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New School Readers.
STEPPING STONES TO LITERATURE By Sarah Louise Arnold, Supervis r of Schools, Bos
ton, Mass., and Charles B. Gilbert, Superintendent of Schools, Newark, N.J.
Eight Readers--one for each grade; beautifully illustrated, of the highest literary quality from the first to the last grade.
This series of Readers may justly be said to signalize a new era in school reading books, both from the excep. tional character of the text and the number and beauty of its illustrations. Five volumes are now ready.
A First Reader. 128 pages. Over 130 beautiful illustrations, including 8 color pages. 32 cents.
A Second Reader. 160 pages. Over 100 illustrations, including 8 beautiful color pages. 40 cents.
A Third Reader. 224 pages. Beautifully illustrated with reproductions of masterpieces, portraits of authors, etc. 50 cents.
A Fourth Reader. 320 pages. Beautifully illustrated with reproductions of masterpieces, portraits of authors, etc. 60 cents.
A Reader for Fifth Grades. 320 pages with 70 beautiful illustrations. 60 çen:s.
Single copy for examination sent to any teacher on receipt of price.
"Your Readers surpass all others in attractiveness and typographical eftect, and, above all, in the reading matter, and its arrangement 10 grades."-UA. FRA SIER, Superintendent Schools, Rutland, Vt.
Adopted in New York, Brooklyn, Boston,
state of Ohio, etc., etc.
For the School-room or Home
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NEW SERIES-VOLUME III
SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH, 1898 .
THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION succeeds to the subscription lists, advertising patronage and good will of the Golden Era, established in San Francisco in 1852.
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NUMBER 3 ESTABLISHED 1852
The next issue will be the “official journal.” It will contain thirty-six pages.
* Frank McMurry of Buffalo, has accepted a place in the Teachers' College, New York.
* It is reported that Earl Barnes will return to America next year and accept the Chair of History in Cornell University.
* Chas. De Garmo, the great Herbartian scholar, and President of Swathmore College, has accepted the Chair of Pedagogy in Cornell University.
* “The Spirit of the Teacher," Dr. A. S. Draper's great address will appear word for word in the April issue of the JOURNAL, as he delivered it in Metropolitan Temple.
Supt. Marks of Louisville, is the successor of State Supt. Schaeffer of Pennsylvania, as President of the National Superintendent's Association. The meeting will take place in Columbus, Ohio.
* .* The common sense of the great public should comes to the rescue of the schools and demand that school officers give to their selected executive the absolute power to select and manage his assistants.—The North Western Monthly.
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The moral character of the individual finds an expression in society and in the State, and he is just as responsible to the State for his civic conduct as he is to his Creator for his religious duties. -Lewis R. Harley in School Education.
* It is a sad comment on educational affairs in this country that almost anyone is considered qualified to give directions to teachers, providing he has been able to hoist himself by means of political machinery into some position of power.—The Teachers' Institute.
* * It has been growing unpopular of late to hold that children must be compelled to behave properly, both at home and at school, when they do not willingly behave as they ought. Probably this is due to a swing of the pendulum from the harsher ways of our fathers, – Public School Journal.
That teacher in whom God Himself has “created a clean heart and renewed a right spirit” will bring about such a complete living in the Here and Now, which is Eternity, as will make not only the best, but the only right preparation for later life, every day of which is life itself.-Katherine Beebe, Ivanson, IN.
J. E. King, the able advertising manager of Williams & and related occupations. Austria, in 1890, had nearly 8,000 such Rogers, has published a most excellent paper entitled, “The school gardens for instruction in rearing trees, vegetables, and Improvement of the Service.” He very happily presents the fact fruits. In France gardening is practically taught in 28,000 prithat the teacher is of more importance than fine furniture or fine mary and elementary schools, each of which has a garden attached buildings, and insists that the same pedagogic principles apply to it, and is under the care of a master capable of imparting a to commercial education as to any other. The book is well knowledge of the first principles of horticulture. No one can be printed, and issued with the compliments of Williams & Rogers. appointed master of an elementary school unless qualified to give
practical instruction in cultivating the ordinary products of the Our Grammar School W. C. Doud, A, B., Stanford, a teacher in garden. In Sweden, as long ago as 1871, 22,000 children received Curriculum, Bakersfield, has written a thoughtful pam
instruction in horticulture and tree-planting, and each of 2,016 phlet on the above subject. It is to be regretted that in a brief schools had for cultivation a piece of land varying from one to editorial the pamphlet cannot be reviewed as it should be. Mr.
