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the times, and happy delineations of by him to the Clergy of his dioceso ; characters which have variously fi- comprehending also a vindication of gured in his day, and whose move- the late Bishop Hoadly, 1790. ments came within his own know. 4. Review of Dr. Hay's Sermon, ledge, or were of unquestioned pub- intitled “ Thoughts on the Athana lie notoriety.

sian Creed," preached April 19th, His benevolence was best known 1790, at the visitation of the Archto his more intimate friends; and deacon of Bucks, 1790. nothing but his death releases the 5. Outline of a Commentary on hand which writes this short memoir Revelations xi, 1---14. 1794. from the restriction of private confi- 6. A Sermon preached in the chadence on this particular subject. It pel of Trinity College, Cambridge, was in the course of our unreserved on Thursday, Dec. 19th, 1793, the correspondence, immediately after day appointed for the commemoration the failure of a bank, at Bury, in of the benefactors to that sociсty, 1794. 1791, which involved his father and himself in no inconsiderable loss, that ESSAYS," SIGNED SYNERGUS. he wrote, in reply to what I had 1. Vol. I. 1786. Art. V. proposed to him on that occasion. .. 111. A Paraphrase and Notes on

“But it will not be in my Romans v. 8---18. 2. Art. XI, p. power to accept the very friendly 467---509. Observations on part of invitation, till after the next dividend. the 8th, 11th, and 12th chapters of Upon the bankruptcy taking place, Daniel. I determined, if possible, not to fail 3. Vol. II. 1801. Art. XIII. p. J., in any one of the little douceurs I 8. An Illustration of 1 Cor. x. 14--was in the habit of bestowing in the 24. 4. Art, XIX. p. 123---252. A Sumeleemosynary way, to a few persons mary View of the Prophecies relating with whose necessities I am acquaint- to Antichrist, contained in the wried ; and as it is impossible to lose tings of Daniel, Paul, Peter, Jude, the best part of a year's income, with and John. 5. Art. XX. p. 253--267. out making retrenchments somewhere, Ou the Forensic Metaphors adopted I was prompt in deciding that the in the New Testament." 6. Art. XXI. abridgment should be in personal p. 268---278. On the terms Redempgratifications; of which the greatest tion, Ransom, Purchase, &c. adopted I certainly esteem that of presenting in the New Testament. 7. Art. XXII. myself before my London friends.” p. 279-.-311. On the Sacrificial -See Monthly Magazine, Vol. xiv. Phrases adopted in the New TestaPp. 89, 193.

ment. CATALOGUE OF HIS WRITISOS. No. 1. Examination of Mr. Har.

POSITORY." rison's Sermon, preached in the ca- 1. Vol. V. 1786. p. 38---56, signed thedral church of St. Paul, London, Ereunetes. Observations on Isaiala before the Lord Mayor, on May 25th, vii. 10---23. viii. 5---19. 2. p. 273--1788---1789.

288. Observations on various Texta 2. Letter to the Right Rev. the of Scripture, signed Ereunetes. Bishop of Norwich, (Dr. Bagot) re- 3. Vol. VI, 1788, p. 60---78. signed questing him to name the Prelate to Ereunetes. On the Oblation of Isaac, whom he referred as “ contending as figurative of the Death of Christ. strenuously for the general excel. 4. p. 135-..-174, signed Idiota. On lence of our present authorised trans- the Elijah foretold by Malachi. 3. lation of the Bible," 1789.

p. 244---281, signed Idiota. An In3. Letter to the Right Rev. the quiry into the Time at which the Bishop of Chester, (Dr. Cleaver) on Kingdom of Heaven will commence. the subject of two Sermons addressed

J. D.




The Fathers.

be pretty fairly estimated; that, what[Froin Edinburgh Review, Nov. 1814, ever reverence might still be due to No. 47. Vol. xxiv. pp. 58–68. Review those eminent men, for the sanctity of Boyd'. Translations.)

of their lives, their laborious lucuWe

of f the fathers were beginning to the cause of the church, and all those


solemn and imposing lights, in which tinguished them through the whole their nearness to the rising sun of history of theological controversy :Christianity places them ; vet, that the same authors, the same passages the time of their authority over con- have been quoted with equal confiscience and opinion was gone by; dence, by Arians and Athanasians, that they were no longer to be re- Jesuits and Jansenists, Transubstangarded as guides either in faith or in tiators and Typisiers. Nor is it only morals ; and that we should be quite the dull and bigoted who have had within the pale of orthodoxy in say. recourse to these self-refnted authoriing that, though admirable martyrs ties for their purpose ; we often find and saints, they were, after all, but the same anxiety for their support, indifferent Christians. In point of the same disposition to account them, style, too, we had supposed that cri- as Chillingworth says, “Fathers when ticism was no longer dazzled by their for, and children when against,' in sanctity; that few would now agree quarters where a greater degree of with the learned jesuit, Garasse, that good sense and fairness might be exa chapter of St Augustine on the Tri- pected. Even Middleton himself, nity is worth all the Odes of Pindar; who makes so light of the opinions of that, in short, they had taken their the fathers, in his learned and manly due rank among those affected and inquiry into miracles, yet courts their rhetorical writers, who flourished in sanction with much assiduity for his the decline of ancient literature, and favourite system of allegorizing the were now, like many worthy author's Mosaic history of the creation ; a we could mention, very much re- point on which, of all others, their spected and never read.

