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Gleanings.--Heresy of Pope John XXII.
159 his wreathed horn," and there the and to hail the dawnings of imperfect Fates in awful silence, regulate the light as the welcome harbingers of variously-coloured thread of human an unclouded day. An Unitarian is existence. But will these imagina- the only sectary who makes charity tions diminish our anxiety for our an article of his creed. And yet he own eternal condition ? Will they must be scornfully accused of scorn, be less “ assoiled from the gross- abused for want of kind-heartedness, ness of present time," because our and reproached for believing too litreliance is fixed on the rock of ages tle, and having, therefore, no power and our hopes have their resting of enjoyment, by those who believe place in heaven?
nothing in order to enjoy every thing. But it is boldly asserted that a spirit Poetical fancies might have a betof inquiry into religious truth is in- ter claim to take the place of religious compatible with all poetical feeling- conviction if, like it, they could last that it teuds to make those who in- for ever. But alas ! life cannot be all dulge it hard-hearted—and degrade a holiday dream. Death must sepathem from imaginative into mere rea rate our dearest companions from us, soning beings. In answer to these and compel us to weep over their assertions it is not necessary to contend tomb. Will it then be enough to for the superiority of truth over fancy, strew the grave with flowers, and it is quite sufficient to shew that both vent our sorrows in the melody of may exist together without the least woe ;-or will it not be some addiinjury to either. Our opponents tional relief to be able to cherish a themselves would exercise their rea sure and certain hope of meeting them son in all the concerns of life ; and in happiness hereafter? And even if would esteem those madmen who we could pass along wrapt in one deshould refuse to apply it to any thing licious vision through this vale of tears, but religion. It is strange then that we must awake to die! Surely in it should be debarred from the no that awful moment when heart and blest of its uses, from the objects flesh fail us, it will be some consolawhich are most worthy of its powers, tion to think that we are safe in the and most nearly allied to the divinity arms of the Almighty-that our nowhich is stamped upon it. And sure blest faculties will revive to an imly it would be strange if heaven had mortal youth--that our loveliest viendowed us with both intelligent and sions will be more than realized and creative faculties, one of which must that imagination will expatiate for necessarily be left inactive, in order ever in those glorious regions, to to the perfection of the other. And which, in its happiest moments, it what luxury of imagination is there, delighted to aspire. which a Christian, whose belief is
S. N. D. founded on understanding is unfitted P.S. With your permission, I proto enjoy? He would no more allow pose in a few essays in your succeed. reason to interfere with the delights ing numbers, to expose the other of his fancy, than he will suffer poetry dogma of modern sceptics—that Calto take the place of conviction. He vinism is a more poetical system than can muse with as delicious a suspen- Unitarianism-by comparing the leadsion of thought over the still foun- ing doctrines of both, not as it retain, and people every lovely scene spects their truth, but the beautiful with images as beautifuland unearthy associations which may be thrown aas if he had never investigated the round them and the kind affections doctrines of scripture. As far as re- they cherish and mature. pects the contemplation of the superstitions and errors of mankind he will have an advantage over the most poet
GLEANINGS ; OR, SELECTIONS ical sceptic. For his religion teaches him to see a " spirit of good" in them all--to look at the dim glimpses of
No. CCXLV. heaven which have shone through Self-election and Heresy of Pope John pompous ceremonials with gratitude
XXII. to trace the sweet affections which Mezeray, an exact writer, de have flourished beneath the shade of scribes the election of this Pope very astitutions in themselves unholy, pleasantly, and says that the Cardi
AND REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE OF GENERAL READING.