twelve acres. Still more significant is the recent establishment of Dond has some good ideas. Here is one:
many school gardens in Southern Russia. In one province 227 “Specialization is a good thing. No one will question that
schools out of a total of 504 have school gardens whose whole area it is better to do one thing well than to half do a number of things. is 283 acres. In 1895 these gardens contained 111,000 fruit trees But when the specialist asks the grammar grade pupil to specialize and 238,300 planted forest trees. In them the schoolmasters teach along a number of lines at the same time-- when it is expected tree, vine, grain, garden; silkworm, and bee culture. They are that he be a 'universal specialist 'that is simply asking the impossible. I for one, think it is time to turn a deaf ear to the ad
supported by small grants of money from the country and district vocates of further extension and to revert, at least to some extent,
councils. In the villages, small orchards and kitchen gardens are to the sturdier though simpler ways of our forefathers."
connected with many primary schools. This movement has also The following on drawing however, is wide of the true mark: widely spread over different provinces of central Russia. School
“To the average man and woman, the value of drawing as a grounds in this country have usually been devoted exclusively to permanent acquisition is not great. Drawing, however, trains the athletics and play, but in 1891 a garden was started in connection hand and eye, and is a source of great pleasure and interest to the with one of the Boston grammar schoois. A piece of ground 48 young child. For this reason it might well be taught in a few of the lower grades but ought not to be allowed to encroach in the
by 62 feet in the rear of the boys' yard was pre-empted for the least upon the other work. It should be used to rest and divert
purpose, and it was decided that only native wild plants, shrubs, the little children."
grains, and vegetable roots should be used as stock. The pupils The training of the hand and eye also develops the mind brought in many wild plants, and the fleshy roots of biennialsgives a more practical bent to the education of the child. Mr. turnips in variety, carrot, parsnip, radish, beet, onion (bulb), Doud is clearly mistaken, and has no idea of the practical value of cabbage, etc. In planting, they took turns in digging the holes drawing At least he does not show that he has. His attack on and placing the plants in position. Observations were made during school histories is uncalled for, and proves that Mr. Doud is en the flowering season. The structure of the flowers of the crucifertirely ignorant or willful in his statements about the text-books ous and umbelliferous plants was studied, and the nature of in history. There are a half dozen histories, including McMaster's bieynials was revealed. Other economic plants, such as the School History, Silver, Burdett & Co's New School History, potato, the tomato, and the gourd, were raised to show the indiFisher's New School History and books written by men of great vidualism of plants. A square yard of ground was assigned to ability, and are on the very lines that Mr. Doud emphasizes. The each of the ordinary grains—wheat, rye, oats, barley, and buckfollowing on Arithmetic however, is to be commended :
wheat. The first four, being most important members of the “There is an ancestral sacredness about arithmetic that makes grass family, were especially interesting in their development. it very hard to eliminate any part of it from the grammar school After that, grains meant more to the pupils. Nineteen species of work. The average man and woman believes that all the subjects taught in arithmetic are equally valuable and good. I wish the kinds formed another row. Later it was discovered that those
wild asters were planted in one row. Ten of the finest flowering reader would ask himself this question : How many times in your life have you had occasion to extract the square or cube root of a plants blossomed the most profusely which sprang from seeds number; to calculate the latitude or longitude of a place; to use scattered at random around trees and beside rocks and fences In continued fractions or circulating decimals; to use half of the the fall, seed vessels were collected for study in winter, and bulbs, weights and measures that you learned in school; to find out the relative value of stocks and bonds ; to use your knowledge of gen; member of the highest class had a particular plant to take care of
corms, and tubers were stored away for spring planting. Each eral average, discount, domestic and foreign exchange, equation of payments, etc? Perhaps ninety-five out of every hundred who
and study. He dug around and watered it, took off all dead read this article will say that they never had any use for them at leaves and unseemly branches, and tied it up. Then he sketched all. If not, then why do you maintain that a study of them is its characteristic parts—flower, leaf, stem, habit of growth, etc.necessary and good ? If the grammar school pupil would leave
and took such written notes as would enable him to write an acthose subjects of arithmetic alone which are to him of comparatively little value, and theroly master addition, subtraction, mul
count of his plant and illustrate it with appropriate drawings On tiplication, division, common and decimal fractions, the practical
one occasion each of the thirty-two members of the class studied part of compound numbers, percentage with its practical applica his own clump of asters, there being just clumps enough to go tions, and the practical applications of mensuration, he would around. The importance of seeing and studying plants growing acquire something really valuable and practical from his study of
in large masses is not likely to be overestimated if interest and arithmetic, and the thoroness in those subjects would have given him a far better mental drill than the half mastery of what he is
thoroness in learning about them are desired. Comparatively, a compelled to study at the present time.
