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Bonuses on Wages The bonuses for female workers who lose no time through absence in an entire week are as follows: 6 francs (16.7 cents) for spinners and 4.50 francs (12.5 cents) for thread makers (garenmaaksters), 3 francs (8.3 cents) for pullers (aftreksters).

One hour's loss of time per week disqualifies a worker for 50 per cent of the bonus and two hours' loss of time disqualifies altogether.

Holidays, mechanical breakdowns, etc., up to two days do not affect payment of bonus. Authorized leave or certified illness is deducted pro rata from the bonus.

Hacklers (hekelaars) under 16 years of age are paid the basic rate only. From 16 to 17 years they receive 10 centimes (0.3 cent) over the basic rate per hour, and from 17 to 18 years of age an additional 10 centimes per hour is paid, making 20 centimes over the basic rate.

W

General Survey of Wages in France, 1930 and 19311
AGE rates in the manufacturing, coal and metal mining, oil

production, agriculture and lumber industries in France given in the following tables are based on reports of official agencies and trade associations. The wages relate in general to 1930 or 1931 and cover industries the products of which enter into international commerce.

In cases where one of these industries is definitely concentrated in one or two sections of France, even though it may be carried on to some extent in other portions of the country, the average wage statistics refer only to the dominantly important area or areas of concentration. In other instances, where a particular industry is spread in a general way over a large part of the country, the figures refer to all of France, though in such cases where wage differences seem to warrant it, separate wage figures are given for the “Paris region,” a term applying to the important manufacturing area including and reaching out from the city of Paris and its suburbs.

Hours of Labor IN ALL of the industries represented, except agriculture, the hours of labor are limited by legislation. The French Labor Code provides (Vol. II, Book I, Ch. II, art. 6) that "in industrial or commercial concerns, or in their dependencies, of whatever nature, public or private, lay or religious, even if they possess the character of professional instruction or charity, the duration of work of the laborers or employees of either sex or of any age, may not exceed 8 hours per day, or 48 hours per week, or an equivalent limitation based on a period of time other than the week.”? Variations of the 8-hour day

2 which are suggested in the law, as well as exceptional or emergency digressions from it, are arranged by the public authorities, according to a balancing of the interests of employers and laborers.

· This report was prepared by the American Consular Service in France under the direction of L. J. Keena, American Consul General. Consular officers participating in the preparation of the report were: Årchitald E. Gray, Bordeaux; Frank Cussans, Bordeaux; James G. Carter, Calais; Harold Playter, Lille; Hugh H. Watson, Lyon; James P. Moffitt, Marseille; Richard W. Morin, Paris; John G. Wood, Strassburg.

* Law of Apr. 23, 1919.

Unless special mention is made to the contrary in the statements of wage rates for the various industries indicated, it may be assumed that the 48-hour week is in effect, either through a week of six days of 8 hours each, or five days at 9 hours and 3 hours on Saturday, or some other variation.

The 8-hour day is not obligatory for agricultural workers and the number of working hours depends entirely upon the agreement between the employer and the worker. Most farm laborers work from sunrise to sunset, depending on the work to be done and the season; those who are employed by the day generally work 8 hours.

Child Labor ACCORDING to the French labor code "children may not be employed nor admitted into factories, manufactures, mines, quarries, works, or workshops of any kind, nor in their dependencies, whether they are public or private, lay or religious, even when these establishments possess a professional or charitable character, before the age of 13 years." There are certain exceptions to this regulation but they are not important for the purpose of this study.

Free Housing and Transportation IT CAN NOT be said that free housing for laborers has become the general custom in France. There are, however, many industrial establishments, especially in the mining industry, which have constructed lodgings to be used by their employees without charge, or for a nominal charge. Diversity of practice and lack of published information makes it impossible to give reliable estimates of the extent to which such advantages add to the cash value of wages.

In the smaller industrial centers and especially in the mining and textile industries, free transportation is provided to and from work.

