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The following prominent teachers and supervisors of drawing are scholarship graduates of the Prang Normal Art Classes: Miss Ida E. Boyd, Assistant Supervisor of Drawing, Brooklyn, New York; Miss Lilla A. Nourse, Teacher of Drawing, High School, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York; Miss Jessie Patterson, Supervisor of Drawing, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Miss Margaret J. Patterson, Supervisor of Drawing Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Miss Estelle E. Potter, Supervisor of Drawing, New London, Connecticut; Miss Harriet L. Rice, Supervisor of Drawing, Providence, Rhode Island; Mr. E. Newton Reser, Supervisor of Drawing, La Fayette, Indiana: Miss Wilhelmina Seegmiller, Supervisor of Drawing, Indianapolis, Indiana; Miss Ruth Warner, Instructor in Drawing, Training School, Brooklyn, New York.

Madison Babcock has been elected viceprincipal of the San Francisco Girls' High School.

C. W. Roby, ex-Supt. of Fresno City schools, has been elected vice-principal of the Burnett School, San Francisco.

J. C. Muerman, the successful Superintendent of Moscow, Idaho, city schools, was married recently.

Hugh J. Baldwin, ex-Pres. of the California Teachers Association, has been appointed Justice of the Peace of National City. Hereafter it will be Judge Baldwin.

Prof. Edward Starbuck of Stanford University was taken seriously ill at the Grand Hotel during the meeting of the California Teachers' Association, and was unable to fill his appointment.

Harr Wagner delivered his well known lecture, "The Story of Liberty,” to the students of Hoitt's School, Burlingame, Sunday evening, Dec. 6th.

Arrangements are being made by Prof. Getz and the Faculty of the State Normal School at Ellensburg, Washington, for a Summer School of Methods.

Alex. B. Coffey delivered his famous lecture, “Fruits of the Press," that has pleased the people from Whatcom to San Diego, at the Y. M. C. A., San Francisco, Dec. 22nd, to a large and appreciative audience.

Dr. W. A. Finley has been appointed Superintendent of Madera County, vice B. A. Hawkins, resigned. Mr. Hawkins has been ill for more than a year. Dr. Finley is a well known educator, having been engaged in private school work in Santa Rosa, San Francisco, and other places, and has acted as deputy during Supt. Hawkins'illness.

Recorder James Sutton has just made public the latest figures in regard to the student enrollment of the University of California. In the college at Berkeley there are 905 men and 650 women; total, 1,565, which is 135 more than this time a year ago. There are 716 students in the professional colleges in San Francisco. This makes the total enrollment 2, 281, against 2, 150 for January 1, 1897. There are 147 graduate students, an increase of 39 during the last year.

The following Scholarship Graduates of the Prang Normal Art Classes, are Instructors in Drawing in Normal Schools: Miss Bertha Coleman, Instructor in Drawing, Normal School, Brackport, New York; Miss Florence H. Fitch, Teacher of Drawing Normal and Industrial School, Milledgeville, Georgia; Miss Helen M. Goodhue, Instructor of Drawing, Normal School, Cortland, New York; Miss Alfaretta Haskell, Instructor in Drawing, Normal School, Oshkosh, Wisconsin; Miss Jessie Spencer, Instructor in Drawing, Normal School, Mankato, Minnesota; Miss Ruth Warner, Instructor in Drawing, Training School, Brooklyn, New York.

TEHAMA COUNTY TEACHERS' INSTITUTE,

The twenty-sixth session met at Red Bluff, Dec. 20, 1897. Supt. 0. E. Graves, président; Miss Naomi Baker and E. B. Warmoth, vicepresidents; J. D. Sweeney, secretary; Edith K. Johnson, assistant secretary; Anna Graves, pianist; and G. K, Bingham, musical director.

Prin. C. C. Swafford of Red Bluff High School, delivered a concise lecture on "Preparation for the High School.” Prof. E. H. Griggs of Stanford, spoke eloquently on "The Ethics of School Organization and Discipline.” Misses Delia Fish and Belle Mathews presented “Language in the Grammar and Primary Grades Respectively.”

