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TABLE 1.-COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT AND PAY-ROLL TOTALS IN IDENTICAL NONMANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS IN OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER, 1931, BY INDUSTRIES-Continued

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Not including electric car building and repairing; see manufacturing industries, Table 1, et seq.

Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. The amount of pay roll given represents cash payments only; the additional value of board, room, and tips can not be computed.

Included in the total of 991 establishments reporting in November were 2 establishments which were sosed in October but had resumed operation in November, and 112 establishments which were operating in October and reported a seasonal closing in November, 1931. There were also 73 additional canning establishments, whose reports were not included in the total number of reporting establishments, as the plants had been seasonally closed for a period of 2 or more months. TABLE 2.-COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT AND PAY-ROLL TOTALS IN NON

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, NOVEMBER, 1931, WITH NOVEMBER, 1930

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Indexes of Employment and Pay-Roll Totals for Nonmanufacturing

Industries Table 3 shows the index numbers of employment and pay-roll totals for anthracite, bituminous coal, and metalliferous mining, quarrying, crude petroleum producing, telephone and telegraph, power, light, and water, electric railroads, wholesale and retail trade, hotels, and canning and preserving, by months, from January, 1930, to November, 1931, with the monthly average for 1929 as 100. Index numbers for the laundering and the dyeing and cleaning groups are not presented, as data for the base year, 1929, are not available.

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TABLE 3.-INDEXES OF EMPLOYMENT AND PAY-ROLL TOTALS FOR NONMANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, JANUARY, 1930, TO NOVEMBER, 1931

(Monthly average, 1929= 100]

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Em | Pay- Em | Pay- | Em- 1 Pay- Em | Pay | E1-1 Pay- Em- | Pay- | Em- | Pay-| Em- Pay-| Employ- roll ploy- roll

Pay-1 Em | Pay-1 Em- | Pay- Em | Pay ploy- | roll ploy- roll ploy- | roll ploy- roll ploy- roll ploy

roll ploy- roll ploy- roll ploy- roll ploy- roll ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totals ment totalsment totals

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94.0 101.6 105. 1 99.6 99.7

97.1 97.81 100.0 100.0 98.9 99.7 100.4 100.3 46.1 50.3 88.6 100. 2 101.9 98.8 100. 4 95. 1 95.7 98. 51 98. 3 94. 4 96. O 102.4 103.8 45. 7 51.5 91. 3 99. 4| 105.8 99.7| 102. 1 94. 40

95. 4

97.7 99.7 93.9 95. 5102. 41 104. 4 49.71 50.8
86.6 98.9 103.4 100.7 102.61 95.2 97.11 97.3 97.91 97.3 97,5) 100.1 100.3 74. 8 72.6
85. 4 99.7 103, 21 103.4 104.5 95. 2 96. 01 96.8 97.4

96.7 97. 31 98.0 98. 4 65.7 66.9
87. 1 99.81 103.4 104.6 107.8 94.8 97.0 96. 51 98.6 93.9 96.8 98.01

98. 1

83. 01 81.5
88.5 100.0 106.6 105.9 106.71 95.3 95. 6 96.0 96.0 89. OL 91.71 101.31 99.8| 126.3 112.7
86.0 98.8 102.5 106. 41 106.6 92. 9 92.1 95. 0 93. 6 85. 6 87.61 101.5 98.6 185.71 172.0
84. 0 96.8 102. 2 105. 2 106. 1 91.8

90.5

94. 81 93. 6 92. OL 92.4 100.1 97.1 246. 6| 214.8 82. 6 94.5 100.C 104.8 105.6 91.0 88.9 94. 2 92. 9 95. 5 95.1 97.5 95, 51 164. 71 140.0 80. O 93. O 97.9 103. 103.7 89.3 87.7 92. 6 91.0 98. 4 96.81 95. 2 93. 6 96.7 82.9 77. 21 91.61 101.3 103, 2 106.3 88. S 88.6 92.0 91.3 115. 1 107.7 93. 51 91.5 61. 6 57. 4

