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peril. His horse had arrived in the deepest part of the channel, and was struggling against the current, down which he was rapidly hurried, and apparently making but little progress toward the shore. The boy became alarmed, and raising his eyes towards the landing-place, he discovered his father: be exclaimed, almost frantic with fear, “ O ! I shall drown, I shall drown !" 66 No!" exclaimed the father, in a stern and resolute tone, and dismissing, for a moment, his feeling of tenderness, “ If you do, I'll whip you to death ; cling to your horse." The son, who feared a father more than the raging elements, obeyed his command, and the noble animal, on which he was mounted, struggling for some time, carried him safe to shore. My son,” said the glad father, bursting into tears, “ remember, hereafter, that in danger, you must possess fortitude, and, determining to sur. vive, cling to the last hope. Had I addressed you with the tenderness and fear, which I felt, your fate was inevitable

; you

would have been carried away in the current, and I should have seen you no more. What an example is here! The heroism, bravery, philosophy, and presence of mind of this man, even eclipses the conduct of Cæsar, when he said to his boatman, Quid times ? Cæsarem vehis.


[Republican. Watertown, N. Y.] There was discovered about three weeks since, on the north bank of the Black river, upon the land of James Le Ray, Esq. opposite to the village of Watertown, an extraordinary cavern, or grotto; the mouth of which, is about ten rods from the river, north of the falls and of Cowan's Island.

The great extent of the cavern, and the great number of spacious rooms, halls and chambers, into which it is divided, and the immense quantities of calcareous concretions, which it contains, and different states of those concretions, from the consistence of lime mortar, to that of the most beautiful stalactites, as hard as marble, render it difficult, if not impossible, to describe it, and I shall only attempt to give a faint description of three or four rooms.

The mouth of the cavern is in a small hollow, about five feet below the surrounding surface of the earth; you then descend sixteen and a half feet into a room, about 16 by 20 feet and 8 feet high ; and behold in front of you, a large flat, or table rock, 12 or 14 feet square, 2 feet thick, and elevated about 4 feet from the bottom of the cavern; the roof over head covered with stalactites, some of which reach to the table rock. On your left hand, is an arched way, of 150 feet; and on your right hand, is another arched way, 6 feet broad at the bottom, and six feet high, which leads into a large room. Passing by this arch about 20 feet, you arrive at another, which leads into a hall 10 feet wide, and 100 feet long, from 5 to 8 feet high, supported with pillars and arches, and the sides bordered with curtains, plait. ed in variegated forms as white as snow. Near the middle of this hall, is an arched way, through which you pass into a large room; which, like the hall is bordered with curtains, and hung over with stalactites : returning into the hall, you påss through another arch, into a number of rooms on the left hand, curtained, and with stalactites hanging from the roof. You then descend about ten feet, into a chamber about twenty feet square, and two feet high, curtained in like manner, and hung over with stalactites. In one corner of this chamber, a small mound is formed about twelve feet in diameter, rising three feet from the floor; the top of which is hollow, and full of water from the drippings of stalactites above; some of which, reach near the basin.

Descending from this chamber, you pass through another arch into a hall, by the side of which, you see another basin of water, rising about four inches from the floor; formed in the same way, but in the shape, size, and thickness of a large tea-tray, full of the most pure and transparent water. The number and spaciousness of the rooms,

curtained and plaited with large plaits, extending along the walls from two to three feet from the roof; of the most perfect whiteness, resembling the most beautiful tapestry, with which the rooms are embroidered ; and the large drops of water, which are constantly suspended on the points of innumerable stalactites, which hang from the roofs above; and the columns of spar resting on pedestals, which, in some places, appear to be formed to support the arches above-the reflection of the lights, and the great extent and variety of this amazing cayern, form altogether, one of the most pleasing and interesting scenes that was ever beheld by the eye of mortal


The cavern has been but partially explored, and no one, who has been into it, although some suppose they have travelled more than one hundred rods, pretends to have found the extent of it, or to know the number of rooms, halls, and chambers which it contains.

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[Spectator. N. Y.]