The evening was devoted to a literary entertainment and reunion.

On Tuesday, the second day, Prof. Griggs in the morning lectured on "Influences of Teachers and Parents in Moral Education." It was a pity the audience room was not full of parents to listen to the address.

In the afternoon he spoke on "Systematic Reading Courses for Teachers." He impressed upon the teachers the fact that they must grow to be successful, that they must find time to develop in some special line. He outlined “Courses in English Prose," "Ethical Teachers," "Friendship," and "American Literature."

In the evening he lectured an a "Walk in Florence," and for over an hour conducted his attentive audience thru the streets, into the cathedrals, and before the paintings of the masters. He impressed his hearers with the fact that he was thoroly conversant with his subject and heartily in earnest.

Reading in the several grades was discussed by Misses Albright and Nangle and Myron Yager.

Prin. J. D. Sweeney of Tehama, discussed "Hill's Lessons in Geometry." His remarks led to continued argument on the advisability of having elementary geometry in the grammar grades.

On Wednesday, the course of study was discussed by the institute, led by Misses Rhoda Kemp and Edith Johnson and Prin.

A. W. Glover of Corning. The teachers were requested to send in suggestions as to any changes in the course they deemed advisable.

Miss Mattie White ably discussed the whole subject of percentage.

Question 11 of the Council of Education was the subject of a paper by Miss Mollie Owens.

R. L. Douglas spoke on question 12. The concensus of opinion was that history stories should be given to all lower grades, that the sixth grade study biographies of Americans after the manner of Montgomery's History for beginners, that the seventh grade study an elementary history, and that the regular text book he begun in the eighth and completed in the ninth, and that civil government be taught during the last part of the ninth grade.

Prof. B. F. Allison of Red Bluff High School, discussed question 13. Upon a motion a committee, B. F. Allison, J. D. Sweeney, Lena K. Nangle, Virginia De Shields and Edith K. Johnson, were appointed on Nature Study with instructions to report a course of work to the Board of Education prior to May.

Wednesday the teachers were taken thru "Auld Ireland and Bonnie Scotland,” by Rev. J. W. Lundy, who presented a series of views of those two countries.

On Thursday Hon. S. T. Black, State Superintendent, gave his views on "The Certificacion of Teachers." His ideas are logical and practical and we hope to see them operative in the near future.

Prin. G. K. Bingham of Red Bluff, explained how to teach Word Analysis.

The afternoon was devoted to an experience meeting and the report of committees. In the first the roll was called by districts, and the teachers responded by a question on methods, discipline, etc., whicul was fully discussed. This work has been followed for the past three years.

The committee on a course of reading made a partial report, and the resolutions were about as usual.

In the evening Rev. T. H. Gilbert lectured on "A Right Education, the Basis of True Liberty.” He presented the subject from the standpoint of a churchman, and argued that without moral training there was no right education and there could be no moral training without religious instruction. He deplored the fact that parents now leave all the moral training to the public school and all the religious teachings to the Sunday school. Simple universal religious truths should be taught. Why not teach about David, Joseph, Moses, Daniel and Joshua as well as of Jason, Hercules and Jupiter ?

We all feel that the meeting was an inspiration, and as we are a part of all we have met and heard, we will return to the school room with new life and renewed activities.

C.C. Adams was present during the session and presented the publications of The Whitaker & Ray Company.

S. SACRAMENTO, Jan. 17, 1898. To COUNTY AND CITY SUPERINTENDENTS:—The Lincoln Monument Association of San Francisco, W. W. Stone, President, is making extensive preparations for the celebration of "Lincoln Day” on February 12th, 1898. They have asked this office to

name a committee on public school celebration. In accordance with this request, I naine each County Superintendent of the State as such committee, W. W. Seaman chairman;, and recommend that each momber of this committee constitute himself or herself a special committee of one to take up this matter within his or ber jurisdiction, and prepare and have carried out a suitable patriotic program in the schools. The Association through its president, will be glad to co-operate with you in making the day a patriotic and profitable one to the children of the State. Respectfully,

SAMUEL T. BLACK, Supt. Pub. Instruction.