single cut specimen in hand means but little. By the aid of the boys *
a fernery was made in an angle of the school building on the north School Gardens. In Appleton's Popular Science Monthly for Feb
side, in a shady, sheltered position. They took handcarts into the ruary, Mr. Henry Lincoln Clapp explains the use of school
woods half a mile distant and collected leaf-mold, which they mixed grounds in teaching the pupils horticulture and natural history.
up thoroly with loam and sand, and then assisted in taking the
ferns from scattered places in the garden and locating them by European countries, it seems, are far in advance of the United
genera in the fernery. The name of each species was written on States in the utilization of school gardens as sources of plant ma- & flat stick, which was stuck into the ground near the specimen to terial for study and as training-grounds in practical horticulture which the name belonged.
NEW PHASES OF CHILD STUDY.
[Extract from an Address by G. Stanley Hall, President Clark University. ] I plead, also, for a great deal of emotional play or interest. THE GROWTH OF THE HEART.
It seems as if it does for the soul something like what the cry
does for the child. The cry is necessary sometimes for the child, Take the heart, for instance. During adolescence, the heart in order to expand the lungs. That is the child's only mode of grows in one year more than in four or five years at a later period. exercise. I do not agree with the kindergartners who take such and in two or three years it increases nearly one-third in weight. pride in saying: "You never hear children cry in our kinderTake the arteries; they expand rapidly during a single year or garten.” I tried sometime ago to get a few boxes of cries on the two in the early 'teens, and it is essential that they should. If rolls of our phonograph, but they all said: “Do not come to our that growth is not assured, the circulatory system is inconiplete kindergarten, they never cry!” Alas for the child who does not thru life; and the heart cannot bear the strain upon it. We see cry; because it exercises the lungs, makes them better, stronger. this very often in college athletes. Their heart is arrested in its It is especially good for the voice., and Prof. Baterini, of Naples, growth at that period of adolescence and will not bear the strain. who has written that splendid book on the voice, says that the So it is with the lungs and every other part of the body. Lung
Lung- reason Americans have such bad voices is because they do not let power grows immensely from seventeen to twenty three. It is their children cry. When the infanteries and gets red in the face, estimated that strength in the average young man ought nearly to it sends the blood out, and, as I said, irrigates the new forming double between those ages. It is good to be strong and completely cells and fibres; not to do it is to starve the baby. developed, because there is no part of the organism that suffers so
ENTHUSIASM. much, not the heart nor the lungs, nor the nervous system, nor any group of organs that suffer so much when this arrest occurs as Something may be said for the emotional play and excitethose tiny organs which are most closely associated with the trans ment at adolescence. We have a great deal of trouble with our mission of the sacred torch of life from one generation to another. young men in colleges, because they love to paint the town red, So, that, physically speaking, it is almost necessary that children and to get excitement. But young men must have excitement; it should be physically selfish, and should grow to be as big as they is a necessity of the human body; and if young people can not get can; and parents should co-operate with them to this end, and excitement in legitimate ways (and this is perhaps the most imunderstand that growth is then in order, and if not secured dur- portant thing I have to say to-night), they are just so much more ing the nascent period, which is its due season, it can never be certain to get it in illegitimate ways. Better a thousand times that made up later.
