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Answer of President Jordan.--Lectures are not very effective in this regard. Personal conversation is better.

1. Should not thoro instruction regarding the duties of the married state, the psychological aids to selection and to happy wedded relations and the proper bringing up of children, constitute an important part of every college course ?

Answer of President Jordan.-Such information is most valuable and should be included. But it should not be spurious, hysterical, mawkish. It takes a manly man with thoro knowledge to give such instruction.

6. Should not all students be compelled to include, as part of their daily duties, exercise sufficient to develop sound

bodies while establishing habits tending to maintain health at a maximum of efficiency?

Answer of President Jordan.-A student should be led to seek such training, but education is largely a training of the will. He should seek it for himself, not be obliged to take it. -Extract from an uticle in March Cosmopolitan.

*FROM WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY.-Happiness is generic, and is applied to almost every kind of enjoyment except that of the animal appetites.

FROM THE CENTURY DICTIONARY.-Every man speaks of happiness as his end of ends; he wishes to live well or to do well, which he considers to be the same as being happy. But men disagree exceedingly in their opinions as to that which constitutes happiness; nay, the same man sometimes places it in one thing, sometimes in a sother-in health or in riches, according as he happens to be sick or poor.-Grote's Aristotle.

Concerning “Tom.”' "Tom” is the average young American-boy or girl. Bishop Vincent knows Tom, and what is good for him, and how to tell it so Tom's teachers and mothers and fathers and employers can understand it and govern themselves accordingly. Here is a sample paragraph or two:

Now for the radical lessons which Tom must learn. He must le taught to consider himself a person and not a thing, a cause and not an effect. There is current an idea which receives its support from weak fiction, cheap lecture platforms and even from shabby pulpits--the idea that men are the creatures of circumstances and environment, that evil tendencies are the result of the choice of a great-grandfather. Tom must learn tbat he is in the world for the purpose of overcoming beredity, breaking thru enviror ment and putting circumstances under soot, and he must stand as a man, not a thing. I take great stock in a boy who is courageous enough to assert his principles in spite of "the fellows;" such a boy is a

power and not a piece of putty. DAVID STARR JORDAN

Knowing that he is power, Tom must be taught to be indeMODERN EDUCATION.

pendent and to earn his own way. And this applies to girls as

well as to boys. I detest tramps, rich and poor. When Tom has DOES IT EDUCATE IN THE BROADEST AND MOST LIBERAL SENSE

learned to be independent himself he will respect others who have

to earn their own way in the world. Again, Tom's teachers must OF THE TERM ?

teach him that he being a power and independent, should not forANSWERS OF DAVID STARR JORDAN, PRESIDENT OF LELAND

get the law of independence. That is why I like the public school. STANFORD UNIVERSITY.

It brings future citizens together on an equal footing. It is a That training which does not disclose the secret of power is unworthy the name of education.- President Jordan.

good thing for broadcloth and homespun to sit side by side: it 1. The first article of the educational series which has been pub

doesn't hurt homespun and it does broadcloth good. lished in The Cosmopolitan was founded upon the following hypothesis : Tom's most effective teacher, when the boy is between the “The pursuit of all mankind is happiness. There is no other basis ages of fourteen and twenty-one, is the man for whom he works upon which any tenable theory of education for youth may be built and who pays him money. Here Tom's parents have a responsithan that the training received tends, in the highest degree, toward those conditions of mind and body which will best serve to bring hap- bility. They must choose his employer wisely. Finally, I would piness to the individual educated and to those about him. That, at say, never give Tom up. If his teacher is cross and sarcastic, least, is the ideal toward which education must move with ever-quick- take up a missionary collection and send that teacher to the north ening strides." Do you believe that this is the true ideal ? If not-what?

pole. Remember that some boys do not mature until they are

twenty-five and some men have astonished the world at fifty. The Answer of President Jordan. - I should say rather effectiveness. stupid-boy of to day may be the valedictorian at college, the statesBut all true happiness depends on action, there is not so much

man of future years. It sometimes takes the Almighty Father difference. But mere pleasure or contentment should not be called

eighty years to get a good grip upon a human soul. Therefore, I "happiness.”

say, Tom's teachers at home and in society should never give 2. Do you think that the training of the mind of youth can be accomplished by the study of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Psychology

up. and English, German and French Literature as thoroly as by that of Latin and Greek ?