160 Gleanings.--Eighty Thousand Jacobins.-John Bradshaw. nals being shut up in the conclave by il le feroit ardre. Whether he was Philip, could not any otherwise agree converted by this threat, or convinced upon the election of a Pope than by in his conscience, the Pope did not their joint referring it to the single only change his opinion, but publishvoice of James D'Ossat, Cardinal and ed an act of retractation. So far was Bishop of Port: he without any scru- the holy chair from being infallible ple at all named himself, to the great when it rested in Avignon. astonishment of all the Conclave, who nevertheless approved of him; and so
No. CCXLVI. he took the name of John XXII. and Eighty Thousand Jacobins. reigned quietly eleven years or there In England and Scotland, I comabouts, without ever having his elec- pute that those of adult age, not detion questioned or doubted.
clining in life, of tolerable leisure for This John the Two and Twentieth such discussions, and of some means declared that the souls of the dead were of information, more or less, and who neither happy nor miserable till the are above menial dependance, may day of judgment; which opinion was amount to about four hundred thougenerally held in the former age. But saud. Of these four hundred thouthe university of Paris (says Claren. sand political citizens, I look upon don, Relig. and Pol. i. 34.) having one-fifth, or about eighty thousand, to more exactly examined this point, be pure Jacobins ; utterly incapable corrected the Holy Father in it, as of amendment; objects of eternal vi. Mezeray says, and thereupon the king gilance, and when they break out, of Philip of Valois, writ to the Pope in legal constraint. these terms : Que s'il ne se retractoit Burke's Letters on a Regicide Peace.
John Bradshaw. It is to this day problematical and can never be ascertained whether the bodies of Cromwell and Bradshaw were actually taken up and dishonoured at the Restoration. It is in secret tradition that Bradshaw was conveyed to Jamaica. His epitaph is descriptive of him and full of spirit. In a public print of 1775, it was said,
The following inscription was made out three years ago on the cannon, near which the ashes of President Bradshaw were lodged, ou the top of a high hill, near Martha Bay, in Jamaica, to avoid the rage against the Regicides exhibited at the Restoration.
Nor regardless be told
Who fairly and openly adjudged
Tyrant of England,
The most glorious Example,
And never, never forget, THAT REBELLION TO TYRANTS IS OBEDIENCE TO God. [From Dr, Ezra Styles's History of the Three Judges, Whalley, Goffe and Dixwell, who fled to America and concealed themselves to avoid the Fury of Kingly Violence. 12mo. Hartford, America. 1794.]
ART. 1.-Poems, by William Cowper, terest the human mind."[ Yet, sure
of the Inner Temple, Esq. Vol. III. ly, it will not follow that “ the lancontaining his Posthumous Poetry, guage of conversation in the middle and a Sketch of his Life. By his and lower classes of society is adapted kinsman, John Johnson, LL.D., to the purposes of poetic pleasure." Rector of Yaxham with Welborne, To afford pleasure, poetry must call in Norfolk. London: Printed for imagination to the aid of reason : fanRivingtons, &c. &c. 1815. 8vo. cy must create, or at least combine,
arrange and select the " materials." THAT is Poetry ?" inquired The votary of the muse may avoid sopher and friend. “Why, Sir," answer- of many modern writers," without ed Johnson, “it is much easier to say deviating, however, into rusticity and what it is not. We all know what childishness. Facts disprove the prolight is; but it is not easy to tell
what position that the customary style of it is." To hazard a definition of Poe- conversation in the bumbler ranks of try, after such a judgment, might be life is calculated for poetic uses. We presumptuous : let us satisfy ourselves are silent concerning recent exempliwith the account given of it by this fications of this doctrine. From ingreat writer. “ Poetry,” he observes,t stances more remote it certainly re* is the art of uniting pleasure with ceives no support. In what estima. truth, by calling imagination to the tion do we hold the pastorals of Amhelp of reason." If, by this state- brose Philips|l? By whom will Swift's ment, he intended to define the ex- humble petition of Frances Harris to alted art of which he speaks, some the Lords
Justices of Ireland" be digcritical objections might be taken to nified with the name of Poetry? We his language; which, nevertheless, is could refer to many metrical compofor all useful purposes sufficiently ex- sitions which as pictures of ancient act.