Family Allowances The custom of supplementing wages with special allotments or allowances to laborers according to the size of their families grew up during the war. Beginning with a few industries, it has gradually spread into nearly all fields of industrial endeavor. From its inception the system, consisting of contributions solely from employers to funds for distribution to laborers in a particular industry or group of industries, has been entirely voluntary and optional. The single exception to this is that employers engaged in public works are required by a law enacted in 1922 to contribute to a fund for distribution according to the size of laborers' families, based on minimum rates fixed by each Department in France.

A central organization called the Comité Central des Allocations Familiales, with officers in Paris, heads the system. A large proportion of the organizations administering the funds for particular industries or groups of industries are members of this central committee. In 1930, the total personnel of the industries adhering to the central committee consisted of 1,880,800 workers. The mining industry, the railways and a few smaller industries are not affiliated

* A bill is now pending which would make compulsory contributions by all employers to family allow. ance funds.

with the central committee but distribute the family allotments among their workers through their own organizations.

It is estimated that at present there are between four and four and a half million persons in France benefiting, in addition to their wages, from family allowances, totaling 1,700,000,000 francs ($66,640,000) annually. This includes beneficiaries of the member organizations of the central committee, independent organizations, and public work organizations.

In addition to cash allowances, these organizations allot certain benefits in kind, such as sending children to healthful localities, supplying visiting nurses, making loans for household goods, free laundry, gifts of linen, subsidies to companies constructing cheap houses, milk allowances for children, birth bonuses, etc. The annual disbursements made for these purposes from organizations affiliated with the central committee total about 10,000,000 francs ($392,000).

As an illustration, the following brief statement of operations is given for one of the important organizations in the Paris region affiliated with the central committee. This Paris organization is made up of employers in the metallurgy, electrical and associated lines and includes 2,165 establishments employing 402,000 workers. Allowances were paid to 102,000 families and 167,000 children in 1930, the total allotments amounting to 75,150,000 francs ($2,945,880).

The cash value of the allotments by organizations in several French industrial centers is shown in the following table. Where the particular organization is devoted to a special industry instead of to a group of several industries, it is indicated parenthetically.

TABLE 1.--MONTHLY RATES PAID AS FAMILY ALLOWANCES IN FRANCE IN SPECIFIED

LOCALITIES AND INDUSTRIES

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Bordeaux
Clermont Ferrand.
Grenoble (gloves).
Le Havre
Lille (textile)
Lille (metallurgy).
Lyon
Lyon (weaving)
Marseille.
Nantes
Orleans.
Paris
Hennis
Rouen (textile)
Rouen (clothing)
Saint Etienne (metallurgy)
Strassburg-
Troyes

France France France France France France

20.00 50. 00 90.00 130.00 170.00 210.00 20.00 50. 00 90.00 140.00

200.00 260.00 20.00 50. 00 90.00 140.00 200.00 260.00 15.00 45. 00 90.00 150.00 225, 00 300.00 30.00 70.00 120.00 180.00 250.00

330.00 30.00 100.00 180.00 280.00

400.00 540.00 45. 00 85. 00 120.00 180.00 250.00 20.00 60.00 105. 00 180.00 250.00 330.00 20.00 45. 00 70.00 120.00 175.00 240.00 25.00 60.00 120.00 210.00 300.00 390.00 17. 50 40.00 67. 50 105. 00 122 50 150,00 20.00 50.00 90.00 110. 00 200.00 260.00 30. 00 70.00 120.00 200.00 280.00 360.00 12. 50 27. 50 50.00 90.00 140.00 200.00 40.00 95. 00 160.00 235, 00 320.00 415.00 15.00 45.00 80.00 120. 00 165.00 215.00 20.00 50.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 250.00 300.00 40.00 100.00 220.00 340.00 460.00 580.00

Thus in considering the following wage tables it must be recalled that where the individual worker has a family his income will be substantially greater in almost every case than the mere statement of his wage rate would indicate.

*Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=3.92 cents.

91909°-32-12

Wage Taxes and Income Tax The salary tax (impôt sur les traitements) is payable by all persons domiciled in France on January 1, on their total salaries, pensions, annuities, or other remuneration earned or received during the preceding year, either in France or abroad. The tax is essentially a personal tax, each member of a family being assessable separately on his own income.