Paul Hull; writing of the Jacksonville (111.) Institution for Answer of President Jordan.—With most men better.

the Blind, in the Chicago Inter Ocean, tells the story of two blind 3. Will not a curriculum made up of the sciences and modern liter. boys who were overheard exchanging views about heaven: "What ature develop the reasoning powers to a higher degree than one in would you like to see first when you get there?” said the first, which the study of Latin and Greek is the chief factor?

I'd like to see my mother," was the answer. Answer of President Jordan.-With most men-yes.

“I wouldn't. I'd like to see the'days of the week.” 4. Inasmuch as the student, in a large percentage of cases, immediately following graduation enters upon a professional or business Susie's grandmother had been scolding her. A few minutes career and not infrequently assumes family cares, should not provision be made for thoro instruction by lectures on choice of occupation or

later, Susie sat alone with her grandmother, playing with her profession—the intention being to afford him the widest possible infor

kitten. She took the kitten in her arms and said: "Kitty, I wish mation regarding the occupations of life, and to enable him to choose one of us three was dead. "Tisn't you, Kitty, and 'tisn't me, with knowledge rather than with prejudice ?

Kitty."

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The Necessity of Special Training for Business.

(Extract from an address delivered by Dr. C. $. Haley, Vice-President of fools we mortals be?Often it is said it takes a wise man to

Heald's Business College, before the State Teachers Association.] know that he is a fool, for as the field of thought widens and

The necessity of special training for business' is a su bject broadens, just in that ratio does man realize his own littleness. worthy of the first consideration by the members of this Associa

The Bounded Horizon of Our Knowledge, tion, for

We are all fools only in different degrees, but the less one "A little learning is a dangerous thing;

knows, the more he knows: Two and two make four, but is it Drink deep or taste not the Pierian Spring!

susceptible of proof? Who among you can say whence you came There, shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,

or whither you go? Who can explain Newton's Law? What is But drinking largely sobers us again."

electricity? Who can tell how grows the seed ? Who can comMeasured by Pope's philosophy, special training would be a prehend the laws upon which our Weather Bureau bases its prog necessity to any calling laying claims to the attainment of a suc nostications, for when it forecasts rain it is generally fair? What cessful outcome.

folly there is in wisdom and what wisdom in folly ? The course pursued in England and on the coutinent to gain This contrast is between the finite and infinite, but when we a knowledge of business is to bind a young man for a term of years come to consider man of low and high degree, we know that what without compensation and thus imbibe the methods of the trans elevates the one to a higher plane iu life than another is education. action in the commercial world by a species of inheritance.

When we reflect what a broad field of learning is spread beEducation for business was cradled in this land of liberty and fore us as food for the brain, when we deliberate on the bounty has scarce doffed its swaddling clothes in foreign lands. Its birth and magnitude of the subjects for our study, is it a wonder that and growth in our own country does not date back beyond the the brain, like the stomach, should become dyspeptic when taxed confines of the latter half of the present century, and even in the to digest such a multiplicity of subjects as is undertaken to be last decade,

taught in our public schools? The law of digestion when food is The Efficiency of Business College Work

taken for our sustenance rebels against variety, and when orerHas more than doubled and tripled in its usefulness to prepare the taxed in that direction fails to properly nourish the body. So with generation that is to succeed us to occupy a higher plane in life the brain, if fed upon miscellaneous food, little will be digested and and more readily comprehend the intricacies of business.

meager the accomplishment To best and most effectually establish the value of anything