80.5 79. OL 78. 1

71.91 71.01 69.91

89.91 89.31 87.71

85. 5 85. 8 82.5

89.91 87.7 85.0

91.6

77.21 72. 8 70.1

68. 6 63. 4 59.91

81.7 78. 31 7C, 21

79. 3 66.8 59.9

85. 2 83.6 77.4

Average

93.41 95.3 93, 4

81.31

83.21

78.0

84.3

79.31

87,41

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73, 3
68.3
65. 21

69. 3
65. 31
63. 5

55.0
54. 61
52.8

90. 51
89. 2
88.61

1931
January
February
March.
April
May.
June
July.
August
September
October
November

90.6 89, 3 93.9
89.5 101.91 91. 5
82.0 71.3 88.8
85. 2 75. 21 85.9
80.3 76. 1 82. 4
76.1 66.7 78. 4
65. 1 53. 7 76.4
67.31 56.4

77.0
80.01
64. 91

80.4
86.81 91.11 81.31
83.81 79.91 81. 1

50.4
54. 4
58. 21
62.6
62. 31
60. 1

64.41
66. 61
70.01
76.1
75.0
72.3
71. 01
68. 9
66.6
64. 5
59.3

58. 61
54. 4
52. 4

74.8 71.5
73. 2 70.0
72. 273. 2
69.8

66.31
67.8 64.7
65.0 62.7
65. 3 59. 2
62. 4 56. 3
61. 2 55. 21
60.4 54. 4
57.6 52.0

63.91
62. 4
60.0

51.4)
49.3
46.1

88.1
87. 41
86.9

50. 41
50. 6
53. 6
56. 2
54, 6

56. 21
55. 8
55. 5

41.3
40. 2
40.0
37.4
35. 1

57.3
55. 1
51.21
48, 7
43. 3

86. 61
85.9
85.01
84. 1
83. 5

53.81
52.8

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85. 21 84.1

79.9| 79.7

89.81 90.91

84. 6 85. 41

88. 51 85.91

· Not including electric-railroad car building and repairing; see vehicles group, manufacturing industries, Table 1, et seq.

Employment in Building Construction in November, 1931

I

NFORMATION as to changes in volume of employment and pay

roll totals in building construction for each of the 38 cities covered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics appears in the following table. Similar data, furnished by 4 cooperating State bureaus, covering 5 cities in Pennsylvania-Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Reading, Scranton, and Erie; Baltimore (Md.), and the States of Massachusetts and Wisconsin are also presented.

The table shows the number of identical firms reporting for both months, the number of employees, and the amount of earnings in one week in October and November, 1931, together with the per cents of change over the month period.

In the 38 cities covered by the Federal bureau, reports were received from 6,186 identical contractors who had a total employment for a week ending near November 15 of 61,139 as compared with 67,970 for a similar period in October. While this is a decrease of 10.1 per cent, 8 cities showed increased employment in November over that of October. These increases ranged from 1.8 for Fort Wayne to 18.8 per cent for Salt Lake City. The combined pay roll of all reporting firms for a week ending near November 15 was $1,741,484. This is a decrease of 11.7 per cent when compared with $1,973,158, the amount of pay roll for a similar period ending near October 15. Increased pay rolls are shown in 3 cities.

The information for the 5 cities in Pennsylvania covers 1,189 firms whose employment for the week ending nearest November 15 was 9,311 as compared with 10,373 in October. This is a decrease of 10.2 per cent. Combined pay rolls in these 5 cities decreased about the same percentage.

When all the information supplied by cooperating State bureaus is combined with that of the Federal bureau, the number of identical firms reporting is increased to 8,214. These firms had a combined total of 83,287 employees for a week ending near November 15 as compared with 92,067 for a similar period in October. This is a decrease of 9.5 per cent. These same firms had a combined pay roll of $2,418,546 for a week ending near November 15, which was 10.5 per cent less than the $2,703,495 reported for a similar period in October.

Data concerning the building-construction industry appearing in the following table have not been included in the summary table shown at the beginning of this trend of employment section.

