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The committee therefore makes the following recommendations

1. Occupational research should be made a part of every vocational guidance program.

2. Occupational studies should be general in so far as the informa tion is nationally applicable, and specific in regard to the local com munity where, presumably, the majority of young workers will find occupation.

3. The preparation of these studies should be carefully controlled and criticized in order that the result may present a picture of the occupation which shall be accurate, adequate, unprejudiced, and comprehensible to the group for whom it is intended.

4. The direction and final editing of such studies should be in the hands of persons trained in the methods of industrial research, but, because of the educational value contained therein, all counselors, placement workers, social-studies teachers, and others who have occasion to advise with the child in relation to his occupational and educational plans, should be given some practical first-hand experience in the preparation of such studies.

5. A national clearing house for occupational information might well be established in order to

A. Avoid duplication.
B. Set up adequate standards for the preparation of such studies.

C. Bring out the national similarities and local differences inherent in a given occupation.

D. Provide assistance and stimulus for new groups to develop such studies.

6. Occupational studies should be prepared from the educational viewpoint and with the hope that the results of such studies may have an influence on curriculum planning, in that instruction may be more closely related to the problems of the community.

Individualized Opportunities for Training

Needs and Recommendations The most pressing problem of vocational education is recognition of the universal need of all boys and girls for vocational preparation.

Acknowledgment that this need is as urgent for those who occupy minor positions and render humble service as for those who direct or control large enterprises or serve in high places is the next step in the development of adequate vocational education for all young people. Every individual needs preparation for his vocation as a means of service, a method of exercising his creative abilities, a way of sharing responsibility, and a means of securing income for himself and dependents. Work, a place of one's own, is a badge of citizenship and service to the State. The committee recommends that the public or society as a whole assume the responsibility for seeing that adequate vocational preparation is provided for all young people and that society's established agency—the public-school system-be given the leadership in discharging this obligation.

Scope of vocational training.-The need for vocational preparation exists in every community. It is to be expected, therefore, that provisions will be made in all school systems for this essential feature of preparation for living.

In assuming the leadership in vocational education it is necessary that administrators of public education take into account the fact that some vocational preparation can best be given in the school before employment begins, some partly in school and partly in employment, some wholly in employment, and that plans will provide for training suited to the individual's needs and the occupation he expects to enter.

Vocational education is interpreted to include the adjustment of the worker to the social and economic conditions surrounding the occupation for which preparation is provided, as well as the acquisition of manipulative skills and technical knowledge required in the occupation.

Plans for vocational education should take into account such important matters as

A. The growing mechanization of processes long established in industrial lines of

work and now rapidly invading business and professional occupations as it affects the manner in which work is to be done as well as product to be made or service rendered.

B. The effects of new inventions and discoveries on established occupations and on the development of new occupations.

C. The changes in legislation delaying entrance to employment and lengthening the period of compulsory school attendance and the obligations for a type of education which will compensate for the deferred wage earning which many young people keenly desire.

D. The relationship of employers and of labor organizations to the problem of preparation for entrance into occupations and satisfactory pursuit of them after employment begins.

E. The demand for labor in the occupations for which the schools are offering vocational courses so as to guard against overcrowding occupations for which a full supply of workers is available.

Provisions for pupils' needs.-Recognition of individual differences already well established in general education should be made a basic principle in plans for vocational instruction by providing for

A. All levels of ability and, within the group usually designated as average, provisions to be made for at least three levels, viz, low average, middle average, and high average.

B. Different types of aptitudes and varying vocational interests.

C. Maintenance of health standards in occupational activities and attention to such matters as stature, physical development, eyesight, etc., which often affect employment.

D. Due consideration of the many occupations from which individuals of given aptitudes and abilities may select and for which they may be trained either in the school or in the place of employment.

Adequate vocational guidance should be given before vocational i preparation begins in order that waste involved in preparation for

occupations unsuited to individual capacities and needs may be avoided.

Plans for vocational preparation should include adequate provision for experiences closely comparable to those which the individual will have as an employed worker or actual experience in the occupation under supervision.

Proper follow up after employment is essential in order that the young person may obtain the best training possible from his working environment and from evening classes and correspondence courses in which he continues his education after entering full-time employment

In training young people for and directing them into occupations for which they are best suited, teachers and counselors should encourage them to assume their responsibilities with a sense of pride in the mastery of skills to be used and the service to be rendered in order that they may be assured of their rightful heritage of joy in work and pride in good workmanship.

Extension of courses.-Agricultural courses should be extended for boys and girls in rural areas who expect to enter agricultural pursuits; and adequate vocational information and training also, when possible, should be provided for those who are interested in and ultimately enter types of work not connected with farm life.

Attention should be given to the occupational and social needs of the young people entering the highly mechanized occupations in the industries, by additional education and vocational preparation which will assist them to advance when they find themselves in types of work that do not provide for advancement in occupational status or give security in earning power.

Instruction in the responsibilities of the home should be included in the vocational training of boys and girls as preparation for the important vocation of adult life and a contribution to citizenship.

Courses in commercial subjects, industrial subjects, agricultural subjects, and home-making subjects now established in the public schools should be definitely differentiated as to general-education aims and vocational-preparation aims, in order that parents and their children may know the results that should accrue from courses planned specifically for vocational preparation and those intended to supplement the general-education courses.