manners are highly attractive, but of That poetry may communicate which the dialogue would otherwise pleasure, two objects must be kept be disgusting. For the poet, like in view by the poet: he must raise the painter, must copy general, not his diction above mean and ordinary individual, nature. His employment modes of speech; and, at the same supposes discrimination : he must ele. time, he must address himself to the vate what is mean, he must soften associations of ideas existing in the what is harsh; and these objects he minds of those readers whose appro- will not reach if his style is familiar bation is substantial praise. Many of and provincial. The poetry of a culour poets and critics have been extra- tivated age, must itself be cultivated ; vagant in their respective efforts and since it can yield no delight unless it decisions. Some of them have be- correspoud with the habits of thought stowed a disproportionate care on and feeling, of taste and reading, splendid images and a well-poized and which distinguish the times and the agreeable versification. Others have people to whom its productions are become vulgar and insipid, through submitted. Faithfulness in the “ de. an affectation of simplicity: it is not lineation of human passions, human that they are destitute of genius, but characters and human incidents" may that they fail in taste. We may ad- exist in combination with lofty and mit, though not without obvious ex- harmonious numbers, beautiful and ceptions and qualifications, that the
materials" of poetry" are to be found in every subject which can in- | Lyrical Ballads (1798): Advertise,
Il Guardian, No. XL. * Life of Johnson. 8vo. (ed. 3rd.) Vol. Poetry should be something more dü. 37.
than true eloquence in metre. See Ma. * Works, (Murphy's Ed.) ix. 160. son's Gray, (1778) Vol. iv. 32. Note.
Review.Cowper's Poems. majestic images and a truly poetical are those of his productions which skill : it is the union of these excel. partake greatly of the nature of the lencies which causes Homer to be the sermo pedestris. Yet where he trifles poet of all countries and periods. it is at once with dignity and ease :
The most popular of his translators his descriptions of natural objects exhas been accused of “ a monotonous hibit a proof of his having looked and cloying versification : "* and ri- through creation with a poet's eye; dicule is attempted to be thrown on and his choice of topics, his lively and his cuckoo-song verses,
half up and
faithful pictures of human manners, half down.'
his keen and delicate and playful sa
tire, his ardent sensibility, his quick No ridicule however can deprive him
and graceful transitions, his skill in of his well-earned fame. It be true that his
pauses are not sufficient painting those domestic scenes and ly varied. In this respect he is, wo-these are his appropriate recom;
retired employments which he loved doubt, inferior to some of his prede- mendations. He who has once read cessors. Still
, he has redeemed the Cowper, is desirous of reading him fault by various and characteristic charms: nor is it accurate to speak with his strains. There are writers
again, and even of becoming familiar of his rhyming facilities ;” it being whom we can enjoy only in certain perfectly ascertained that his lines states of our minds : Cowper always were laboured into ease, and, by repeated efforts, polished into clegance companion and instructor, he can
gains admittance to us ; he is our If it has been the fate of Pope to have soothe and engage us, at every hour. injudicious imitators, it were, never.
An additional volume of the poems theless, heartily to be wished that the of such an author was sure of raising care and diligence which he bestowed on his versification were copied by not gratified, the cause of the disap
expectation: if that expectation be many of his censors. Let not our readers consider these of the respectable editor, who says,
pointment appears in the declaration observations as misplaced in a critical notice of the poetry of Cowper. This
“ It is incumbent op me to apprize the amiable writer holds, we think, a
reader, that by far the greater part of the. middle rank between the race of poets poems, to which I have now the honour to who have formed their versification introduce him, have been already published on that of Pope, and those who in. by Mr. Hayley." Preface. troduce the language of coinmon life
In the Dedication, too, he speaks
of “ the few additions inserted in this into compositions professing to be poetical. Besides, Cowper is a favour. collection.” Among these additions,
which should have been distinctly ite and popular author. His pages interest readers of nearly all classes. marked, we perceive au.“ Address to
Miss And though it be readily admitted
, on reading the Prayer for that “the magic of his song is to be Indifference," I some Latin translafound in his virtues; yet, to have tions from the Poems of V. Bourne, been so generally acceptable in this and some English ones of the Epi. capricious age, he must have pos- grams of Owen;
together with a few sessed intrinsic excellence as a poet.
winor pieces. The translations of the In those of Cowper's poems to Latin and Italian Poems of Milton, which he owes his high reputation, are here presented again to the world; he is neither mean and infantine, on
potwithstanding they had been pubthe one hand, nor fastidiously atten: lished in 1808, in a quarto volume. tive to cadence and oruament, on the We confess therefore that we are other.f Doubtless, some of his lines doubtful of the necessity of this part are harsh and unfinished : and there of the undertaking of the Rector of
Yaxham, as well as of the propriety
of entitling the larger portion of the • Feast of the Poets, ii. 27.