Prof. Edward Howard Griggs has been appointed head of the Departinent of Education, Stanford University, with Prof. Edward Cubberly, City Supt. of Schools of San Diego, as his assistant. Prof. Cubberly's appointment will not take effect until Supt. 1st.

The death is announced at her home in New York, of Mrs. Rebecca D. Rickoff, a well known author of schooi books. She was formerly a resident of Anacortes, Wash., and was the mother of Miss Bertha Monroe Rickoff of San Francisco, who won some fame as a writer. Mrs. Rickoff was the wife of Dr. Andrew J. Rickoff, a well known educator. In collaboration with her husband and Dr. William T. Harris, the present United States Commissioner of Education, she published the Appleton series of readers, being the author of Appleton's charts, chart primer and first and second readers. These books had a large sale.

An Inland Empire Teacher's Association was organized to cover the territory embraced in eastern Washington and the pan handle of Idaho. Prof W. J. Spillman of Pullman was elected president; Prof. J. A. Mitchell of Spokane, vice-president; and Supt Muerman of Moscow, Idaho, secretary. The first meeting is to be held at Pullman during the spring vacation. Prof. Spillman

expects that a new State will be formed some day of eastern Washington and northern Idaho with Spokane as its capital. An Idaho teacher thought the pan handle rightfully belongs to Washington. The institute was a great success; its praises were sung by every one, and Supt. Hopson was the recipient of many compliments. Supt. Hopson will go down in educational history as the father of the Inland Empire Teachers' Association. It would have been a neat thing to have made him the first president.-From the N. W. Journal. Beware of Ointments for Catarrh that Con

tain Mercury, As mercury will surely destroy the sense of smell and completely derange the whole system when entering it through the mucous surfaces. Such articles should nerer be used except on prescriptions from reputable phy. sicians, as the dainage they will do is tenfold to the good you can possibly derive from them. Hall's Catarrh Cure, manufactured by F. J. Cheney & Co., Toledo, Ohio, contains no mercury, and is taken internally, acting direc ly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the system. In buying Hall's Catarrh Cure be sure you get the genuine. It is taken internally, and made in Toledo, Ohio, by F. J. Cheney & Co. Testimonials free.

9 Sold by Druggists, price 75 cents per bottle.

The Riverside Literature Series

CONTAINS MASTERPIECES FROM THE WRITINGS OF THE GREATEST AMERICAN AND ENGLISH AUTHORS.

SUITABLE FOR USE IN ALL GRADES OF SCHOOLS.

SOME RECENT ISSUES.

The Fisk Teacher's Agency, located in San Francisco, 420 Parrott Building, secured a number of places for teachers, and a strange thing for California had to advertise for applicants for a high school position,

The S. F. Teacher's Club is a growing institution and its influence is felt for good in the department..

The Lincoln Monument League, W. W. Stone, President, has issued a lithographic picture of Lincoln, price $1. The League has done active work in securing the proper observance of Lincoln Day in the schools.

Leo Pauly has been elected principal of the Kern City schools. He was formeriy located at Tehachapi. His many friends are pleased to know of his promotion.

Susan Lord Currier, the well known writer and teacher, has entered for the post-graduate course, Pedagogical Department, at Berkeley.

The following Institutes will be held this spring: Mendocino, Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Riverside, San Bernardino, Los Angeles, Orange and Nevada.

The Southern California Teachers' Association wili meet at Los Angeles, March 31, A prii 1st and 2nd.

Pres. Greeley and his executive committee are arranging a program that promises to be of special interest.

Supt. Greenwood, Pres. of the N. E. A., and the "only Winship," have already accepted places on the program.

Eugene Da Burn, ex-city superintendent of San Diego schools, has been elected principal of the Adams School in Umatilla Co., Oregon,

The Oregon State Teachers' Association met in Portland Dec. 28th to 30th.

Chas. H. Keyes, now of Holyoke, Mass., is meutioned as a probable successor of Dr. Edwards of the Washington University.

Only five out of twenty-two applicants for teacher's certificates passed the Tulare County primary grade examination successfully.