young men should scream themselves hoarse on the football field, It is possible to control, to some extent, the form of the body that they should occasionally have a fracture there, than that they by exercise. I think this has been pretty well established by an- should cultivate that dry rot of the soul that we so often see to-day thropometrical measurements. We find that girls in this country in the academic youtlı, -those youths who rarely look the teacher grow tall very suddenly; taller than they ought to be, and they in the face when he tries to interest them and to infect them with do not acquire the thickness in proportion early enough. Height the enthusiasm necessary for the youth. They look the teacher is at its golden period before thickness; but it is the latter thick in the face with a cold, stuic kind of stare. “Oh, yes! but I have ening of the body that is so often lost. So that, where this arrest been there before.” You cannot get them interested; it is not good occurs, it often leaves our young men and maidens disproportion- form to be interested in anything. You remember that awfully ately tall. That is a misfortune, because the body of a tall person homely phrase of Matthew Arnold, “it is very important for loses more from radiant heat than a short person. We have so young people to be taught to keep the nose clean, before they learn much heat in our body, and it can be measured accurately. It to turn it up." I think it has a very wide range of application in takes more energy to keep the body warm than it does a good these days of academic indifference, and sometimes cynicism and many times over to do all the work that even a working man criticism. Higher criticism, a criticism that precedes sympathetic does. Now, if there is any undue loss of heat, there is just so understanding of the persons or the topics criticised, is always much loss of economy. A tall boy or girl presents very much well; but I feel that in some quarters we are in danger to-day of more surface than a short boy or girl; and therefore, they lose losing the very best thing there is in youth, the thing that makes more heat. A person who is very tall has to sustain a long column youth a blessing, i. e., enthusiasm ! What is youth without plenty of blood, and if he has not grown thick, and the heat has not ex of it? It is the time to dream dreams and see visions. It is the panded, and the lungs have not the muscular strength to sustain time to plan and to be in fancy all that man has been and done in that strength of blood, it often causes collapse in middle life or the world. It is the time when the soul gets its capital of energy earlier. So that plenty of exercise in young men and maidens is and enthusiasm and altruistic zeal, and if that holy time is frittered essential, and it makes for the growth of the present and the away, it can never be made up again. If the excitement which is future generation as well, because it is a very significant fact that so essential is pei verted, how great is that loss. They have sinned these excessive lengths of the tall people are tallest in this single against all the rules of the body, and have been false to the subone from the hip to the knee. If a person is tall, it is generally
If a person is tall, it is generally preme trust to transmit the sacred torch of life undimmed, but there that the excess exists. These dinensions are generally be burning ever brighter, to future generations. lieved to be connected with those that act upon the transmission
PARENTHOOD. of one generation to the next.
Hence, it is very important that there should be plenty of ex I think we forget that there is nothing so sacred in the world ercise in due season, and that the body should be given a good
as parenthood; nothing that entails so much responsibility. Why, chance to develop under suitable conditions which can be pre one of the greatest biological doctrines of all modern studies of life scribed for only by individuals who know the right adjustment of has been this, so far as the biologist can say from his standpoint work and play during these later stages of growth.
alone: “The reason why the standard of life has been prolonged There is another very important factor, the emotional nature has been to serve youth.” How is it that with animals, a great should be exercised.
many simply reproduce and die? They transmit life to the next
generation, and then, incidentally, a great many forms of them THE AMBITIOUS BOY.
die. As you go up to higher forms, you find life begins to be proI know a gentleman who has gone thru 200 lives of distin- longed after the productive period. We know, for instance, that guished men; and in every case he has found they had enormous the eagle lives sometimes 200 years. We know the crow lives ambitions. How often do we see young boys who want to be ninety, perhaps on the average, and you can go thru the animal Cæsar, Alexander the Great, or the president of the United States. world and make a scale just how long every animal lives after reAnd it is well, because the watch-ward “Excelsior” seems to be reproductive activity, and you will find that the animal lives just higher ! higher! It seems to be one of the deepest things im long enough to bring the young to maturity. Those animals that planted in the human soul. It is this golden period of life to die soon produce young that need no care. Those that produce , which the teacher should bring his consummated art. It does young that need care live, on the average, just as long as this care not do to rub in the moral" all the time. That bores children, is needed. So that, after the age of complete maturity, so far as who are sometimes far wiser than their parents or teachers think, we can infer from animals to man, the only reason for our living
The Punctuation Points.
Six little marks from school are we,
Six little marks from school.
Place this little mark from school.
This little mark from school.
These little marks from school.
This little mark from school.
This little mark from school.
This little mark from school.
on after this period is really, biologically speaking, to serve the young. A good test of a man or woman is "what they do for serving the next generation." Why is it that certain nations in the past have faded out? Why is it that there have been periods of decline and decadence, and total extinction of certain nations ? It is because there have been great national sids, which God punished by extinguishing the nations. Therefore, I believe we have the germs of the best philosophy the world has ever seen when we say that those nations are the best that bring the young to fullest and completest maturity. Those families, churches, nations, schools, are the best that do most to bring the young safely up to complete maturity; who train them up to be better Christians, better men and women, both in soul and in body. The fact is that adolescence has always been recognized by every savage race, no matter how degraded. There is no tone that does not do something that might be called education, in the teens. That is the time when the Indian sends the young brave into the forest to get a new name; when other tribes mutilate each other by knocking out the front teeth, or cutting off a joint or two. when still more 'barbarous tribes inflict wounds on their bodies. It is when their young people are initiated into the rude myths that constitute the only culture these savages have. It is the time when the Greek youth began to study music or the arts. It is the time when a great many churches confirm, bringing home the solumn truths at that age. It is the most important period in life. It taxes the utmost wisdom of the parent and the teacher; and instead of being a brief period, it seems to be growing longer and longer.