volume, the Posthumous Poetry of +" simplicity, though frequently Cowper.ll In selecting the producnaked, is not consequently poor: for na
kedness pay be that of a Grace, and not of a beggar.” Headley's Introá, to Se- | By Mr. Greville. lect Beauties, &c! (2nd ed.) Introd. li Though, strictly speaking, it be posla
humous, yet the word, so used, couroja
103 tions that were previously unpublish
* Toll for the brare! ed, some readers will regard the edi
Brave Kempenfelt is gone; tor as sufficiently bountiful. But we
His last sea-fight is fought; feel so greatly indebted to him for his
His work of glory done. sketch of bis kinsman's life, which It was not in the battle ; we shall soon notice, that we are not No lempest gave the shock; disposed to make any complaints or
She sprang no fatal leak; pass any censures.
Sbe raw upon no rock. Cowper's admirable good sense
His sword was in its sheath ; qualified him for placing in a clear
His fingers held the pen, and striking light every subject in
When Kempenfelt went down,
With twice four hundred men.” which the manners of men are con. cerned : nor would it be easy to men.
Magne, qui nomen, licèt incanorum, tion any poem, of its class, at once so
Traditum ex multis atavis tulisti ! instructive and interesting as the ver At tuos olim memorabit ævum ses on Friendship, preserved, though
Omne triumphos. not for the first time printed, in the
Non hyems illos furibunda mersit, present volume. The following stan
Non mari in clauso scopuli latentes, zas, in particular, are deserving of
Fissa non rimis abies nec atrox being impressed on the memory, and
Abstulit ensis. will indeed be very easily retained :
Navite sed tum nimium jocosi « As similarity of mind,
Voce fallebant bilari laborem, Or something not to be defin'd,
Et quiescebat, calamoque dextram in First rivets vur attention;
pleverat heros." (96.) So, manners decent and polite,
Some of our readers will here. call The same wc practis'd at first sight, Must save it from declension.
to mind the frequent recurrence of
the compellation Magne in the Phar. The man who hails you Tom-or Jack, salia of Lucan, and the dignified and And proves, by thumping on your back, plaintive manner in which that poet His sense of your great merit,
applies it. Is such a friend, that one had need
With the life of Cowper the public Be very much his friend indeed,
had already been made acquainted To pardon, or to bear it."
by Mr. Hayley. There was still In these lines there are singular wanting, however, the sketch of it justness of thought, fidelity of descrip- which Dr. Johnson has exhibited in tion, poignancy of satire and spright- the present volume. He speaks of liness and terseness of expression. this composition with the greatest mo
Theophrastus himself was never more desty. Yet, in truth, it possesses Successful.
distinguished excellence as a biogra The Montes Glaciales, a truly clas- phical narrative, and is characterized rical poem, was written by Cowper pot only by faithfulness of delineation, in 1799, at a time when his health, but also by that simple and artlessa both of body and mind, was consi- that lively and decorously minuta derably impaired. But he appears to relation of circumstances which renhave been fond of composing Latin ders us, for the time, the companions verses, which he framed with a read. of Cowper and his kinsman. In iliness and felicity demonstrative of his lustration of this remark we transcribe having left Westminster school with a passage descriptive of some inci. · scholastic attainments of the first dents on the journey of the poet and order."
of Mrs. Unwin from Weston into His lines on the loss of the Royal Norfolk ; whither they were attended George (Aug. 29, 1782], he translated by the editor: lii. into the language of ancient Rome:
" As it was highly important to guard and he has well preserved the simpli: against the effect of noise and tumult
on city, pathos and force of the original; the shattered nerves of the desponding traan elegiac ballad of uncommon merit. veller, care was taken that a relay of Let the rendering of the following horses should be ready on the skirts of stanzas be a specimen :
the towns of Bedford and Cambridge, by
which means he passed through those the idea of these poems not having been places without stopping. On the evening before published.
of the first day, the quiet village of se.