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On the Sources of Human Happiness. measuré by the absence of imperious ever, these qualities are sometimes seert motive to exertion. I have no doubt separated, and may easily be distinthat he was much happier when guished from each other. There are compiling his Dictionary, or many persons of great and eminent when writing the parliamentary de- worth, and who possess abundance bates in a garret in Grub Sireet, of benevolence, or who are at least than in the luxurious indolence of continually performing acts of the Streatham.
most disinterested and even profuse · I have said that employment, con- beneficence, who are yet destitute of stant regular employment of any kind, all command of temper; who either cannot fail to have a most beneficial administer their good offices with a effect upon the spirits and temper; sour morošeness of manner which but it is evident that this effect must takes from them their most powerful be greatly heightened, if it be direct- charms, or are liable to sudden fits ed towards honourable pursuits, or, and starts of passion which sometimes arise from the prosecution of objects induce them to inflict serious evils suggested by a generous and benero- upon the very persons whom but a lent disposition. It may therefore moment before they had cherished be added in the second place, that the and assisted. Thus their kindness happiness of man must materially eren towards those whom they wish depend on the gratification of the to serve, is interrupted or prevented, more enlarged and benevolent feels and all its happy effects both on ings of his nature. It is scarce pos- the giver and the receiver are in a sible for any man to be happy in a great measure destroyed. A temper state of absolute solitude. I do not of this kind is one of ihe greatest bars speak here of those occasional seclu- lo happiness in those who are afflicted sions frórn social intercourse which with it wit becomes therefore one of are useful to promote meditation and our most important personal duties to thought, and which may thus- tend be strenuous in our endeavours to regreatly to exalt and improve the be- strain and sweeten it. There is an nevolent feelings, and suggest to us apology, but a very imperfect one, additional opportunities and modes which is sometimes made for this unof calling them into action, but an happy irritability of temper, which entire and permanent separation from ascribes it to a morbid sensibility in all intercourse with our fellow-crea- the original constitution of such pertures. The happiest men probably sons. This apology might be made are threy who enjoy the most frequent with nearly equal justice for every mo and constant opportunities of culti- ral defect and for every intellectual rating the sentiments which belong folly whatever; and if admitted, puts to and arise out of domestic society. a stop to all sorts of improvement. What picture of human felicity can It is true that original temperament, equal that which is often enjoyed in or rather, perhaps, improper managethe simple scenes of private life; . ment in early life, may occasionally where every one is deeply interested give rise to an unusual degree of this in the general welfare ; where every disposition ; but this can be no justiheart glows with delight in conten- fication of it; it cannot render it less plating the enjoyment of all, where inconsistent with our cnjoyment of erery one is actively employed in mic life and society; and rather furnishes nistering to the general good of the an additional motive to such persons little society. Such feelings thus as have laboured under these disadgenerated and improved, in a mind vantages, to be more than ordinarily otherwise well disposed, are the best solicitous to keep it in check. And means of introducing and nourishing let no one imagine that this is imposmore exalted and extensive affections sible ;-that his own case is so pecuand of leading to a complete forget. liar as not to yield to the ordinary infulness of seli in an habitual regard fluence of moral medicine. There is through the whole conduct of life a course of discipline before which the to the general welfare and improve- most inveterate mental disorders will ment of the human race.
give way. The remedy, however, it Closely allied to beperolence is inust be admitted, is ofien more easily what is commonly called a good trm- perceived and pointed out than applied. ptr. Though nearly connected, how. To perceive it only requires good sense
On the Sources of Tiuman Happiness.
317 and discernment; to apply it steadily disposition to observe with satisfaction and effectually requires often a great and duly to appreciate such good quashare of self-government and self lities as are possessed even by the denial, and the frequent mortification worst inen, and to place in their due and disappointment of our strongest light all the excellencies of the really propensities.