The Infinitely Great and the Infinitely Little is to present an argument by analogy, and in pursuance of this Take for illustration the study of the microscopic world which plan and asserting that right accorded to all Yankees, I purpose leads us to examine 'atoms, inicrobes and bacteria, whereby all arguing my point by asking a few pertinent questions.

fashionable diseases are traced to a germ, or perhaps more aptly Special Training for the Professions.

expressed by that homely, though somewhat inelegant, distich, Is there to be found in a civilized land a person so idiotic that

“Big fleas have little fleas to bite, 'em,

And so on ad infinitum," he would employ the services of a man without a special education And compare it to that opposite pathway that leads us to the reto administer remedies in case of sickness of himself or his family? velations of the telescope, through which man leaves the earth at Imagine a surgeon, with scalpel in hand, cutting and slashing a will and sores into confines of space and locates worlds like our human subject without first gaining a knowledge of the anatomy own and solar systems, each with its own planets and satellites, of man !

assuring us of the probability that in the infinitude of space the Who would pay a retaining fee to a lawyer to defend or pro worlds are as numberless as the sands of the seashore. secute a case at the bar of justice who has not fitted himself for The justly celebrated Dr. Thomas Chalmers, the Scotch assuch service by the study of the statutes and made himself ac

tronomer, thus contrasts the telescope with the microscope: quainted with the manipulation of cases in the courts of law ?

"The one led me to see a system in every star; the other leads Who is there among you that would be led to the salvation me to see a world in every atom. The one taught me that this of the soul by a person not qualified for the ministrations of the mighty globe, with the whole burdez: of its people and of its coungospel, or dignified by the title of "the cloth” or even the soles tries, is but a grain of sand in the high field of immensity; the of his shoes to be patched up by a cobbler not properly in his line other teaches me that every grain of sand may number within it of work ?

the tribes and families of a busy population. The one told me of Would you as teachers be fitted to take charge of your school the insignificance of the world I tread on; the other redeems it rooms without being educated for the duties devolving upon you, from all its insignificance, for it tells me, that in the leaves of every that of inodeling the young mivd, storing it with useful thoughts forest, and in the flowers of every garden, and in the waters of and stamping it with morals so that the boy shall grow to man every rivulet there are worlds teeming with life and numberless as hood endowed with traits of goodness and worth?

the firmament." Why has there been established a State Normal School but

Contemplate the study of the microscope in delving into the to educate you as teachers, that you may be qualified to teach, mysteries of nature, unfolding by master minds the infinitesimal that your high and holy calling (than which none is higher or worlds as a life-word to the greatest good of the human race; and holier) shall be revered and honored by the civilized world? also the revelations of the astronomer with the aid of the telescope;

Have I need of further arguments on this line of thought in and consider the widely opposite directions these two fields of addressing the educators of the State ? Lest there be reflected an labor lead the thoughts of those who seek these paths of investiindignity upon your intelligence, I shall forbear, for it is doubtful gation, and you must know that success could be achieved only if any thoughtful person can be found who will father the conten- by special training, laying the foundation of the one study to the tion that training is not necessary to the pursuit of any calling, exclusion of the other; and what is true of the microscope and the trade, or profession. The educated farmer makes a better farmer,

telescope is alike applicable to any and all of the professions and and he should be familiar with the proper transactions of business callings that every man may select as a vocation to pursue for a affairs, and it is just as essential for him to have this special train livelihood. ing as it is for the professional or commercial man.

Every human being should An old farmer, many years ago, who had adopted a method

Live for a Purpose; of keeping his accounts in chalk on the back of the kitchen door, And I count that man a failure who does not leave the world betfound that his good house-wife on a scrubbing-day had washed ter for having lived in it. them oft. Feeling sorely chagrined over the misfortune, she urged Imagine a young man launching his ship upon the stormy her husband to try to restore them from memory.

