, as to interfere with the free play of

water; (c) in order to be transported in water the material must the muscles.

be loaded. In like manner, there are three processes in corrasion, THE VERY ABLE PAPER on hydraulic degradation, by Director

- disintegration, loading, and transportation. In sapping there J. W. Powell, published elsewhere in this issue of Science, is the

are but two processes, disintegration and falling.

In erosion and corrasion the material which is transported may result — it would not be safe to say the final result' — of more

be called the • load. The load is transported by two methods, a than a dozen years of study and observation upon the subject. portion floats with the water, and another portion is driven along Former publications have simply indicated the direction in which

the bottom. The water in which the load floats is the vehicle' this investigation was proceeding, and announced some of the con of transportation. Gravity is the force of transportation, and acts clusions reached. This is a comprehensive, brief, pointed, and alike on the water and on the load. In the same sense that the easily understood exposition of the whole subject. Science con water furnishes its own moving force, through its inherent gravity, gratulates itself upon being the first journal of its class, or of any so the floating load furnishes its own moving or transporting force class, to present this admirable paper to its readers. Major Pow- through its inherent gravity. Vehicle and floating load alike are ell is understood to invite comment, criticism, and discussion of the

moved by gravity. The vehicle can move without the floating load, paper, and Science will gladly open its columns to communications

but the floating load cannot move without the vehicle; that is, the on the subject.

water is the agency of flotation for the load.

The floating load is in general of greater specific gravity than the THE APPROACHING RESIGNATION of Dr. John B. Hamilton,

water, and while floating, it falls to the bottom and comes to rest, Surgeon-General of the Marine Hospital Service, to accept the

and the progress down-stream of the floating load ends. The exeditorship of the Journal of the American Medical Association,

cursion which each particle will make from the time it is loaded to

the time it is deposited depends upon four conditions: First, speadds another to the frequent examples of the difficulty of retaining

cific gravity. If the specific gravity is greater, the particle is dethe bright men of science in the public service. During the last

posited sooner; if the specific gravity is less, the particle is carried ten years Dr. Hamilton, by his energy and intimate knowledge of

1 A paper read before the National Academy of Sciences at its meeting in New the service, has been able to carry out many reforms that could not Haven, November, 1888.


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