deserving, and which when justly esBy the unreflecting at all times, and timated are sufficient to cast into the by seme sects among puilosophers, shade the infirmities or failings by much more than their weight is which they may be accompanied. attributed to original diferences in Candour in acknowledging all these mental and bodily constitutions. That would greatly contribute to the formasuch differences do exist, no one I tion of an even and gentle disposition, think can doubt who observes the very Again, a habit, which may soon be great variety of character and disposi- acquired by care and practice, of tion, which frequently appear in per- checking the external signs of those sons whose circumstances and educa- emotions of contempt and anger to tion, so far as we have been able to which we feel ourselves peculiarly liatrace, or as human means were able ble, will succeed in time in preventing to controul them, have been as nearly the inordinate rise of the emotions similar as possible. We are not either themselves. Such efforts at first proformed or educated after one common duce nothing more than the external standard; nor is it desirable that we appearance of decorum and propriety should: a dull, uniform sameness of behaviour; but the influence soon would doubtless take away greatly becomes more extensive. Between the from the enjoyment of human life, outward signs and the feelings which and would be inconsistent with the are represented by them, there is a surproper discharge of the various duties prising connection ; and as, on the one which the convenience or the subsis- hand, the assumed language of violent tence of mankind requires. Though emotion will, in many cases, excite however we admit that such original a considerable degree of the emotion diversities do exist, yet by much the itself—so, on the other, the constant greater part of the actual diversity ob- endeavour to check the external sympservable in human character is to be toms, soon chokes up and even en.. ascribed to those circumstances which tirely removes the source from whence we call accidental or adventitious; they flow. that is, they are the result of educa- The species of ill-humour which tion and experience, and are in some arises from a morbid sensibility to our considerable measure subject to go- own miseries, is equally inconsistent vernment and controul. The contrary with real enjoyment. Nothing is opinion appears not only inconsistent more destructive of pleasure than a with a just theory of the history of the constant habit of complaining and human mind, but also leads to dan- grumbling; which leads a man to look gerous practical consequences, and in preference on those circumstances ought therefore to be diligently guard- of his lot which are the least inviting, ed against. But to return to our pro- and is eternally brooding over them so per subject.
as to preclude all attention to those The weakness and irritability of which are more favourable and encoutemper which I have alluded to, is so raging, and to magnify the others to inconsistent with our happiness, that such a degree in his disordered imagi. it is necessary to take all possible me- nation, that what might have been but thods to restrain it. For this purpose trifiing grievances are exalted into it is very desirable to cultivate a habit evils of the first magnitude. A habit of looking always in preference on the therefore of dwelling on whatever is. bright side of every character, and in- in its nature fitted to give pleasure, deed of every object which attracts our and of endeavouring to look om fot notice. I would not recommend a the beneficial consequences wlrich are total blindness to the defects and errors to flow even from those which cannot, of others, for that might be fatal to in the first instance, be regarded with onr own personal security, and inju- satisfaction, is exceedingly well calrious to the important interests of culated to secure and increase our those whose welfare it is our more happiness. This is the disposition • immediate duty to promote ; but a which every sincere Christian, every YOL. XI.
On the Sources of Ilumun Happiness. believer in the constant superinten- which are most difficult to be procured. dance of an infinitely wise and kind In absolute enjoyment we are nearly Providence, will naturally cherish; upon a level; but the difference in and he will be led to this, by a sense our favour consists in this, that our not merely of its propriety, but of its pleasures are more secure and permaimmediate and direct influence on his nent than theirs, and also that almost present enjoyments. Let ihe more every change is with us a change from serious afflictions of life then teach us contented tranquillity to a state of patience and resignation. As for the high enjoyment, while they, having lighter grievances and petty miseries foolishly placed their habitual station by which so many suffer their tempers at the summit of all, cannot remove to be ruffled and their cheerfulness from it without descending. destroyed, let them be regarded as Such then are some of those sources htter subjects of a laugh or jest than of from which the wise and prudent any graser reflections. A very anus- man may, in ordinary cases, depend ing bookm-which had a great rua upon deriving an abundant and some years ago, but se'ns now almost secure supply of happiness ;-~frona forgotion--the “Miseries of Human innocent, or still better, from benefiLife," may perhaps show us the right cent, activity--from the exercise or way of dealing with these minor trou- the benevolent affections cither tobles. To allow them to destroy one's wards those with whom he is pecucomfort would be the extreme of folly; liarly connected by the ties of kindred and to talk about philosophy or resig- or friendship, or as delighting in the nation in connexion with such trifles more enlarged, expanded views of woull be equally absurd; the only universal philanthropy-from a serene method left therefore is to treat them and even temper, unruffled either by with their own characteristic levity: trifling offences on the part of others,