After many

sea of life to buffet the tempestuous waves without compass or hours of earnest study, he told his sorrowing spouse he had suc chart, or a knowledge of their uses, adrift upon the trackless ceeded in replacing them and that he had faith in believing they ocean, swept by every wind whither it listeth and driven and were charged to better men.

washed by every wave through a purposeless voyage till wrecked This method of bookkeeping, if crowned with success, insures upon the quicksands or dashed to pieces upon the rocks, and you more profitable results than Business Colleges have been able to have the pictured fate of a great majority of those who enter upon devise.

life's stern duties unprepared for its battles, unlearned and unHave you, my friends, ever thought with Shakespeare "What trained in the callings selected for their life-work.

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AS A MEANS OF SOCIAL CONTROL

PROF. EARL BARNES, London, England--Formerly Stanford University, California.

No American can live in England, even for a few months, one on the boat would stand the least nonsense." The thorowithout realizing that the whole theory and practice of human going reformation of his character dates from the moment when control is very different from what it is with us. If from England this conviction becomes implanted in his mind. When restored the visitor goes on to France the marked characteristics of English to his parents at the close of the cruise, Harvey Cheyne is a frank, control are still more emphasized.

resolute, even-tempered youth, inured to hardships, trained to The English are a strong people--their present empire is a obedience, and proud of his ability to earn his own living. sufficient proof of this statement. They are frankly, directly This form of control is reduced to a working system and digmasterful; and this masterful quality is most simply expressed in nified by tradition and noble associations in the great public schools their attitude toward corporal punishment. Everywhere one is of Etou, Harrow and Rugby. Thomas Arnold counted on the brought face to face with the national dependence on physical “fagging system” of Rugby "as the key-stone of his whole govpain and discomfort as a means of correcting evil ways. Thus in ernment.” When a liberal journal made an attack on corporal the London Daily Telegraph of Sept. 3, 1897, one reads that Henry punishment, he replied: "I know well of what feeling this is the Bunce, aged 13, was charged at a London police court with expression; it originates in that proud spirit of personal indepenstealing a water-can, value 2s. 6d. “Prisoner said he certainly dence, which is neither reasonable nor Christian—but essentially broke into the house by forcing the back window catch, but all he barbarian. It visited Europe with all the evils of chivalry, and did to the house was to wind the clocks. (Laughter.) Prisoner is thaeatening us now with those of Jacobinism. At an age when had been previously convicted, receiving six strokes with the birch it is almost impossible to find a true manly sense of the degradafor stealing. He now pleaded guilty, and Mr. Bird reduced the tion of guilt or faults, where is the wisdom of encouraging a fancharge to one of stealing, and ordered him twelve strokes with the tastic sense of the degradation of personal correction ? What can birch.” Again, from the Telegraph of September 21: “Walter be more false, or more adverse to the simplicity, sobriety and Tucker, 9, school-boy, was charged with stealing a pair of tennis humbleness of mind, which are the best ornament of youth and shoes. Prisoner was sentenced to receive eight strokes with the the best promise of a noble manhood ?" birch.”

When corporal punishment is common, and grounded in a One reads such statements in all the papers ; nor are the birch- generally accepted philosophy of control it does not carry with it ings confined to children in the police courts. Flogging was that disgrace which attaches to it where any form of physical asabolished in the United States navy half a century ago; but in sault is considered as not only painful but as personally insulting. the same London Telegraph for September 21, we read that, “A Hence we find that in England this form of control is not lacking court martial was held yesterday on board the flagship“ Victory" in elements that may appeal to taste and be used to give bright--for the trial of James Watkins--charged with being absent with ness and color to literature and art. Tom Brown at Rugby will out leave—and with having struck his superior officer. Prisoner occur to every one; and in Kenneth Graham's Golden Age we was sentenced to receive twenty-four cuts with the birch, then to have a charming treatment of the physical give and take solution be imprisoned for one year, and afterwards to be dismissed from of human relations in a well-to-do English home. Or take the her Majesty's service.

review in a current English paper where Mr. G. W. Stevens One does not need to go to the newspapers to realize this con- quotes Elizabeth Turner's child's lyric: stant dependence of the English people on immediate physical reactions. One cannot walk ten blocks in London without being

