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survey reveals that they received in September, 1931, the following wages, per day of 8 hours, including the conventional bonus of 19 per cent of the wage at which engaged.

TABLE 9.-AVERAGE DAILY WAGES OF DAY WORKERS IN COAL MINES IN THE

CALAIS REGION, SEPTEMBER, 1931
(Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=3.92 cents]

Average daily wages

Class of worker, and occupation

French cur.

rency

United

States currency

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Underground workers (ouvriers de fond):

Pickmen (picqueurs, ouvriers d'about)
Trimmers (raucheurs).
Timbermen (raccommodeurs).
Fillers-in, truckmen, and laborers (remblayeurs, herscheurs et manquvres),

over 21 years of age.
Surface workers (ourriers du jour):

Machinists and machinists' helpers (machinistes et aide-machinistes)
Firemen (chauffeurs).
Shaft men (moulineurs).-
Laborers (manauvres), over 21 years of age.
Women and girls (femmes et filles).

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Saar region. The statement below shows the average wages in the Saar coal mines:

Per day Pickmen (picqueurs).

8 36.12–38.70 francs ($1.42-1.52) Underground workers (ouvriers de fond): Group 1.

36.12 francs ($1.42) Group 2.

34.18 francs ($1.34) Group 3

32.25 francs ($1.26) Surface workers (ouvriers du jour): Group 1.

34.18 francs ($1.34) Group 2.

32.25 francs ($1.26) Group 3.

30.90 francs ($1.21) Deductions for social insurance of all kinds amount to 98 francs ($3.84) per month. Miners taken by motorbusses must pay their own fare. Those living at a distance, returning only weekly to their families, either hire sleeping accommodations in private quarters or pay a reduced sum for accommodations in the dormitories maintained by the Direction of the Mines. The family allowance amounts to an average of 1.50 francs (5.9 cents) per day for each member of the family not working.

Strassburg and Lyon regions. The average daily wages in coal mines of the Strassburg and Lyon regions are shown in Table 10:

6 For 6 hours.

TABLE 10.-AVERAGE DAILY WAGES IN COAL MINES IN STRASSBURG AND LYON

REGIONS

(Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=3.92 cents)

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Includes family allowances and all other cash payments of every nature. Does not include material Brantages which are considerable as coal is usually supplied either free or at a nominal figure, and housing Hummodation is furnished in much the same way.

The data for the Lyon region in the above table cover the second quarter of 1931. From April 1 to May 15, 1931, a reduction was put in force by which pay of men over 21 was cut 1.40 frs. (5.5 cents) per day and smaller cuts were made for younger employees. On May 16th this cut was carried to 2 francs.(7.8 cents). Miners are paid for the most part on a bonus system, comprising a minimum with subsequent payments for larger output. These conditions vary in different mines and under different conditions.

Iron Mines

In the iron mines, there is a family allowance of 1 franc (3.9 cents) for the wife, 1.25 francs (4.9 cents) for the first child, 1.50 francs (5.9 cents) for the second and 2 francs (7.8 cents) for each succeeding child, for each working-day. About 51 per cent of the workers occupy lodgings at reduced rentals and receive coal at special rates. An average of 1.74 francs (6.8 cents) per working-day is charged each worker for social insurance, the employer paying 2.09 francs (8.2 cents) as his contribution.

The daily rates paid in the iron mines of the Strassburg region in September, 1931, are shown in the following statement:

Per day
Pickmen..

744.68 francs ($1.75).
Other underground workers. 36.96–41.95 francs ($1.45–1.64).
Surface workers.--.

27.52 francs ($1.08).

Potash Mines The statement following shows the wage rates paid in the potash mines of the Strassburg region in September, 1931:

Per day
Pickmen..

41.35 francs ($1.62).
Other underground workers. 35.35–37.44 francs ($1.39–1.47).
Surface workers.--.

30.05 francs ($1.18). For 8 hours per day from mouth to pit and return.

Family allowances are also paid, the rate per working-day being as follows: For 1 child.

1.35 francs (5.3 cents). For 2 children.

3.00 francs (11.8 cents). For 3 children.

5.05 francs (19.8 cents). For 4 children.

7.50 francs (29.4 cents). For 5 children.

10.35 francs (40.6 cents). For 6 children.

13.60 francs (53.3 cents). For 7 children.

17.25 francs (67.6 cents). For 8 children.

21.30 francs (83.5 cents). For 9 children.

23.75 francs (93.1 cents). Social insurance is compulsory in the potash mines, as in the iron mines.

Excellent lodgings in cottages are furnished to families at very cheap rates. Single men also get reduced prices.

