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WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES

TICE

Retail Prices of Food in November, 1931 HE following tables are compiled from simple averages of the

actual selling prices? received monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from retail dealers.

Table 1 shows for the United States retail prices of food November 15, 1930, and October 15 and November 15, 1931, as well as the percentage changes in the year and in the month. For example, the retail price per pound of sliced ham was 52.1 cents on November 15, 1930; 44.2 cents on October 15, 1931; and 41.9 cents on November 15, 1931. These figures show decreases of 20 per cent in the year and 5 per cent in the month.

The cost of various articles of food combined shows a decrease of 17.5 per cent November 15, 1931, as compared with November 15, 1930, and a decrease of 2.0 per cent November 15, 1931, as compared with October 15, 1931.

TABLE 1.-AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF SPECIFIED FOOD ARTICLES AND PER CENT

OF INCREASE OR DECREASE NOVEMBER 15, 1931, COMPARED WITH OCTOBER 15. 1931, AND NOVEMBER 15, 1930

[Percentage changes of five-tenths of 1 per cent and over are given in whole numbers]

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Cents Cents Cents Sirloin steak.

Pound

43.3

38.6 37.3 Round steak

do.

38. 1 33. 6 32.3 -15 Rib roast.

do.

31.8 28.0 27.3 -14 Chuck roast.

do.

24.7 20.7 20.2 -18 Plate beef.

do

16.9 13.5 13.3 -21 Pork chops

do.

32.8 29.3 25.0 -24 Bacon, sliced

..do.

42. 1

34. 3 32.1 -24 Ham, sliced.

do.
52. 1 44. 2 41.9

-20 Lamb, leg of.

do.

31.4 27.5 26. 1 -17 Hens.

do.

32.6 29.9 29. 2 Salmon, red, canned.

do

34,3

30.3 29. 9 Milk, fresh

Quart.

14.0 12.0 12.0 Milk, evaporated.----

16-oz. can

9.9
8.8

8.8 11 Butter..

Pound.

45.4 39.9 37.4 18 Oleomargarine (all butter substi- do..

24.6 18.8 18. 9 -23
tutes).
Cheese

do..
33. 8 27.1

26.8 -21 Lard..

do.
17.5 12. 4 12. 2

-30 Vegetable lard substitute.

do.

24.0 22.7 22.4 -7 Eggs, strictly fresh

Dozen

48.4 37.9 39.7 -18 Bread.

Pound.

7.3 1 In addition to monthly retail prices of food and coal, the bureau publishes periodically the prices of gas and electricity for household use in each of 51 cities. At present this information is being collected in June and December of each year.

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TABLE 1-AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF SPECIFIED FOOD ARTICLES AND PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE NOVEMBER 15, 1931, COMPARED WITH OCTOBER 15, 1931, AND NOVEMBER 15, 1930--Continued

[Percentage changes of five-tenths of 1 per cent and over are given in whole numbers)

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Table 2 shows for the United States average retail prices of specified food articles on November 15, 1913, and on November 15 of each year from 1925 to 1931, together with percentage changes in November of each of these specified years compared with November, 1913. For example, the retail price per pound of sliced bacon was 27.2 cents in November, 1913; 49.2 cents in November, 1925; 51.0 cents in November, 1926; 46.3 cents in November, 1927; 44.5 cents in November, 1928; 43.0 cents in November, 1929; 42.1 cents in November, 1930; and 32.1 cents in November, 1931. As compared with November, 1913, these figures show increases of

cent in November, 1925; 88 per cent in November, 1926; 70 per cent in November, 1927; 64 per cent in November, 1928; 58 per cent in November, 1929; 55 per cent in November, 1930; and 18 per cent in November, 1931.

The cost of the various articles of food combined showed an increase of 11.3 per cent in November, 1931, as compared with November,

81

per

1913.

TABLE 2.-AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF SPECIFIED FOOD ARTICLES AND PER CENT

OF INCREASE NOVEMBER 15 OF CERTAIN SPECIFIED YEARS COMPARED WITH NOVEMBER 15, 1913

(Percentage changes of five-tenths of 1 per cent and over are given in whole numbers)

Average retail prices on Nov. 15

Per cent of increase Nov. 15 of each

specified year compared with Nov. 15, 1913

Article

1913 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931

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Cts. Cls. Cts. C4s. Cts. Cts. (48. Cts. Sirloin steak.-pound.- 25. 4 40.3 40.943.5 49.1 49.3 13.3 37. 3 Round steak...do. 22.8 34.4 35.5 37.8 43. 4 43.8 38.1 32.3 Rib roast

do 19.8 29.5 30.2 31.9 36.3 36.3 31.8 27.3 Chuck roast.. ..do. 16.3 21. 6 22.7 24. 5 29.7 29.4 24.7 20. 2 Plate beel. do... 12.4 14.1 14.7 16. 2 20.8 20.7 16.9 13.3 Pork chops.