alliance is most dangerous, as there is We had supposed all this ; but we no subject upon which their Pagan find we were mistaken. An eminent imaginations have rioted more ungodignitary of the Church of England vernably. has lately shewn that in his opinion The errors of the primitive doctors at least, these veterans are hy no of the church ; their Christian hea. means invalided in the warfare of thenism and heathen Christianity, theology; for he has brought more which led them to look for the Tri. than seventy volumes of them into nity among those shadowy forms the field against the Calvinists. And that peopled the twilight groves of the here is Mr. Boyd, a gentleman of academy, and to array the meek, much Greek, who assures us that the self-humbling Christian in the proud Homilies of St. Chrysostom, the Ora- and iron armour of the Portico; their tions of St. Gregory Nazianzen, and bigoted rejection of the most obvious -proh pudor !-the Amours of Daph- truths in natural science; the bewilnis and Chloe are models of elo- dering vibration of their moral doc. quence, atticism, and fine writing. trines, never resting between the ex

Mr. Boyd has certainly chosen the tremes of laxity and rigour; their safer, as well as pleasanter path, credulity, their inconsistencies of through the neglected field of learn- conduct and opinion, and worst of ing; for, tasteless as the metaphors all, their forgeries and falsehoods, of the fathers are in general, they are have already been so often and so much more innocent and digestible ably exposed by divines of all counthan their arguments; as the learned tries, religions and sects; the Dubishop we have just alluded to may, pins, Mosheims, Middletons, Clarkes, perhaps, by this time acknowledge; Jortins, &c. that it seems superfluous having found, we suspect, that his to add another line upon the subject : seventy fohios are, like elephants in though we are not quite sure that, in battle, not only ponderous, but dan- the present state of Europe, a disgerous auxiliaries, which, when once cussion of the merits of the fathers is let loose, may be at least as formida- not as seasonable and even fashionable ble to friends as to foes. This, indeed, a topic as we could select. At a has always been a characteristic of time when the Inquisition is re-estathe writings of the fathers. This ani- blished by our beloved Ferdinand ; bidextrous faculty--this sort of Swiss when the Pope again brandishes the versatility in fighting equally well on keys of St. Peter with an air worthy both sides of the question, has dis- of a successor of the Hildebrands and

Perettis; when canonization is about Sylphs and Gnomes, and that, perto be inflicted on another Louis, and haps, at this moment, we might have little silver models of embryo princes wanted Pope's most excellent Poem, are gravely vowed at the shrine of if the Septuagint Version had transthe virgin: in times like these it is not lated the book of Genesis correctly. too much to expect that such enligla- This doctrine, as far as it concerned tened authors as St. Jerome and Ter- angelic natures, was at length indig. tullian may soon become the classics nantly disavowed by St. Chrysostom. of most of the continental courts. We But dæmons were much too useful a shall therefore make no further apo- race to be so easily surrendered to logy, for prefacing our remarks upon reasoning or ridicule; there was no Mr. Boyd's translation with a few getting up a decent miracle without brief and desultory notices of some of them, exorcists would have been out the most distinguished fathers and of employ, and saints at a loss for their works.

temptation :--- Accordingly, the wriSt. Justin, the martyr, is usually tings of these holy doctors abound cousidered as the well-spring of most with such stories of dæmoniacal posof those strange errors which flowed session, as make us alternately smile so abundantly through the early ages at their weakness, and blush for their of the Church, and spread around dishonesty. Nor are they chargeable them in their course such luxuriance only with the impostures of their own of absurdity. The most amiable, and times; the sanction they gave to this therefore the least contagious of bis petty diabolism has made them re. beterodoxies," was that which led sponsible for whole centuries of jughim to patronize the souls of Socrates gling. Indeed, whoever is anxious to and other Pagans, in cousideration of contemplate a picture of human folly those glimmerings of the divine Lo- and human knavery, at the same gos which his fancy discovered through time ludicrous and melancholy, may the dark night of heathenism. The find it in a history of the exploits absurd part of this opinion remained, of dæmons, from the days of the while its tolerant spirit evaporated. Fathers down to modern times ; And while these Pagans were still al- from about the date of that theatrical lowed to have known something of little devil of Tertullian, (su triumthe Trinity, they were yet damned phantly referred to by Jeremy Colfor not knowing more, with most un- lier), who claimed a right to take relenting orthodoxy.