Women and girls are entering wage-earning occupations in increasing numbers and finding employment in many more occupations than in former years. More adequate provision should be made in the schools for vocational courses which will fit them for the many wageearning callings in which they render substantial economic service.

Wherever possible and practicable, apprenticeship for boys entering the skilled trades should be organized, and adequate working relation

hips between apprentices, employers, and the schools maintained for the purpose of encouraging the spirit of craftsmanship among young workers and retaining skilled trades for which there is demand.

Additional types of schools.-It is taken for granted that the types of vocational education already provided in the colleges, technical schools, high schools, and vocational schools will be enlarged and strengthened as study of the problems of vocational education points the way to improvement and that the vocational offerings in these schools will be materially extended as time goes on. There is need, apparently, for more flexible secondary curriculums and more generous recognition of the educative values to be obtained from vocational studies and working experience if these schools are to provide any appreciable amount of vocational preparation for their pupils.

There is urgent need for schools for slow and retarded children not completing a secondary-school course. The absence of training which will prepare these young people for the simple types of work in which they will ultimately find employment and safeguard them

from exploitation, dependency, or delinquency is a dark spot in the program at the present time. Schools for these children should forego the eighth-grade entrance requirement and provide many types of occupational activities in the schools. The more able of these pupils, even though one to two years over age, may be promoted to a trade or technical school if they qualify. Others should be coached for the types of work they can do and placed in occupations in which they can render acceptable service.

A suitable organization for the continuation schools, to take the place of the traditional organization to which many continuation schools have resorted, is greatly needed. Instruction should take into account the vocational responsibilities and aspirations of the pupils and definitely aim to make the continuation schools serve the immediate needs of the young workers who attend them and establish relations.

Evening schools are patronized increasingly by young men and women seeking advancement in their vocations and additional general education. Provisions should be made for articulating instruction in the day vocational and continuation schools with the courses offered in the evening schools, in order that young people may continue their studies without interruption, when they so desire.

Attention should be given to adult education, for the contributions which the increased earnings of the breadwinner and greater efficiency of the home maker make to child health and protection.

State and Federal aid for vocational schools throughout the States has done much to increase the number of vocational schools, extend the scope of their work, and improve the quality of vocational instruction. During the early years the larger cities having a vocational program and smaller communities ready to undertake such a program, but lacking adequate funds, were immediately benefited by this financial aid. These funds should increasingly serve the more remote and scattered communities and individual pupils when necessary, and thus equalize the opportunities for vocational preparation.

Administration problems.-An organization and administration of public education which sees vocational education in proper perspective and provides for all phases of it without prejudice should be established in each community.

Provisions should be made for research in all types of vocational education. Communities which are evidencing high accomplishment in vocational education are continually surveying the occupations, discovering vocational needs and requirements, analyzing specific fields of occupational endeavor, interpreting trends of growth and deterioration, and anticipating new occupations in order that the Vocational training offered may be as nearly consonant with facts and tendencies as possible.

A more adequate program for the selection and professional training of those who teach and administer vocational education is needed. Since real accomplishment in all levels of vocational education rests largely upon the quality of the instruction, the States should improve their training programs so as to insure a vocational staff fully qualified by richness of personality, breadth of experience, and completeness of professional preparation.

Supervisors for each of the four types of vocational educationagricultural, commercial, home making, industrial-should be provided in the States in order to develop adequately the training offered in each field and continue the work of making vocational preparation available to young people in remote areas.

The contributions of nonpublic agencies as philanthropic schools, corporation schools, correspondence schools, and certain private commercial and trade schools to the solution of the problem of vocational education should be recognized and utilized when they can best serve the needs of young people.

State supervision of nonpublic vocational schools should be provided in order to prevent exploitation of youth by unscrupulous private vocational schools and to protect schools which are performing a real service to vocational education.


Recommendations 1. MORE adequate facilities should be provided for free junior placement.

A. Provision should be made for separate and distinct junior placement departments under the public schools or labor departments in all communities where there is need.

B. Junior employment departments should be provided with private offices for interviewing applicants. Where this is impossible, separate waiting halls should be provided for juniors, and special placement workers should be assigned to junior placement.

C. Such bureaus should be adequately staffed, definite space provided, and definite hours kept.

2. Junior placement offices should place the interest and welfare of the children before all other interests.

A. They should aim not merely to fill jobs, but to place young people in suitable positions, with intelligent appreciation of opportunities ahead, taking into account so far as possible their abilities, education, and physical condition. Psychological tests may often be used to advantage.

B. They should aim to encourage boys and girls to remain in school and to encourage further education if they must work. Available scholarship funds should be made use of where necessary.

C. They should interview applicants every time they apply.

D. They should refer junior applicants only to those places of employment which have first been investigated.

E. They should follow up and supervise boys and girls whom they place, giving them the benefit of advice when needed.

F. They should serve all young people regardless of race or creed.

G. Special provision should be made for the placement of mentally, physically, or socially handicapped applicants by those familiar with their special problems in cases where this handicap is so marked that it can not be handled through normal employment channels.

3. Junior employment agencies should use all available community resources for their more complete service to boys and girls.

A. There should be the closest cooperation with the schools, especially in the use of school reports, including reports on scholarship,

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