do. 21.5 37.5 39.3 36.3 35.7 35.8 32.8 25.0 Bacon, sliced... do 27. 2 49.2 51.0 46.344.5 43.0 42. 132. 1 Ham, sliced --do

26.9 53. 558. 453.0 54.6 53.952. 1 41.9 Lamb, leg of...do.. 18.5 38, 4 37.9 37.6 38.0 37.9 31.4 26.1 Hens.

do. 20.6 35.8 37.1 35.6 38.0 37.7) 32. 6 29. 2 Salmon, red, canned -pound

36.4 34.7 34.8 32.3 31.9 34.3 29.9 Milk, fresh. ..quart. 9. 1 14.3 14. 1 14. 2 14.3 14.4 14.0 12.0 Milk, evaporated 16-ounce can..

11.6 11.4 11.5 11.4 10.5 9. 9 8.8 Butter

pound 38.7 59.7 55. 7 56.4 58.3 53.5 45. 4 37. 4 Oleomargarine (all butter substitutes)

pound.. 31.2 30.1 27.9 27.6 26.9 24.6 18.9 Cheese

22.5 37.4 36.938.6 38.5 37.8 33.8 26.8 Lard

do.. 15.9 23. 3 21.1 19.5 19.1 18.0 17.5 12. 2 Vegetable lard substitute -pound.

25.8 25. 6. 25. 1 24.8 24.6 24.0 22. 4 Eggs, strictly fresh

dozen. 49.7 69.4 66.0 61.7 59.3 63.3 48.4 39.7 Bread. -pound... 5. 6 9.4 9.4 9.3 9. 1

8.5 7.3 Flour -do. 3.3

6.01

5. 7 5. 4 5. 1 5. 2 4. 2 3.3 Corn meal. do. 3. 1 5. 3 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 3

5. 2 4. 2 Rolled oats. do...

9.21 9.1 9.0 8.9

8.8 8.61 7.9 Corn flakes -8-ounce package.. 11.0 10.9 9.7 9.5 9.5

9.31

8.8 Wheat cereal 28-ounce package.

25. 2 25.4 25.5 25.5 25.5 25.3 23. 1 Macaroni.----pound.

20.5 20.1 20.0 19.7 19.7 18.9 16. 1 Rice. do.. 8.7 11.4 11.3 10.4 9. 8

9.7 9. 3 7. 5 Beans, navy.--.do.

9.9 9.3 9.5 12.5 13.7 10. 2 6. 4 Potatoes do.. 1.8 5. 2 4.0 3.0 2. 2 3. 8

2.9

1.7 Onions. .do. 5. 7 5. 4. S 6. 5 5.

3.9

4. 4 Cabbage

do.

4. 21 4.0 3.7 4. 3 4.2 3. 4 3.0 Pork and beans No. 2 can.

12.3 11.7 11.5 11.7 11.7 10.7 10.2 Corn, canned...do.

17. 11 16.3 15.7 15.9 15.7 15. 1 12.1 Peas, canned....do.

18.1 17.3 16.6 16.7 16.6 15.9 13.6 Tomatoes, canned

No. 2 can.. 12.9 12.1 11.8 11.9 12.6 11.7 9.7 Sugar, granulated --pound. 5.4 6.61 7. 1 7. 2! 6.8

6. 7 5. 91 5.6 Tea

..do 54.5 75.7 77.1 77.5 77.4 77.4 76.975. 1 (ofice.

do 29.8 51.2 50.81 47.8 49.7 45.3 38.7 31.8 Prunes. .do.

17. 2 16.5 14. 1 14.0 17.9 13.6 10.7 Raisins.

do.

14.2 14.6 13.8 12.0 12.4 11.5 11. 4 Bananas. dozen

34.7 34.9 34. 4 33.7 32.7 29.3 24.4 Oranges. ...do...

65.5 55. 1 53.2 56.5 43.0 51.1 35. 3 All articles combined?

40 68 82 71

19 63 55 71

27 59 58 71

1 20 30

0 35

73 65

52 27 68

64
68

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Decrease. ? Beginning with January, 1921, index numbers showing the trend in the retail cost of food have been composed of the articles shown in Tables 1 and 2, weighted according to the consumption of the average family. From January, 1913, to December, 1920, the index numbers included the following articles: Sirloin steak, round steak, rib roast, chuck roast, plate beef, pork chops, bacon, ham, lard, hens, flour, corn meal, eggs, butter, milk, bread, potatoes, sugar, cheese, rice, coffee, and tca.