possession of a woman in the theatre The Lelief of an intercourse be- (* because he there found her on his tween angels and women, founded own ground'), to the gallant dæmons upon a false versiou of a text in Ge- commemorated by Bodin and Remi. nesis, and of an abundant progeny of gius, and such tragical farces as the demons in consequence, is one of possession of the Nuns of Loudon. those monstrous notions of St. Justin, The same features of craft and duand other fathers, which show how pery are discoverable through the little they had yet purged otf the whole from begiuning to end ; and grossness of heathen mythology, and when we have read of that miracuin how many respects their heaven was lous person, Gregory Thaumaturgus, but Olympus with other names :--- writing a familiar epistle to Satan, Yet we can hardly be angry with and then turn to the story of the them for this crror, when we recol- young Nun, in Bodin, in whose box lect, that possibly to their enamoured was found a love-letter • a son cher angels we owe the beautiful world of dæmon,' we need not ask more per

fect specimens of the two wretched

extremes of imposture and credulity, Still more benevolent was Origen’s than these two very different letternever-10-be-forgiven dissent from the doc- writers afford. trine of eternal damnation. To this amja

The only class of dæmons whose loss ble weakness, more than any thing else, this father seerns to have owed the forfeiture

we regret, and whose visitations we of his rank in the Calendar ; and in re would gladly have restored to us, are turn for his anxiety to rescue the human those seducing sprites, who, as mce from hell, he has been sent thither Theophilus of Antioch tells us, bimself by more than one Catholic theolo- fessed themselves to be the same that gian.

had inspired the heathen poets.' The


learned Father has not favoured us aimed at life itself; the strange doc. with any particulars of these interest- trine of St. Augustine, that the Saints ing spirits; has said nothing of the are the only lawful proprietors of the ample wings of fire, which, we doubt things of this world, and that the not, the dæmons of Homer and Pindar wicked have no right whatever to spread out, nor described the laugh- their possessions, however human ing eyes of Horace's Familiar, nor even laws may decree to the contrary, the pointed tail of the short devil of the indecencies in which too many of Martial; but we own we should like them have indulged in their writings ; to sec such cases of possession in our the profane frivolity of Tertullian, in days; and though we Reviewers are making God himself prescribe the a kind of exorcists, employed to cast length and measure of women's veils, out the eivil dæmon of scribbling, and in a special revelation to some ecstatic even pride ourselves upon having per- spinster; and the moral indignation formed some notable cures; from such with which Clemens Alexandrinus dæmoniacs we would refrain with re- inveighs against white bread, periverence; nay, so anxiously dread the wigs, coloured stuffs and lap-dogs ! escape of the s; irit, that, for fear of all these, and many more such puerile accidents, we would not suffer a saint and pernicious absurdities open a wide to come near them.

field of weedy fancies, for ridicule to The belief of a millenium or temporal skim, and good sense to trample upon: reign of Christ, during which the ---But we must content ourselves with faithful were to be inclulged in all sorts referring to the works that have been of sensual gratifications, may be written upon this subject; particu. reckoned among those gross errors, larly to the treatise de la Morale des for which neither the porch nor the Pères' of Barbeyrac; which, though academy are accountable, but which as dull and tiresome as could reasona. grew up in the rank soil of oriental fa- bly be expected from the joint efforts naticism, and were nursed into doc- of the Fathers of the Church and a trines of Christianity by the Fathers. Law professor of Groningen, abun. Though the world's best religion dantly proves that the moral tenets of comes from the East, its very worst these holy men are for the most part superstitions have sprung thence also; unnatural, fanatical and dangerous ; as in the same quarter of the heavens founded upon false interpretations of arises the sun-beam that gives life to holy writ, and the most gross and the flower, and the withering gale that anile ignorance of human nature; and blasts it. There is scarcely one of these that a community of Christians, formfantastic opinions of the Fathers that ed upon their plan, is the very Utomay not be traced among the fables pia of monkery, idleness and fanatiof the antient Persians and Arabians. cism. The voluptuous Jerusalem of St. Jus- Luckily, the impracticability of tin and Irenæus may be found in these wretched doctrines was in genethose glorious gardens of Iram, which ral a sufficient antidote to their miswere afterwards converted into the chief: But there were two maxims, Paradise of the Faithful by Mahomet; adopted and enforced by many of the and their enamoured • Sons of God Fathers, which deserve to be branded may be paralleled in the angels Harut with particular reprobation, not only and Marut of Eastern story, who, because they acted upon them contibewildered by the influence of wine nually themselves, to the disgrace of and beauty, forfeited their high ce- the holy cause in which they were lestial rank, and were degraded into engaged, but because they have transteachers of magic upon earth. The mitted their contamination to postemischievous absurdity of some of the rity, and left the features of Christianmoral doctrines of the Fathers; the ity to this day disfigured by their state of apathy to which they would taint. The first of these maxims—we reduce their Gnostic or perfect Chris- give it in the words of Mosheim-was, tian; their condemnation of marriage that it is an act of virtue to deceive and their Monkish fancies about ce- and lie, when by such means the inlibacy; the extreme to which they terests of the church may be promotcarried their notions of patience, even ed.' To this profligate principle the to the prohibition of all resistance to world owes, not only the fables and aggressios, though the aggressor forgeries of these primitive times, but

