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Agriculture IN THE Grand Duchy of Luxemburg both men and women are employed in agriculture.

The table following gives the current rate of wages for the various types of farm labor. În connection with these figures it should be noted that they are in addition to board and lodging, which are furnished free by the employer.


(Conversions into United States currency on basis of franc=2.78 cents]

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Day workers do not receive board and lodging; they are paid in the winter season 15 to 25 francs (41.7 to 69.5 cents) per day and in the busy season from April until after the harvest, 25 to 35 and 40 francs (69.5, 97.3 cents and $1.11) per day.

The day of the farm laborer with board and lodging is determined by weather conditions and in pleasant weather may last from sunrise to sunset, with numerous periods for refreshments.

Insurance.-Accident insurance is compulsory, and the entire premium is paid by the employer. Farm labor is not subject to any other form of insurance at the present time, so that there are no deductions from their wages for insurance contributions.

Summary for November, 1931
MPLOYMENT decreased 2.4 per cent in November, 1931, as

compared with October, 1931, and pay-roll totals decreased 3.7 per cent.

The industrial groups surveyed, the number of establishments reporting in each group, the number of employees covered, and the total pay rolls for one week, for both October and November, together with the per cents of change in November, are shown in the following summary: SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND PAY-ROLL TOTALS, OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER,


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1 Weighted per cent of change for the combined 54 manufacturing industries, repeated from Table 1, man. ufacturing industries; the remaining per cents of change, including total, are unweighted.

: Cash payments only: see note 3, Table 1, non manufacturing industries.

: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont. Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota. South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia. Fast South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee. West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas. Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming. Pacific: California, Oregon, Washington.

The per cents of change shown for the total figures represent only the changes in the establishments reporting, as the figures for the several industrial groups are not weighted according to the relative importance of each group.

Employment in retail trade establishments increased 1.2 per cent in November as compared with October, and earnings of employees in this industrial group increased 0.9 per cent.

Slight gains in pay-roll totals over the month interval coupled with decreases of 1.5 per cent each in employment were reported in electricrailroad operation and in power, light, and water plants.

The remaining 12 industrial groups included in the summary table reported decreases in both employment and pay-roll totals in November as compared with October.

Decreases in employment ranging from 0.3 per cent to 1.8 per cent were reported in bituminous coal mining; telephone and telegraph; wholesale trade; electric-railroad operation; power, light, and water; and metalliferous mining. Laundries reported 2.2 per cent fewer employees, manufacturing industries reported a falling off of 2.8 per cent in number of workers, and employment in hotels decreased 2.9 per cent from October to November. Employment in anthracite mining decreased 3.4 per cent, dyeing and cleaning establishments showed a loss of 4.4 per cent in number of workers, and crude petroleum-producing plants reported 4.6 per cent fewer employees in November than in the preceding month. A seasonal decrease in quarrying and nonmetallic mining of 8.1 per cent was reported in November, while the usual closing of establishments with the completion of the vegetable canning season resulted in a loss of 43.8 per cent in number of employees in the canning and preserving industry over the month interval.

Each of the nine geographic divisions reported decreases in both employment and earnings from October to November, the smallest decrease in employment (1.3 per cent) being reported in the South Atlantic division, while the greatest decline in number of workers (5.6 per cent) was shown in the Pacific geographic division. The decrease in this last-named division was due largely to the seasonal decrease in the canning and preserving industry in that division in November

Per capita earnings for November, 1931, given in the first table on page 192 must not be confused with full-time weekly rates of wages; they are actual per capita weekly earnings computed by dividing the total number of employees reported into the total amount of pay roll in the week reported, and the number of employees "includes all persons who worked any part of the period reported—that is, part-time workers as well as full-time workers. Comparisons are made with per capita earnings in October, 1931, and with November, 1930.

For convenient reference the latest data available relating to all employees, excluding executives and officials, on Class I railroads, drawn from Interstate Commerce Commission reports, are shown in the second table on page 192. These reports are for the months of September and October, instead of for October and November, 1931, consequently, the figures can not be combined with those presented in the summary table.



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The total number of employees included in this summary is 5,761, 836, and their combined earnings in one week amount to approximately $139,000,000.

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Employment in Selected Manufacturing Industries in Novem

ber, 1931 Comparison of Employment and Pay-Roll Totals in Manufacturing Indus

tries in November, 1931, with October, 1931, and November, 1930 MPLOYMENT in manufacturing industries decreased 2.8 per

and pay-roll totals decreased 5.0 per cent.

În each of the last nine years, with but one exception, employment and pay-toll totals in manufacturing industries have decreased from October to November. This falling off in employment and earnings in November is due largely to decreases in employment in industries connected with building construction, the between-season declines in the clothing and the boot and shoe industries, and the usual shrinkage in employment in the automobile industry which regularly reports decreased employment at this time of year due to temporary lay-offs occasioned by changes in automobile models.

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Measured by changes in indexes of employment and earnings over the year interval, the level of employment in November, 1931, was 14.5 per cent below the corresponding month of the previous year, and pay-roll totals were 25.3 per cent lower than in November, 1930

These per cents of change in employment and earnings from October to November, 1931, are based upon returns made by 13,958 establishments in 54 of the principal manufacturing industries of the United States, having in November 2,519,455 employees, whose combined earnings in one week were $52,110,615.

The index of employment in November, 1931, is 65.4, as compared with 67.3 for October, 1931, 69.6 for September, 1931, and 76.5 for November, 1930; the index of pay-roll totals for November, 1931, is 51.0, as compared with 53.7 for October, 1931, 55.4 for September, 1931, and 68.3 for November, 1930. The monthly average for 1926 equals 100.

Each of the 12 groups of manufacturing industries upon which the bureau's indexes of employment and pay-roll totals are based reported decreases in both employment and earnings from October to November, with the single exception of the vehicles group, which showed a slight.gain in pay-roll totals coupled with a decrease in number of workers. The decreases in employment in the paper, tobacco, and miscellaneous groups of industries were less than 1 per cent. The leather group of industries reported the greatest loss in number of workers over the month (12 per cent) due to the decline in employment in the boot and shoe industry, in which a more pronounced decrease than is customarily reported was shown from October to November. The stone, clay, and glass group reported a decrease of 4.6 per cent, due to seasonal fluctuation in industries connected with building construction, while the lumber and the textiles groups reported decreases in employment of 3.4 per cent and 3.0 per cent, respectively. The remaining 5 groups reported losses ranging from 1.3 per cent in the food group to 2.6 per cent in the chemicals group.

The decreases in employment in these 12 groups of manufacturing industries over the year interval, as measured by changes in the index numbers of employment, range from 5.9 per cent in the food group to 23.2 per cent in the vehicles group, and the decreases in pay-roll totals range from 13.5 per cent in the paper group to 39.5 per cent in the iron and steel group. The decline in earnings in each of these groups over the year interval is more pronounced than the decreases in employment.

Increased employment was shown in 8 of the 54 manufacturing industries on which the bureau's indexes of employment and pay-roli totals are based, and increased earnings were reported in 5 industries. The greatest increase in employment from October to November, 6.8 per cent, was shown in the agricultural-implement industry. The rubber boot and shoe industry reported a gain of 4.2 per cent in number of employees over the month interval, and employment in the shipbuilding industry increased 3.9 per cent. The chewing and smoking tobacco industry and the cane-sugar refining industry reported increases in employment of 3.0 per cent and 2.9 per cent, respectively. The most pronounced decrease in employment from October to November, 13.9 per cent, was reported in the boot and shoe industry, in which a decrease of somewhat more than seasonal proportion was shown. A number of plants in this industry reported

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