A resolution protesting against "the ha'it of male teachers parting their hair in the middle" has been adopted by a teacher's institute in West Virginia.

From Santa Clara County comes the report that about sixty teachers in and about San Jose have availed themselves of the privileges offered by the teachers' annuity and retirement fund of that county.

114. Old Greek Folk Stories. Told Anew by JOSEPHINE PRESTON PEABODY. Paper 15 cts.

Lipen, 25 cents. With an index of Mythology: Supplementary to Nos. 17 and 18, and

22 and 23, -Hawthorne's Wonder-Book, and Tanglewood Tales. 115. The Pied Piper of Hamelin, and Other Poems. BY ROBERT BROWNING. Paper 15 cts.

A collection of 26 of Browning's famous shorter poems. With a Biographical Sketch

and Notes. 116. Shakespeare's Hamlet. Edited by RICHARD GRANT WHITE, and furnished with Addi

tionai Notes by ELLEN GRAY CONE, Tutor of Literature in the Normal College, New

York. Double number: paper 30 cents; cloth, 10 cents. 117, 118. Stories from the Arabian Nights. Each part: paper, 15 cents. With an Iutroduc

tory Note. (The two parts also bound in one volume, linen, 40 cents.) 119. Poe's Raven, The Fall of the House of Usher, and other Poems and Tales. With an Intro

duction of Notes. Paper, 15 cents. 120, Poe's Gold Bug, and other Iales. With Notes. Paper, 15 cents. Nos. 118, 120, are edited

hy WILLIAM P. TRENT, Professor of English and History in the University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn. (Nos. 119 and 120, also bound in one volume, linen, 40 cents.)

A descriptive circular, giving the table of contents of eacı number of the series, will be sent to any address on applicution.

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN, AND COMPANY, 4 Park St., Boston. 11 East 17th St., New York. 378-388 Wabash Ave., Chicago.

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THE DRAWING OF FOLIAGE

BY KATHERINE M. BALL [This is a continuation of article by the same author, which appeared in November and December. -Ed.]

HE element of beauty is an important to know what to omit as it is what to draw, and when
important factor in the se the object is so near the eye, as it must be in such an exercise,
lections of examples of foli the child is apt to see and emphasize too much of detail. He
age to be studied. The should be taught to look at the object thru the eyelashes or with eyes
children should be taught half closed, thereby seeing only general features, and in drawing to
to see the beauty of propor eliminate all that is unnecessary.
tion, the graceful flow of Children should be cautioned about drawing too many veins.
surface and line, and the Sometimes it is wise to limit the number. Frequently a child's
subtleties of color.

drawing of a leaf is merely a network of veins and veinlets.
A beautiful leaf must ne Again, special attention should be given to the manner in
cessarily be an inspiration wlich the veins grow out of the mid-rib, for sometimes the growth
to the individual who can is tangential, while at other cimes it is angular.
see its beauty, and a desire

The drawing of the margin is also important; when plain to express this, naturally

or wavy there is not much difficulty, but when serrated or lobed follows.

there is a tendency to try to draw every little tooth. A suggesDrawing from pres

tion is all that is necessary. Then again we find that the teeth of sed leaves, which are always the serration are frequently cut too deep and are apt to be pointed dead leaves, should be discour in the wrong direction. aged. Much of the beauty of Children often see things which they do not know how to the li af lies in its rolling, undu- express without assistance. This is true in their treatment of the lating surface, the representa- stem. With a little help they soon see that a double line extion of which we find to be so presses the idea of thickness much better than the black mass tuat difficult.

is so common. Correct drawing is the out After drawing a series of leaves in the order given and accome of good seeing, and good cording to the methods suggested, the children should have acseeing comes only thru the quired not only power to see appearances, but skill to express picserious study of the object from torial representations that will enable them to proceed to the every point of view. We should more difficult work of the drawing of twigs, sprays and branches. not stop with drawing the face It is the experience of teachers that siems, generally, are view of the leaf, but we should very poorly drawn. This is probably due to a prevailing feeling

draw it in different foreshort- that they are of little importance. It is therefore necessary to emened positions, positions in which we see parts of the surface roll phasize the necessity of carefully studying them, and for this purover and apparently change its shape.