How Mendelssohn Won His Wife.
He Captured the Prize by Wit of Brain and Goodness of Heart.
The greatly honored Moses Mendelssohn, who was called the Socrates of his time, was visiting the baths of Pyrmont. There he became acquainted with the merchant Gaugenheim of Hamburg.
“Rabbi Moses," the merchant said to him one day, “we all revere you, but my daughter especially reveres and admires you with the greatest enthusiasm. It would be the highest bonor to me to have you for a son-in-law. Pray visit us some time.”
Moses Mendelssohn was very retiring and shy, for he was sadly hunch-backed. At length, he set out for the journey. He went to Hamburg, and sought out Gaugenheim in his countinghouse. The merchant said to him: “Go up and see my daughter; she will be delighted to see you."
Mendelssohn made the visit to the daughter. On another day Mendelssohn came to Gaugenheim's counting-house. He spoke of the agreeable and intellectual character of the daughter.
“Yes, revered Rabbi," said Gaugenheim, “should I speak frankly to you ?"
“You are a philosopher, benevolent and wise. You will not take it in bad part from the child; she was shocked when she saw you, because you"
"Because I have a frightful hump."
"I thought so," said Mendelssohn, “but yet I will call and take leave of your daughter."
He went up into the dwelling apartments and seated himself by the daughter, who was sitting near the window in a raised seat, with a piece of needle work in her hand. They talked together pleasantly and intimately, but the maiden did not look up, and Mendelssohn did not look at her. At length the maiden put the question: "Do you really believe that matches are decided in Heaven ?"
“Certainly ! And something very unusual happened in my
You know that, according to a Talmudic saying, at the birth of a child, it is announced in Heaven. This and this one will have this one and this one. Now, when I was born, my wife was called out for me, --but it was also declared that she would, alas ! have a: fearful bump. “Dear God!' I said, 'a maiden who is deformed will very likely be bitter and harsh ; a maiden ought to be beautiful. Dear God, give me the hump, and let the maiden be beautiful and comely !"
Scarcely had he said this, when she fell upon his neck. She became his wife, and they were happy together. They also had beautiful and brave children.-- Transla'ed for "Success from the German.
Luck doth wait, standing idly at the gate,
Wishing, wishing all the day;
And before an empty tray, doth sadly say:
To-night on wishes I must sup."
Singing, singing all the day;
And with a well-filled tray, doth gladly say:
To-night on wages earned I'll sup." When Henry Ward Beecher was in Indianapolis, there was a store where the different ministers used to drop in to hear the news and to try each other's metal with a joke. No matter how sharp the hit was, it was always given and taken in a friendly spirit. On one occasion, Mr. Beecher, while riding to one of the stations of his mission, was thrown over his horse's head in crossing a river, and was thoroly soaked. The incident, of course, furnished talk for the habitués of the store ; and, when he made his appearance the next day, he was greeted by his good friend, the Baptist minister: "Oh, ho, Beecher; glad to see you. I thougbt you'd have to come into our ways at last. You've been immersed, I hear; you are as good as any of us now.” A general laugh followed this sally. “Poh, poh !" was the ready response, “My immersion was a different thing from that of your converts; you see, I was immersed by a horse, not by an ass.” A chorus proclaimed that Beecher bad got the best of the joke after all. The Methodist preacher once said to him: “Well, now, Brother Beecher, what have you against Methodist doctrines ?” “Nothing, only that your converts will practice them.” “ Practice them?” .Yes; you preach falling from grace, and your converts are always doing it with a vengeance.
There are two ways of doing work. One may go about it with a clouded brow, a lagging step, and a general expression of disgust and weariness; or it is possible to be alert, energetic, bright of countenance, and elastic of step, as if the labor were really enjoyable. The work is done in either case, of course, but there is something in the latter manner that inspires confidence in the worker and assures him of a reward that would not crown his efforts were they put forth in the other way. This is just as true of selling goods as it is of any other labor. It is the clerk who appears to delight in his vocation that wins,