Another circumstance of great im- or by those petty miseries and vexaportance to human happiness, is a tions which occasionally occur to hinwise management and distribution of self. From these, and such as these, our habits. The capacity of acquiring the wise man may draw a never-fail-habits, both bodily and mental, is a ing supply of enjoyment. Not that he most important and valuable part of is to be always in transport or extacy, our constitution. By its means we for this is inconsistent with hunan acquire and continually improve our nature, and indeed is not in itself deskill in those occupations which are sirable; but a steady, uniform cheerto be the means of our subsistence or fulness and tranquillity which, from its the source of our usefulness to our permanence and security, will certainfellow-creatures ; and our various ne- ly furnish in the end a much greater cessary employments become, through sum of real happiness. The enumethe operation of the same general prin- ration is not by any ineans complete; ciple, not only easy but agreeable to for such is the admirable constitution us. Every thing however depends on of things, that, to the truly wise man, the right application of this principle. every object in nature, and almost It inay minister to virtue or be made every circumstance of life, may be subservient to vice; it may contribute made the source of pleasure. All the to happiness or greatly aggravate our provinces of external nature-all the misery, according as it is wisely or powers, desires and affections of his injudiciously directed. The object own mind, will contribute to his felitherefore in the regulation of our ha- city: the powers of taste and imaginabits must be that those things be ren- tion—the search after, and discovery dered easy and agreeable through fre- of, knowledge the interest he lakes quent practice, which are most essen- in the events which diversify the histially requisite to our comfort and tory of his species, all these, and a permanent well-being; and that we thousand other pleasures of the mind, render our pleasures dependent, as which, though nothing can in this inuch as possible, on those sources uncertain state be pronounced absowhich are most easily attainable. lutely imperishable and constantly Now all this may be done by habit. within reach, may yet be said to be in A habit of moderation in our desires general firmly secured to wise and good will enable us to take as much delight men as a just reward of intellectual and in the cheaper, more ordinary means moral happiness.
gratification, as others do in those
I the conduce
Mr. Wright on Dr. Adam Clarke's Notes on the Holy Scriptures. 319 Mr. Wright's Remarks on Two Passages can be conscienciously such? And 'in Dr. Adam Clarke's Notes on the if conscienciously Jews, according to Iloly Scriptures.
the law of Moses, will they not be V his remarks on 1 Cor. i. 8, the inen of strict integrity? Is he suffito illustrate the faithfulness of God: of all the Jews, to justify the censure the following is one of them :-“Rab- he passes upon thein? ki Simeon, the son of Shetach, bought In his notes on 1 Cor. xvth. chap. an ass from some Edomites, at whose the Doctor says, “ One remark I canneck his disciples saw a diamonil hang- not help making; the doctrine of the ing: they said unto him, Rabbi, the resurrection, appears to have been blessing of the Lord maketh rich, Prov. thought of much more consequence x. 22. But he answered, The ass I among the primitive Christians than have bought, but the diamond I have it is now! Ilow is this? The aposnot bought: therefore he returned the les were continually insisting on it, diamond to the Edomites.” To this and exciting the followers of God to story Dr. C. has added the following diligence, obedience and cheerfulness illiberal remark :-" This was an in- through it. And their successors in stance of rare honesty, not to be pa- the present day seldom mention it! ralleled among the Jews of the present So apostles preached; and so primitive day; and probably among few Gen- Christians believed : so we preach ; tiles.” On what authority the Gen- and so our hearers believe. There is tiles are supposed to be so much better not a doctrine in the gospel on which than the Jeu's, and the whole of the more stress is laid : and there is not latter, as well as the greater part of a doctrine in the present system of the foriner, to be destitute of strict ho- preaching which is treated with more nesty, the Doctor has not stated. It neglect !” Is not this an acknowledgis certain every strictly honest man ment that what is called evangelical would act as Rabbi Simeon is said to preaching in the present day is essenhave acted. It has been too much the tially different from the preaching of practice for Christians to speak of the the apostles? Dr. C. asserts that the Jews, because they do not believe that doctrine which the apostles were conJesus is the Christ, as men destiture tinually insisting on, is seldom menof all piety and virtue ; though proofs tioned by those he calls their succesof the contrary, might be produced. sors; but he does not state the reasons To treat a wholc people as altogether for this difference. He will not say depraved and worthless, is the way to the doctrine of the resurrection is of debase them, and injure their moral less importance nou than it was in the character. It is inconsistent with days of the apostles. He does not Christian charity, and even with com- attempt to justify the neglect of their mon justice, to represent a whole na- doctrine by modern preachers. Surely tion as not furnishing, in the present if those who take to themselves the day, a single instance of the strictest name of evangelical ministers in the honesty. I have been credibly in- present day had thz same views of the formed of an instance of what the gospel as the apostes had, they would Doctor calls rare honesty, in the con- preach as the apostles preached. duct of a Jew, with whom I was well Ought not Dr. C. and his readers to acquainted, which may be paralleled inquire whether the primitive docwith the case he has stated. The Jew trine of the gospel be not neglected I refer to travelling with his box, hap- on account of other doctrines being pened to call at a house where he was insisted on, as leading articles of faith, asked if he would purchase a watch which the apostles did not preach, which was presented to him: he in- and which cannot be found in their quired what price the person who discourses, of which we have an acoffered to sell him the watch required count in the book of Acts? There for it, and being told, he asked if the are ministers, but I fear the Doctor seller knew what the watch was, and would hardly allow them to be evanwas answered " Yes, it is a gilt one;" gelical, who insist more on the doche replied, “ No, you are mistaken, trine of the resurrection than all their it is a gold one, and worth much more numerous brethren who disown more than you ask for it."--Will Dr. them as legal teachers. C. take upon him to say that none of
R. WRIGHT. the Jews, in the present day, are or
320 Recent Case of Bigotry in Private Life.-Rheimish Versioni
Shore Place, Hackney, Sir, Ditchling, May 28, 1816. SIR, May 22, 1816.