Table 3 shows the trend in the retail cost of three important groups of food commodities, viz, cereals, meats, and dairy products, by years, from 1913 to 1930, and by months for 1929, 1930, and 1931. The articles within these groups are as follows:

Cereals: Bread, flour, corn meal, rice, rolled oats, corn flakes, wheat cereal, and macaroni.

Meats: Sirloin steak, round steak, rib roast, chuck roast, plate beef, pork chops, bacon, ham, hens, and leg of lamb.

Dairy products: Butter, cheese, fresh milk, and evaporated milk. TABLE 3.-INDEX NUMBERS OF RETAIL COST OF CEREALS, MEATS, AND DAIRY PRODUCTS FOR THE UNITED STATES, 1913 TO NOVEMBER, 1931

(A verage cost in 1913= 100.0)

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1913: Average for year. 1914: Average for year 1915; A serage for year 1916: Average for year 1917: Average for year. 1918: Average for year. 1919: Average for year. 1921. Average for year. 1921: Average for year 1922: Average for year 1923: Average for year. 1924: Average for year. 1925: Average for year. 1975: Average for year 1977: A verage for year 193: Average for year 1929: Average for year.

January
February.
March.
April
May.
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

136. 5 1389 138, 5 137.6 138,9 137. 0 133. 7 133.9 137. 4 138.8 137.8 135. 3 129.8

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123. 6 120.2 120.5 116, 5 110.3 105. 3 109. 6 111.9 114.3 117.0 114.5

Index Numbers of Retail Prices of Food in the United States IN TABLE 4 index numbers are given which show the changes in the retail prices of specified food articles, by years, for 1913 and 1920 to 1930, by months for 1930 and 1931. These index numbers, or relative prices, are based on the year 1913 as 100.0 and are computed by dividing the average price of each commodity ior each month and each year by the average price of that commodity for 1913. These figures must be used with caution. For example, the relative price of sirloin steak for the year 1930 was 182.7, which means that the average money price for the year 1930 was 82.7 per cent higher than the average money price for the year 1913. “As compared with the relative price, 196.9 in 1929, the figures for 1930 show a decrease of 14.2 points, but a decrease of 7.2 per cent in the year.

In the last column of Table 4 are given index numbers showing changes in the retail cost of all articles of food combined. Since January, 1921, these index numbers have been computed from the average prices of the articles of food shown in Tables 1 and 2, weighted according to the average family consumption in 1918. (See March, 1921, issue, p. 25.) Although previous to January, 1921, the number of food articles varied, these index numbers have been so computed as to be strictly comparable for the entire period. The index numbers based on the average for the year 1913 as 100.0 are 119.1 for October, 1931, and 116.7 for November, 1931.

. For index numbers of each month, January, 1913, to December, 1928, see Bulletin No. 396, pp. 44 to 61; and Bulletin No. 495, pp. 32 to 45. 'Index numbers for 1929 are published in each Labor Review, February, 1930, to February, 1931.

TABLE 4.-INDEX NUMBERS OF RETAIL PRICES OF PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD BY YEARS, 1913, 1920 TO 1930, AND BY MONTHS FOR 1930 AND 1931

(A verage for year 1913= 100.00

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1913

100.0 1920

172. 1 1921

152.8 1922

147.2 1923

153. 9 1924

155.9 1925

159.8 1926

162.6 1927.

167.7 1928

188. 2 1929

196.9 1930

182.7 January

192.9 February 191.3 March

190.6 April

190.2 May.

190.2 June.

188.6 July

182.3 August 175.6 September 177.2 October 175. 2 November 170.5

December. 168.9 1931:

January 167.3
February 161.4
March. 158, 7
April

157.5 May

157.5 June

.52.4 July

154.3 August 155. 5 September 155, 1 October 152.0 November 146.9

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Year and month

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1913

100.0 1920

188. 2 1921

153.9 1922

148.9 1923

167.0 1924

159.7 1925

166, 1 1926

165. 6 1927

170.1 1928

174. 2 1929

171.9 1930

158.8 January 169. 2 February 167.0 March. 164, 7 April.. 162.9 May

162.0 June.

157. 9 July

155, 2 August

153. 4 September. 154.8 October 154.8 November. 152. 9

December 150.2 1931:

January 145. 2
February 141.2
March 137.1
April

132.6 May

124.0 June.

119.9 July

118.6 August

119.9 September 122. 2 October 122.6 November. 121.3

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1 22 articles in 1913-1920; 42 articles in 1921-1931,

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