“Mama had ordered Ann, the maid, impressed with this pushing and pulling tendency of the common

Miss Caroline to wash; people; and if his walk take him through one of the tenement

And put on with her clean white frock districts he feels that the parents have never heard of any treat

A handsome muslin sash. ment for children except that prescribed by Solomon. One might

But Caroline began to cry, say this is because London is a great city, but the traveler may

For what you cannot think: walk about Paris for a week and never see a child struck or

She said, 'Oh, that's an ugly sash; kicked.

I'll have my pretty pink.' In his last novel, Captains Courageous, Mr. Kipling has again summed up and expressed the whole English philosophy of con

Papa, who in the parlor heard

Her make the noise and rout, trol. The hero is Harvey Cheyne, the spoiled son of an American

That instant went to Caroline, millionaire. We first meet him on an Atlantic liner on his way to “be finished in Europe.” At this time he is “a slight, slim

To whip her, ther's no doubt." built boy, a half-smoked cigarette hanging from the corner of his And then Mr. Stevens adds the commentary: "When Caromouth. His pasty, yellow complexion did not show well on a line reappears in the story, naughty, you notice that she is ‘Miss' person of his years, and his look was a mixture of irresolution, Caroline no longer. In the second line of the second stanza we bravado, and very cheap 'smartness'” Op the way he falls over have the unheard-of-heinousness of her conduct finely emphasized. board and is picked up by a boat belonging to the schooner We're And then, in the third, the awful suddenness of the apparition of Here, of Gloucester, out on a four months cruise. He demands papa! How subtly papa is pictured, lying in wait in the parlor, to be taken home but the captain does not believe his story and silent, no doubt, listening, the door ajar, for the least hint of he has to remain. He is offered regular employment but he re- wbipable naughtiness. That instant, you observe, he was up and fuses it and so he suffers forcible indoctrination in seamanship, at her. Note, finally, the art with which the catastrophe is sughis first lesson taking the form of a knock-down blow, instantly gested rather than stated. Papa is moving in the direction of productive of one of “them hemmeridges' that are warrented to Caroline; we do not hear the slaps or the screams—but we imclear the head.

In this spirit his instruction is inflexibly continued. Teachings This attitude toward physical compulsion is not an unconand admonitions are alike convincingly emphasized by severe but scious accompaniment of environment and racial qualities; it is, indispassionate thrashings with a knotted rope, and Harvey soon stead the accepted philosopy of the people, and they look with discovers that it is his immediate personal interest to apply him distrust and apprehension upon any people holding a different self cheerfully to the performance of whatever duties may be as view. The attitude of English writers toward the French in matsigned him by his master. “The same smartness that led him to ters of government, art, literature and social relations, from the take such advantage of his mother made him very sure that no impassioned utterances of the days of the French Revolution to

agine."

the current articles in to-day's Chronicle or Telegrapi all express education. The influence of the free schcols is already seen in an this distrust of activity that is carried on outside the shadow of attempt on the part of the lower classes of society to realize exthe strong arm of a law that can be distinctly seen and felt if neces istence as individuals as well as parts of society. These first sary. Or the current editorials on our recent elections illustrate attempts at self-direction and expression will be rude and often the point as well. To read them one would imagine that Amer vulgar, but an American must believe that in the long run they ica, light, fickle, with no fixed policy, and no vissble power of will justify themselves. compulsion, was on the brink of anarchy. England's attitude When we turn to America the conditions are all very different. towards us is very much like our attitude toward Brazil or Guata The free life of our early settlers developed an extreme confidence mala.