N number CXXIV. of the Month
ly Repository, for April last, p. 199, an account of Lord Grosvenor hay. is a letter
purporting to come from the ing dismissed a number of his poor pen of a Roman Catholic to Dr. Carlabourers from his employ because penter, as a complaint against you. they could not conscientiously attend This letter seems to me to have been the Established Church. I have now
written in an arrogant style, with a to relate to you another circumstance considerable degree of petiishness. I of a similar description in the walks suppose an editor of a periodical work of humbler life. My niece, about the is not bound to examine all the authoage of eighteen, left me, about a fort- rities which his correspondents may night ago, to take a situation as dress- quote; therefore, no great blame beinaker to two maiden ladies, who longs to you, if any of them should have been long established in business, blunder or make mistakes : if you are at Newport, in the Isle of Wight: always ready to admit corrections, as both parties, were perfectly satisfied I Believe you always are, it is as much with each other as far as related to as can reasonably be required. business; but on the Sunday morning But what I would particularly wish after her arrival at Newport, it was
to take notice of in the Roman Cathoinquired of my niece, what place of lic's letter, is his account of the Rheimworship she had attended ; she an
ish version of the New Testament, swered, she had lately gone to an Uni- as it respects its reception among the tarian chapel at Hackney: she was
Roman Catholic clergy. He says it is told, they attended the Established the only translation sanctioned by Church, to which she said she had the Roman Catholic clergy." This no objections, and went with them translation, then, is sanctioned by the twice on that day and once on the Roman Catholic clergy! following Sunday. Nothing more Now, Sir, I wish to inquire, for was said to her on the subject, but on really, I feel myself a little alarmed, the Friday following I received a letter though I have always been a friend to from one of the ladies (A. F.) saying, Catholic emancipation, I wish to in my niece must immediately return, quire, whether the sanction of the assigning as a reason, that as she was of Roman Catholic clergy to the Rheima different religion to tíemselves they must ish translation extends to all the anbe under the necessity of parting with her, notations annexed to each chapter ? for it would be very uncomfortable to be If it do, pity, my weakness, I am disunited not only in their places of wor
afraid I see in it the direful demon or ship but in their ideas. They regret they persecution. The following is the did not know this before,
Rheimish rendering of Luke ix. 56:particularly as they think her a very “ The Son of Man came not to denice young lady." I replied, wishing stroy souls, but to save." The annoher to remain; but to no purpose: tation on these words is :-“ Not jusand she accordingly returned to me, tice nor all rigorous punishment of sioin company with oke of the ladies on ners is here forbidden, nor Elias, in her usual visit to London for the pur- fact, reprehended, nor the church or poses of business. It does not appear Christian princes blamed for putting that Unitarian worship is the particu- heretics to death: but that none of lar objection, but the crime of attend these should be done for a desire of ing any chapel; for they inforned my our particular revenge, or without niece, they had before turned off a discretion, and regard of their amend. young female because she was a metho- ment, and example of others. Theredist. So you see, Sir, that though we fore St. Peter used his power upon hear so much of the liberality of the Ananias and Sapphira, when he struck present age, the breed of a persecuting them both down to death for defraud, spirit is not yet extinct.
ing the church." We all know, that
J. W. in the Church of Rome's idea of hereP.S. I observe this morning in the and separate from her : according to
tics are included all those who differ Public Ledger that Lord Grosvenor's the above annotation these may be affair is contradicted.
rigorously punished; or, if it be said that the sinners are to be confined to