RICHMOND. RICHMOND, the metropolis of the Ancient Dominion,” stands upon the head of the tide waters of the James. In its situation there is much to admire. From its elevation it commands an extensive prospect of the surrounding country ; a prospect variegated with hill and dale, interspersed with the “ hospitable domes” of wealth and elegance, and with the humble sheds” of poverty and slavery. On the south side of the city are the falls. These are formed by the gradual descent of the river. From the huge and numerous rocks, which obstruct its passage, the several opposing islands, and the constant dashing and roaring of waters, these falls present to the eye a truly interesting scene.

Their heavy sound falling upon the ear in the lonely midnight hour, mingled with the harsh notes of the sentinel, and the deep and hollow tones of the watch-bell, forms that union of circumstances, which, it might be supposed, would render Richmond the favoured residence of the muses ; but Melpomene ard Clio, who, if any, must preside at this Parnassus, it seems have not yet deigned to acknowledge their authority.

The several hills in the different parts of the city add much to its variety and beauty; and although " in all


unlike," are sure to remind the traveller of transatlantic Richmond, and the scholar of ancient Rome. The houses are built principally upon three streets, running in a westerly direction from the river, parallel to each other, and upon the numerous other streets intersecting these at right angles. They are mostly of brick and distinguished neither for elegance nor neatness. about the centre stands the capitol, upon a hill that completely overlooks the town. This is the boast of Virginian architecture. It is a spacious edifice and, though in its appearance it displays that boldness and independence which have ever characterized the legislalative bodies, that have convened in it; it is deficient in that elegance, symmetry, and aptitude of design, which we should expect in the capitol of Virginia. In these respects it is inferior to the city-hall of New-York, or the state-house at Albany. Besides a large number of state offices, it contains a commodious senate chamber, an apartment for the house of delegates, and a spacious court room. As might be expected, the state, proud of being the birth-place of the immortal Washington, and honourably solicitous to perpetuate his memory, has not neglected to place here, in this focus of its energies and authority, a lasting memorial of his virtues. The statue stands in the vestibule of the capitol.. It is neatly executed, and is said to be a striking likeness. In it the two predominant traits of his character are admirably blended and happily expressed; the one, his military endowments, by his costume: the other, his predilection for rural occupations, by the implements of husbandry that surround him. On the latter his arm is gracefully reclining. Near him is placed the bust of De La Fayette, his faithful concomitant in arms.

The other public buildings are a banking-house, occupied by the Farmer's Bank, and Bank of Virginia, an armory, court-house, penitentiary, and several churches; the latter, as the people of Richmond are not remarkable for their church-going habits, are neither large nor elegant. I was disappointed to find here another theatre, and much more so, to find that its finished walls were echoing the allurements of pleasure, before the

“ monumental church,” erected upon the ashes of the old one, and consecrated to the memory of that awful conflagration, and of the persons, who perished in it, was entirely completed.

To a northern man, upon his first arrival in Virginia, there are two things, which principally attract attention ; viz. difference of character, and the state of slavery. That there is a wide difference between the northern and southern character, manners, customs, &c. is soon apparent. This difference may be ascribed partly to natural and partly to adventitious causes. As the royal queen said of Carthage and its inhabitants, the Virginians may say,

“Non obtusa adeo gestamus pictora Poeni :

Nec tam aversus equos Tyria Sol jungit ab urbe." The influence of slavery is, however, much more extensive. To this source may be traced the principal distinguishing traits of character. Among the Virginians may be observed more delicacy of sensibility, a higher spirit of personal independence and bravery, a deeper regard to the obligations of friendship, more cordiality, hilarity and dissipation. In mental culture and refinement, and in the improvement of the arts, it must be admitted we are at least a quarter of a century before them. There are but two endowed literary institutions in the state, and these have ever been fetter. ed in their exertions by the ill-judged parsimony of the legislature, and are now restricted by the same illiber. al spirit. The central university, now érecting under the superintendence of Mr. Jefferson, if conducted upon the extensive plan proposed, will, in a measure, trieve the literary character of the state and form an agreeable and useful resort for our literati, that will do honour to the head that projected it, and the authority that patronized and erected it. It may be noticed, that except in the larger towns, literature and the fine arts have not many votaries. The young men are not sedulous in their exertions to drink of the spring of Parnassus, or to ascend the rugged hill of science. We see little of that literary taste prevailing that characterizes the New-England states. Among the farmers and plant


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