in self-direction; our revolutionary struggle with England Now this attitude toward law, with its accompaniment of pos strengthened this confidence into a conviction which is formulated sible pain, has been characteristic of the great conquering nations in our Declaration of Independence. With plenty of room for of all time. All that has been said of England would have been growth we passed the period of swaggering young manhood, from even more true of ancient Rome; and wherever a great work is 1800 to 1840, without having our self confidence properly temaccomplished through a long period of time we cannot doubt that pered by a large and cosmopolitan experience. Then came the the agent working in harmony with the constitution of things. anti-slavery agitation with its veheinent denunciations of the Capital punishment then, using the phrase with its largest con whip and personal degradation, and its soul-stirring orations on tent, would seem to have its place and function. What is it? our black brother and human equality. Whatever ideas of direct

The studies made on children's attitude toward punishment control and compulsory obedience might have survived these naduring these past four or five years go to show that young children tional experiences have been still further obscured by the varied accept physical reactions as a perfectly natural thing against immigration with which our country has been flooded since 1840. . which they feel no particular revolt. Their own tendency is to The German bas had no respect for the Irishman's ideas of public impose physical pain as a means of bringing things or people into control, and the Irishman has rejected the German's traditions. line with what they think ought to be done. Farther, all our As a consequence of our development we have accepted as the studies on undisciplined and spoiled children go to show that a basis of control in the family and school, and even in our relations young child finds at first the conditions of sound mental and with our Indians and negroes a variety of doctrinaire belief often moral growth only in absolutę obedience to a will and a direction better fitted to the society that we hope will exist in 2098 than to superior to his own. But from the earliest age the child is also the society that actually exists in 1898. struggling for self direction and if he is prevented from following Thus it has come about that the difference between the social this natural development we have as a result either the helpless faiths of England and America is profound. With us the indiand dependent kuman being, or the revolutionist with his hand vidual is the centre of the universe; we believe in him; we trust turned against all law. So with a primitive people, all history him; and this trust rests in a deeper optimism, in a belief in the teaches that they find their best conditions of growth in strong essential rightness and sanity of the universe. To slightly change paternal rule, backed by immediate physical pain. An unpreju Lincoln's saying;-"We believe that some of the people will go diced observer cannot be brought into immediate relations with wrong all of the time, and all of the people will go wrong somethe lower classes of our negro population without feeling that any times, -but all of the people cannot go wrong all of the time." one of them would find his best condititions for mental and moral This belief must inevitably produce a state of unstable equilibrium growth in a state of immediete dependence on a wise and sympa among the molecules of our commonwealth; and the Englishman thetic superior. If a child or a primitive people misses this normal watching us grows giddy, for he has not in the bottom of his stage in its growth we have the hoodlums of our American cities, or heart that profouad faith in the rightness of human nature in the lower type of citizens in our Spanish-American republics. In which the American rests. these cases we must apply the rule, Better late than never. Spoiled But in this general optimism have we not carried our theories people may find their salvation, even late in life, in a strong hand of physical inviolability so far that it has unfitted us for dealing backed by immediate and painful penalties.

intelligently with backward people and diseased classes ? Our These, then, are cases where direct physical rule seems desir lowest class of negroes, our lozy and habitual tramps, and our able: with young children;" with primitive peoples; and with cer city hoodlums are the hardest problem we have to meet. We tain types of spoiled people. It will be noted that these are have a lot of work in our country that could be very effectively exactly the cases with which Mr. Kipling deals, the neglected done by Sergeant Whatisname. Our children especially, suffer and spoiled son of a New York millionaire, the English "gutter from this lack of discrimination on our part. Freedom that comes devil” and the Egyptain fellaheen, with his centuries of oppres too soon, before the individual is ready for it, is ruin; and we in sion and misuse behind him, and in him. But the trouble comes America have to learn when in the advance from savagery to when we take it for granted that this is the whole secret and civilization, from childhood to manhood, the admonitions of exscience of government. It seems to me that this mistake marks perience need the backing of physical force. the whole attitude of the English people toward control. All If England's danger lies in the direction of a force that may sane and healthy living must certainly start in absolue and will weaken artistic power, destroy initiative and ultimately brutalize ing obedience to some superior human power; without this start, a people, ours lies in the direction of a lawless individualism that no sound growth. But it is equally true that from the first each precociously ripens children, develops hoodlums, and leaves us individual must not only be allowed, but encouraged to struggle powerless to deal with the infinitely difficult social and political for and to attain self-direction;—that is to say, a direction that is problems of the undeveloped peoples within and all about our in accord with the constitution of the universe, his own nature borders.— Extracts from an article in Education. and human society being two elements of that universe. Absolute control, backed by prompt physical penalties will give the foundations for healthy growth; it will form a great army; it will conquer and govern provinces; it will at least hold in subjection the criminal and spoiled classes, and it will sometimes cure them. But if it is too long continued it will destroy initiative, crush out artistic development and ultimately brutalize a people. These conditions have not been realized in England, but the national