The following are among the most important sources of personal income that are assessable:

1. Salaries and remunerations received for services rendered (except family allowances).

2. Remuneration in kind, such as accommodation, food, light, etc. 3. Bonuses or Christmas gifts.

4. Life pensions (except war pensions or those arising out of civil accidents) and pensions for a limited period.

5. Income of artisans and other individuals working for their own account, who would normally be assessable under the commercial profits tax but who are specially exempted therefrom by law.

From the income received it is permitted to make certain deductions for taxation purposes, among which are the following:

1. Salary tax paid during the preceding year.

2. Contributions to pension-fund schemes, or alternatively, lifeinsurance premiums.

3. Traveling expenses to and from the place of business.

4. Cost of books and periodicals necessitated by the occupation followed.

5. Subscriptions to trade or professional associations.

6. Extra cost of meals necessarily taken at restaurants, owing to distance of place of occupation from home.

From the income thus arrived at the following deductions for taxation purposes are allowed:

1. 3,000 francs ($117.60) for the wife, if her income does not exceed this amount.

2. 3,000 francs ($117.60) for each child under 18 years of age, and not in receipt of earned income in excess of this amount (this allowance is increased to 4,000 francs ($156.80) for the third and subsequent children).

3. 2,000 francs ($78.40) for any other person under the taxpayer's charge.

It should be observed that, if the husband and wife are both taxable then only the one who has the greater income is entitled to the deductions.

From January 1, 1930, the rate of tax payable is 10 per cent, subject to the following relief: (a) When the taxable income arrived at in the manner set out above does not exceed 10,000 francs, it is totally exempted from the tax; (b) on taxable income between 10,000 ($392) and 20,000 francs ($784) only 50 per cent is taxable; between 20,000 ($784) and 40,000 francs ($1,568) only 75 per cent is taxable, and in excess of 40,000 francs it is taxable in full.

The many reservations and deductions connected with the application of this tax result in but few persons properly classified as laborers paying it.

While employers must submit data on their employees in connection with this, they do not withhold sums from their wages unless requested to do so in special cases by the authorities.

The income tax (impôt général sur le revenu) begins on incomes of 10,000 francs ($392), but exemptions and deductions which are allowed rarely place a laborer in the position of having to pay it.

Social Insurance Deductions

The social insurance law which came into effect on July 1, 1930, provides for the compulsory insurance of all French wage earners whose annual remuneration does not exceed 15,000 francs ($588), or 18,000 francs ($704.60) in cities of more than 200,000 inhabitants and in industrial centers. The risks covered are sickness, incapacity, old age, and death.

For the purpose of contributions and benefits, the insured are divided into five wage classes. The amount of the contribution thus varies in accordance with the wages of the insured, but the average is 4 per cent of the wage. This sum is held back on pay day by the employer, who puts it with an equivalent sum from his own pocket to be turned over to the administrative authorities.

Wages in Manufacturing Industries The following nine industries have been selected as representative of the French manufacture of products appearing in international commerce: Automobiles, textiles, metallurgy, clothing, furniture, tanning, beauty products, gloves, and beet sugar.

Automobile Industry

Table 2 shows the average rates per hour for piecework and time work in the automobile industry in the Paris district.

TABLE 2.-AVERAGE HOURLY WAGES IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF THE PARIS

DISTRICT, JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1931, BY OCCUPATION

The industry (except body building)
(Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=3.92 cents]

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Skilled workers (professionnels), male:

Francs Tool sharpeners (affuteurs-outilleurs).

6. 48 Fitters (ajusteurs)

5.92 Engine fitters and assemblers (ajusteurs-monteurs et assembleurs).

6. 22 Tool adjusters, tool fitters (ajusteurs-outilleurs).

7. 17 Drill adjusters (ajusteurs-traceurs).

6. 77 Drillers (aléscurs).

6. 63 Coppersmiths (chaudronniers en cuirre au marteau).

6. 58 Copper-pipe makers (chaudronniers en cuivre tuyauteurs).

6. 38 Boiler makers (chaudronniers en fer)..

6. 17 Including all premiums, bonuses, etc., except family allowances,

24.4
28. 1
26.5
26
25.8
25
24. 2

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