many of those evasions, those com- in Balzac, who professes himself enpromises between conscience and ex- chanted with the black lustre' of his pediency, which are still thought ne- style, and compares his obsurity to cessary and justifiable for the support the rich and glossy darkness of ebony. of religious establishments. So in- The three Greek Fathers, whom the dustrious were the churchmen of the writer before us has selected, are in carly ages in the inculcation of this general considered the most able and monstrous doctrine, that we find the eloquent of any; and of their merits Bishop Heliodorus insinuating it, as our readers shall presently have an a general principle of conduct, through opportunity of judging, as far as a the seductive medium of his Romance few specimens from Mr. Byod's transTheagenes and Chariclea. The se lations can enable them :--But, for cond maxim, equally horrible,' says our own parts, we confess, instead of Mosheim, though in a different point wondering with this gentleman that of view, was, that errors in religion, his massy favourites should be doomed when maintained and adhered to after to a temporary oblivion,' we are only proper admonition, are punishable surprised that such affected declaimers with civil penalties and corporeal tor- should ever have enjoyed a better fate; tures.' St. Augustine has the creditor that even the gas of holiness with of originating this detestable doctrine; which they are infiated, could ever to him, it seems, we are indebted for have enabled its coarse and gaudy vefirst conjuring up that penal spirit, hicles to soar so high into the upper which has now, for so many hundred regions of reputation. It is South, years, walked the earth, and whose we believe, who has said that“ in orvotaries, from the highest to the der to be pious, it is not necessary to mcanest, from St. Augustine down to be dull; but, even dullness itself is Doctor Duigenan, from the perse- far more decorous than the puerile cutors of the African Donatists to the conceits, the flaunting metaphors, and calumniators and oppressors of the all that false finery of rheiorical deIrish Catholics, are all equally dis. clamation, in which these writers have graceful to that mild religion, in whose tricked out their most solemn and imname they have dared to torment and portant subjects. At the time, indeed, subjugate mankind,

when they studied and wrote, the With respect to the literary merits glories of ancient literature had faded ; of the Fathers, it will hardly be de- sophists and rhetoricians had taken nied, that to the sanctity of their sub. the place of philosophers and orators; jects they owe much of that imposing nor is it wonderful that from such in? effect which they have produced upon structors as Libanius they should the minds of their admirers. We have learn to reason ill and write affectedly. no doubt that the incoherent rhapso- But the same flurid effeminacics of dies of the Pythia (whom, Strabo tells style, wbich in a love-letter of Phius, the ministers of the temple now lostratus, or an ecphrasis of Libanius, and then helped to a verse) found many are harmless at least, if not amusing, an orthodox critic among their hearers become altogether disgusting, wben who preferred them to the sublimest applicd to sacred topics; and are little strains of Homer or Pindar, Indeed, less offensive to piety and good taste, the very last of the Fathers, St. Gre than those rude exhibitions of the old gory the Great, has at ouce settled moralities, in which Christ and his the point for all critics of theological apostles appeared dressed out in writings, by declaring that the words trinkets, tinsel, and embroidery. The of Divine Wisdom are not amenable chief advantage that a scholar can now to the laws of the vulgar grammar of derive from a perusal of these volumi. this world ;-' non debent verba cæ- nous doctors, is the light they throw lestis originis subesse regulis Donati.' upon the rites and tenets of the PaIt must surely be according to some gans; in the exposure and refutation such code of criticisin that Lactantius of which they are, as is usually the has been ranked above ( icero, and case, much more successful than in the that Erasmus himself has ventured to defoice and illustration of their own. prefer St. Basil to Demosthenes. I'ven In this respect Clemens Alexandrinus the harsh, muddy and unintelligible is one of the most valuable; being Tertullian, whom Salmasius gave up chietly a compiler of the dusmas of in despair, has found a warm admirer ancient learning, and abounding with

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