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ceived; as a king may be concealed under the dress of a slave.

Q. What is to be understood by the word substantially?

A. The word substantially is deserving of great attention, and will help to remove many difficulties from such as can distinguish between substance and accident. For by it we do not say that Christ is in the sacrament as in a place having reference to size and quantity, with all the other accidents of a material body, but as he is a sub, stance neither do we say, that the substance of the bread and wine is changed into the magnitude and quantity of Christ, but into the substance of Christ.

Q. When the host is divided, is there then any division made in the body of Christ?

A. No; for a division of the host is not a change of the substance it contains, but only of the accidents. As the consecration takes place equally, whether the substance of bread before consecration be in a greater or less quantity, so the whole substance of Christ remains in the smallest particle of every subsequent division of the species. It has been already said, that quan→ tity is an accident; but an accident is no part of the nature of substance. In a small urn, for instance, containing water, there must be all the nature of water, as much as in a river; in a spark all the nature of fire, as much as in a furnace.

Q. Why did Christ leave to the Church the sacrament of the Eucharist?

A. First, That the Church might always have the presence of her Spouse and of her God. 2dly, That on earth there might always be a sacrifice most acceptable to God. 3dly,-That men might have a spiritual food and refreshment.



Q. What is the definition of a sacrifice? A. It is an oblation of some sensible thing made to God by a priest or lawful minister, in order, by the destruction or change of the thing offered, to shew forth the absolute power and the supreme dominion of God over all created things. It is the supreme act of religion, and can be offered to none but to God.

Q. Is there offered in the Mass a true and proper sacrifice?

A. Yes; for there is publicly offered to God the Father, by a lawful minister, the body and blood of Jesus Christ, under the species of bread and wine, that their destruction or change may shew forth the absolute power and supreme dominion of God over all his creatures.

Q. Is this fit matter for a sacrifice?

A. Yes; the most fit that is possible; because the most acceptable to God, and most suited to produce all the ends of sacrifice: which are, 1st,

that the Deity may receive honour and glory from his creatures. 2dly, that he may be duly thanked for his benefits. 3dly, that he may receive an adequate satisfaction for sin. And 4thly, that he may be induced to confer new graces and blessings on his creatures.

Q. Does the sacrifice in the Mass formally agree with the general definition of a sacrifice ?

A. Yes. First it is an oblation of a sensible thing to God, most worthy of himself; for the body and blood of Christ are therein offered to God the Father, under the symbols of bread and wine. Secondly, Christ therein manifests the sacrifice he made of himself, and by it commemorates his bloody passion.-Thirdly, on the part of Christ, of the Church, and of the Priest, therein

is fully acknowledged the supreme and infinite sovereignty of God, over all created things,

Q. Who is the author of this sacrifice?

A. Jesus Christ, in a two-fold manner. First, because he himself instituted it. Secondly,-he himself offers it by the hands of the Priest.

Q. When did Christ institute this sacrifice? A. He instituted it and offered it at his last supper.

Q. Did Christ offer this sacrifice in his Passion?

A. Christ, in his Passion, offered a bloody sacrifice; but at his Supper, he instituted and offered an unbloody sacrifice, essentially the same, and substantially-commemorative of the other.

Q. When did Christ give power to his Apostles and their successors to offer this sacrifice? A. At his last Supper, when he said, Do this in commemoration of me. (Luke xxii. 19.)

Q. Does the Church offer this sacrifice? 44 A. Yes; by the ministry of the Priest. Q. Do the faithful, and particularly those present and assisting, offer this sacrifice ?

A. Yes; they offer it in the same manner, by the ministry of the Priest.

Q. Does the Priest then offer this sacrifice ? A. Yes; he offers it in the person of Christ. Q. Can this sacrifice lose or suffer in merit and dignity by the unworthiness or criminality of the offerers?

A. No; it cannot.

Q. Was this sacrifice prefigured in the Old Testament?

A. Yes. First, directly and particularly by Melchisedech's oblation:-Secondly, by the Jew ish feast of unleavened bread, which was annually observed on the day of Christ's Passion:-andthirdly by the eating of the Paschal Lamb.

Q. Was it spoken of by any of the Prophets?

A. Yes, clearly by Malachy (i. 11.)
Q. What does he say?

A. That a clean sacrifice and oblation, agreeable to God, should succeed the Jewish sacrifices, and should be continually offered throughout the world.

Q. What constitutes the sacrifice offered in the Mass?

A. The consecration of the body and blood of Christ; and the offering the same to the eternal Father.

Q. What is proposed by the other rites and ceremonies?

A. They elevate the minds of the faithful to a contemplation of the divine mysteries.

Q. Is this sacrifice also beneficial to the dead?

A. It is beneficial to those who, indebted to the justice of God, are satisfying for their sins in purgatory; as Jesus Christ may offer it for them to his eternal Father.

Q. What is the effect of this sacrifice on the living?

A. It has the same virtue and merit as the passion of Christ; for in essence it is the same sacrifice. The efficacy of this sacrifice is, that it applies to men, according to the disposition of their souls, all the fruit of the passion of Christ; that is his merit and satisfaction.

Q. How great is the dignity of this sacrifice?

A. It is infinite in dignity. For the thing offered being hypostatically united to the divinity contains infinite dignity. 2dly, As to the form; for the offerer is Christ, who is both God and man. The sacrifice is therefore infinite in dignity, and is only equalled by the sacrifice which Christ offered on the cross, with which it is identified. It is moreover the consummation and perfection of all the sacrifices offered to God under the natural and revealed law.

Q. Is not this sacrifice sometimes offered to the saints?

A. Never; the church merely makes a remembrance of them in the sacrifice, by returning thanks to God for the graces he has bestowed upon them, and by imploring their prayers.

Q. Should this sacrifice be offered every day? A. Yes; for it is the most supreme worship that can be rendered to God.


Q. As members of Christ what do we lose by sinning after baptism?

A. We forfeit the grace of Christ; tinue as his members dead in sin.

and con

Q. How can we recover from this state, and regain the grace and justice of Christ?

A. Only by sincere repentance and Christ's re-applying his merit to us.

Q. Has Christ promised on our sincere repentance to re-apply his merit and justice to us?

A. Yes, upon one condition; that we confess our sins with contrition, to a priest of his church, and from him obtain an absolution; also promising satisfaction.

Q. What is this sacrament called?
A. It is called the sacrament of


Q. Has it all the requisites for a sacrament? A. Yes; 1st, there is a sensible sign; 2dly, it causes grace; 3dly, it was instituted by Christ.

Q. By what words did Christ give his ministers a power to forgive sins?

A. By these words in St. John; whose sins ye shall forgive, they are forgiven them: and whose sins ye shall retain, they are retained. (xx. 19.)

Q. Is it absolutely necessary for all persons to receive this sacrament, in order to obtain the forgiveness of those sins they have committed since their baptism?


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