The several industrial groups in the summary table are not weighted according to their relative importance, and the bureau's monthly employment survey of the building-construction industry, while being steadily expanded, has not yet attained sufficient volume to represent its proper proportion in comparison with the other 15 industrial groups in the summary table.

COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT AND PAY-ROLL TOTALS IN THE BUILDING-CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN IDENTICAL FIRMS, OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER, 1931

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627

Akron.
Atlanta
Birmingham.
Charlotte
Cincinnati 1
Cleveland
Dallas
Denver
Des Moines
Detroit..
Duluth.
Fort Wayne
Grand Rapids.
Hartford
Houston.
Indianapolis.
Jacksonville
Kansas City
Louisville
Memphis.
Minneapolis.
Nashville.
New Haven
New Orleans.
Norfolk-Portsmouth,
Oklahoma City
Omaha
Portland, Me.
Portland, Oreg
Providence.
Richmond.
St. Louis.
Salt Lake City.
Seattle
Washington, D.C.
Wheeling-
Wichita
Wilmington..

Total, 38 cities.

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72 123 71 34 490 436 109 189

67 472

45 101

73 237

92 171

49 218 119

89 225

61 187 124 69 99 109

76 178 224 144 458

83 187 496 52 60 99

867 1, 502

719

355 3, 651 5, 097

990 1,026

682
5, 436

203
555

348
2,037

878 1, 786

276 2, 479 1, 030 1, 187 2, 593

805 2, 701 2, 649

506 1, 576 1, 186

669 1, 316 2,521 1, 478 4,010

468 1, 748 10, 146

300

495 1,699

1, 342

627

345
3, 384
4,074

776
960

705
5, 353

209
565

333
2,025

687 1,509

290 2, 151

987

807 2, 198

928 2, 632 2, 073

492 1,320

860

603 1, 151 2, 586 1, 247 3, 429

556 1,350 9, 595

324

434 1, 605

- 27.7 -10.7 -12.8 -2.8 -7.3 -20.1 - 21.6 -6.4 +3.4 -1.5 +3.0 +1.8 -4. 3 -0.6 -21.8 -15.5

+5.1 -13. 2

-4.2 -32.0 -15. 2 +15.3

-- 2.6 -21. 7

-2.8 -16. 2 -27.5

-9.9 -12.5

+2.6 - 15.6 - 14.5 +18.8 -22.8 -5.4 +8.0 - 12.3 --5.5

$22, 161
25, 804
13, 241

7,063
113, 293
179, 907
22, 901
30, 843
18, 335
166, 300

4, 680 13, 327

8, 768 67, 649 19, 124 54, 837

5, 155 80, 980 22, 667 20, 143 72, 723 15, 804 96, 676 55, 424 11, 308 39, 009 31, 865 20, 168 39, 598 71, 385 36, 060 133, 912 11, 548 50, 590 324, 756

7, 711 11, 719 45, 724

$16, 341
23, 879
11, 994

6, 014
104, 206
137, 850
17, 305
26, 487
17, 086
153, 046

3, 854 12, 211

7, 742 65, 775 15, 397 47, 455

5, 142 67, 036 20, 450 18, 951 61, 452 15, 239 97, 377 41,985 10, 849 30, 040 22, 174 16, 932 31, 082 70, 152 29, 377 117, 060

13, 539 38, 625 304, 494

7,849 9, 700 45, 337

- 26. 3 -7.5 --9.4 -14. 9

-8. O - 23. I

24.8 -14.4 -6. O -8.4 -17.6

-8.4 -11. 7 -2.8 19.5 13.5 -0.3 --17. 2 -9.8 -5.9 -15.5 --3.6 +0.7 - 24. 2 -4.1 - 23. O -30.4 -16. O - 21.5 -1, 7 - 18. 5 -12.6 +17.2 - 23. 7 -6. 2 +1.8 -17.2 -08

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Employment on Class I Steam Railroads in the United States

HE monthly trend of employment from January, 1923, to October

1931, on Class I railroads—that is, all roads having operating revenues of $1,000,000 or over—is shown by the index numbers published in Table 1. These index numbers are constructed from monthly reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission, using the monthly average for 1926 as 100.