pose special lessons on twigs should be given. Children should be taught to recognize the principles that Bare stems are never interesting, but pleasing studies may be govern appearances, so that they may avoid making serious mis found in oak twigs, that have acorns or oak galls attached, or in takes. For example, when a leaf has a part of its surface rolled pine twigs with cones or eucalyptus twigs with buds, and others over, that part must be of such a size and shape, that if turned of a similar character. Owing to their imperishable nature, such back the shape of leaf will be normal, see 14-15 Again, where the twigs may be kept from term to term and always be found useful. leaf turns as in line 1-2 of Figs. 14 and 15, the direction of the line The selection of the twig is of importance. It should be must be straight, i. e., the line may be irregular-curving up and pleasing and shapely and should be arranged for representation down, but it must be of such a character that it may be blocked so that its flow of line may be seen to.the best advantage. in with a straight line. This principle can easily be illustraied by Before attempting its delineation it should be carefully experiments with a leaf or a piece of paper.

studied, not only with regard to the kind of stem, whether round It is also important that invisible edges be drawn, so that or square, smooth or rough, its characteristic detail or general lines may be found to be continuous and come from their proper irregularities and manner of grɔwib; but also with regard to the places. For example, in Fig. 15, the left margin proceeds from 3 appearance of its position, size and shape. Slow and careful anto i to 4, and the right

alysis and rapid execution are from 5 to 6, and then pass

apt to result in satisfactory es under and comes out at

draws. In the drawing, the 2 in continuous line and

study should be blocked in proceeds to 4. In the

with very light lines-always same way, the mid-rib be

drawing the longest and main gins at 7, continues to 8,

stem first, then the smaller passes under and comes

stems, and last, such remaining out at 9, terminating in 4.

features as acorns, cones, etc. Too frequently we see

It should then be thoughtfully these principles violated as

lined in and accentuated. in Figs. 16 and 17.

While in the drawing of It would be impossible

leaves, it is desirable to omit to turn back the roll-over

all unnecessary details and in Fig. 16, and in Fig. 17

draw only such essentials as exthe leaf would be abnor

press the idea, in stems teh remal in shape, while the

verse is true and details are mid rib expresses an im

9.

carefully drawn. possibility.

Stems should always be The aim of artistic rep.

represented with a double line, resentation should be to

15.

and special attention should be render simply, and to draw

given to express accurately the only the essentials. It is as

method of one stem growing

2

Fig.14

.

out of another, as well as the fact that the parent stem is always In the drawing, we should indicate the shape of the whole larger than the s:em that grows from it. Careful representation mass by light straight lines, block in the main stem, then the leaf should be given to the ends of the stems, which are often neglected stems, then the mid-ribs of the leaves, and finally the leaves themand left open, instead of being represented as ragged or cleanly selves.

Over these lines we should draw the curved lines that cut. The ends should be as carefully drawn as any other part of express the shape of the object, then add the necessary detail and the study.

fiinally accentuate such lines as we wish to make prominent. From the drawing of leaves and twigs we progress naturally Accentuation here presents us with a new problem. The into the drawing of sprays and branches. Again the selection of study now consists of a series of objects and the question no the subject, its arrangement for study and subsequent analysis, longer is 'which edge do we wish to emphasize?” but “which together form an important part of the exercise and prepare the object, which leaf?" But the principle is the same—the leaf way for a successful representation. To study the spray or branch nearest-or the leaf on top should be strongest, while the leaf unwe must take into consideration the effect of the whole, and then der and back should be weak and light in color. proceed to the study of its individual features, such as the length When drawing the spray or branch even less attention should and direction of the stem, the number and kind of leaves, and be given to the venation and the serration of the margin of the their method of growth. We see that not the whole of each leaf leaves, than in drawing the individual leaf. The main object of is visible, and also that the leaves are not all seen facing. Some the drawing being to express simply with breadth and feeling, the are seen in edge view and some in foreshortened view. Some beauty and general characteristics of the study. show us their upper surfaces and some their lower, while others roll over in such a manner as to show a part of each.

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