Wages in Oil Production The average daily wages in the production of oil in the Strassburg district are shown below:

Per day
Pickmen.

36.19 francs ($1.42).
Other underground workers..

27.48 francs ($1.08). Surface workers.

24.14 francs ($0.95). The family allowance amounts to 2 franes (7.8 cents) for each child. Social insurance is compulsory.

Wages in the Lumber Industry Table 11 shows the average hourly and daily rates paid in the lumber industry in the Bordeaux district:

TABLE 11.-AVERAGE RATES PER HOUR AND PER DAY IN THE LUMBER INDUSTRY

OF THE BORDEAUX DISTRICT

[Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=3.92 cents]

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The 8-hour day and 48-hour week are worked in sawmills and lumber yards, with double pay for overtime. Boys from 15 to 18 years of age are paid less than the wage scale indicated above, receiving from 15 francs (58.8 cents) to 25 francs (98 cents) per day.

The wages shown are net, except for a social insurance contribution of 1.25 francs (4.9 cents) per man, per day, the expense of which is borne by the worker. There are no supplementary payments, such as family allowances, payments in kind, paid holidays, free housing and land for garden, etc.

Dock-yard workers receive 40 francs ($1.57) per 8-hour day for handling mine props.

Wages in Agriculture IN CONNECTION with the law of December 15, 1922, extending the workmen's compensation law to cover agricultural workers, each prefect is required to furnish a table of wages classified by occupations and, when possible, by locality. These reports are made every two years. The average wages of agricultural workers vary greatly in the different departments. The lowest yearly wages reported for day laborers were 3,060 francs ($119.95) in the Department of Alpes (Haute) while the highest 9,750 francs ($382.20) with board and lodging, were paid in the Department of the Seine. The wages of farm hands varied from 4,112 francs ($161.19) in the Department of Loire, Inferieure, to 11,000 francs ($431.20) in the Department of Aveyron, while the annual wages of teamsters ranged from 4,800 francs ($188.16) in the Department of Dordogne to 11,250 francs ($441) in the Department of the Seine, in the latter case board and lodging also being furnished. Among woman farm laborers, the lowest wages, 1,300 francs ($50.96), were found in the Department of Finistere, and the highest, 7,500 ($294), in the Department of Maine-et-Loire, while the wages of farm servants ranged from 2,500 francs ($98) in Ariege to 8,000 francs ($313.60) in Aveyron. In addition to the cash wages, farm workers also receive various payments in kind.

Table 6 shows the average daily and yearly wages of the different
classes of farm workers in 1928 and 1930.
Table 12-AVERAGE DAILY AND YEARLY WAGES OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF AGRI.

CULTURAL WORKERS IN FRANCE IN 1928 AND 1930
(Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=3.92 cents)

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General Survey of Wages in Luxemburg, 1931 'HE principal industries in Luxemburg are iron mining, the iron

and steel industry, and agriculture. The wages which were in effect in those industries in September, 1931, are given in this report.!

Iron Mining and Iron and Steel Industry Owing to the greatly curtailed production of iron and steel and large stocks of iron ore in storage, miners are to-day being paid from 5 to 7.50 francs (13.9 to 20.9 cents)? per ton of ore brought out, but each miner is allowed to produce only a certain number of tons of ore in one day or shift. No overtime is allowed and a miner must quit work when he has produced his allotment.

As a rule the miner produces his daily allotment of ore in about seven hours, and his average daily earnings vary, according to the mine and quality of ore, from 50 to 86 francs ($1.39 to $2.39) perday. The miners are working, on the average, five days per week, and the total amount of cash received is much less than during the period when work was allowed seven days per week and a miner could, if he chose, work 10 hours a day and produce as much ore as possible, being paid a bonus for every ton over his daily allotment.

The wages of unskilled labor in the steel mills range from 7 to 13 francs (19.5 to 36.1 cents) per hour. At present no overtime or Sunday work is permitted; in fact about five days' work per week is furnished, but during the month workmen are laid off on the average about half of a month's work for each man. An 8-hour day means a wage of 44 to 56 francs ($1.22 to $1.56) per day for unskilled labor and 56 to 104 francs ($1.56 to $2.89) per day for skilled labor.

Insurance.—Both miners and mill workers are subject to the compulsory insurance laws and must be covered in two classes of insurance-that against industrial accidents, for which the entire premium is paid by the employer, and that against old age and invalidity, the contribution for which is paid half by the worker and half by the employer. This contribution at present is 4 per cent of the wages paid, 2 per cent being paid by the worker.

1 Report from Frederick L. Washbourne, American vice consul, Luxemburg, Luxemburg. > Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=2.78 cents.

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