TARLE 1.-INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT ON CLASS I STEAM RAILROADS IN THE UNITED

STATES, JANUARY, 1923, TO OCTOBER, 1931

(Monthly average, 1926 = 100)

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Table 2 shows the total number of employees on the 15th day each of October, 1930, and September and October, 1931, and pay-roll totals for the entire months.

In these tabulations data for the occupational group reported as "executives, officials, and staff assistants are omitted.

TABLE 2-EMPLOYMENT AND EARNINGS OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES, OCTOBER,

1930, AND SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER, 1931 From monthly reports of Interstate Commerce Commission. As data for only the more important occupaticis are shown separately, the group totals are not the sum of the items under the respective groups

26, 908

Number of employees at
middle of month

Total earnings
Occupation
Oct. 15, Setp. 15, Oct. 15,

October, Septem- October, 1930 1931

1931
1930 ber, 1931

1931 Professional, clerical, and general... 245, 494 216, 936 Clerks.

213, 562 $36, 779, 737 $31, 555, 178 $31, 554, 435

136, 315 117,522 115, 455 19, 364, 157 16,052, 521 16, 187, 748 Stenographers and typists..

22,676 20, 267

19, 911 3,018, 560 2,628,693 2,617, 660 Maintenance of way and structures..

337, 056 282, 946

264, 289 32, 438, 959 24,754, 216 23, 525, 799 laborers, extra gang and work

train.
Laborers, track and roadway

40, 172 28, 119 23, 649 3,085, 104 1,817, 905 1, 535, 791 section.

177, 721 153, 824 143, 141 12,888, 869 9, 735, 198 9, 225, 986 Maintenance of equipment and stores.

378, 794 326, 679 Carmen

322, 984 50, 689, 803 38, 893, 055 39, 195, 506

79, 837 Machinists.

67, 628 67, 191 12, 109,023 9,008, 210 9, 152, 923

47, 960 Skilled trades

43, 605 43, 334 7, 568, 749 5, 963, 904 6, 042, 693

83, 159 71, 268 laborers (shops, engine houses,

70, 213 9, 430, 801 7,015, 639 7,083, 088 power plants, and stores) Common laborers (shops, engine

31, 955

26, 769

3, 103, 577 2, 403, 203 2, 459, 281 houses, power plants, and stores). 34, 911 34, 381 3, 227, 648 2,412, 130

2, 432, 201 Transportation, other than train, engine, and yard. Station agents.

176, 772 157, 411 153, 71222, 872, 298 19, 536, 232 19, 560, 726 Telegraphers, telephoners, and

28, 471

27,369 27, 249 4,658, 003 4, 274,650 4,371, 294 Truckers (stations, warehouses,

21, 230 19, 117

3,381, 008 2, 913, 544 2, 460, 458 and platforms). Crossing and bridge flagmen and

28, 266 23, 080 22, 743

2,721, 366 2,077, 407 2, 116, 001 gaternen..

19, 523
18, 885 18,710 1,530, 320

1, 452, 551 1, 442, 819 Transportation (yard masters, switch tetiders, and host lers)...

19, 625 17, 118 16,751

3, 883, 912 3, 205, 503 3, 192, 146 Transportaticn, train and engine. Road conductors.

281, 003

238, 028 239, 128 59, 401, 272 45, 485, 341 47, 608, 187

31,644 Road brakemen and flagmen..

27, 190 27, 196 7, 989, 179 6, 325, 606 6, 557, 793 Yard brakemen and yard helpers.

61,962 52, 204 52, 466 11, 419, 115 8,632, 082 9,069, 307 Road engineers and motor men...

47,758 40, 616 41, 076 8,623, 134 6, 379, 903 6, 749, 894 Road firemen and helpers.

37, 656 32, 013 32, 087 10, 732, 101 8, 385, 782 8, 753, 469 38, 239 32, 746 32. 723

7, 830, 631 6,055, 605 6, 325, 617 1, 438, 744 1, 239, 118 1, 210, 426 206,065, 981 163,429, 525 164, 636, 799

41, 123

towermen

18, 709

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All employees.-

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