Whicu tendency seems to me in that direction.

Meantime the new movement that is centering about the free comnion schools seems destined to work a great change in Eng. lish public opinion. In the past England has never believed in the free general education of her people. Not until 1870 did she establish schools under the direction and control of government; and not until 1892 did she make elementary education free.

With the expansion of the suffrage, however, all parts of the country, and especially the great municipalities, have made rapidly increasing grants for the support of elementary education: and just now all England is facing the problem of free secondary

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Y WESTERN SCHOOL

NEWS

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The biennial Conventiontof County Superintendents will meet at Sacramento, April 25, '98, in the Senator Chamber.

Superintendent R. H. Webster will issue his report of the City Schools of San Francisco during the present month.

The institutes of Riverside, Orange, San Bernardo and Los Angeles will be held March, 28, 29, 30, and the Southern Teachers Association, March 31, and April 1.

Prof. Geo. Davidson has been elected to a chair of Commercial Geography by the Board of Regents of the State University in the College of Commercé.

The Moscow, Idaho, Schools, J. C. Muerman Superintendent, had an enrollment for February, of 736, and only two tardy. The decrease in tardy marks of from 133 in. February, 1893, to one or two at the present time has been accomplished by simply creating a sentiment against tardiness.

Mr. E. Munigan, Clerk of Lincoln School District, Alameda County, has served continuously as clerk of that district since its organization in 1865. Is there another such record in Alameda County or in any other

Superintendent McPhaill was at Woodville this week to install the new principal of the schools there. He is L. E. Lynn oí Los Angeles. There was no available teacher in Tulare county unemployed to take the posi

Lynn had to be sent for to the south end of the State. Mr. M.Phaill also visited the Surprise and Oakdale schools while he was absent. – Visalia Delta.

Prof. James Edward Keeler, who has been appointed Director of the Lick Observatory to succeed E. S. Holden, is not unknown to scientific work on this Coast. He was the first practical astronomer to take hold of the Lick Observatory, having gone there as "astronomical observer” under the Lick Trustees in 1886. For two years, or until the transfer of the Observatory to the University, he carried on the time service and made all possible use of the equipment. When the great refractor was mounted by the late Alvan G. Clark, in January, 1888, Professor Keeler made the first observations through it, and at the inception of the Observatory made studies and drawings of the planet Saturn that are standard to this day. He was in charge of the first eclipse expedition sent from the Lick Observatory. On January 1, 1889, at Bartlett Springs, in Lake county, he made observations of the total solar eclipse which were published in the Lick Observatory records, and he subsequently determined the geographical position of the station at Norman, Cal., occupied by an Eastern observing party. A few years later be resigned from the Lick Observatory to accept the directorship of the Alleghany Observatory, where he has since continued work in his special line of astronomical spectroscopy, with results that have gained

daily attendance is high., Impress this on patrons and pupils. Visit the parents of irregular pupils, and by every means strive to get them with you in this work.

Many books. belonging to the teachers' library have been out for months. Those having such bookş will confer a favor by returning them at once. Respectfully, J. S. MCPHAILL

County Superintendent.

for him an international renown. Professor Keelor is a native of Illinois and was graduated from the Johns Hopkins University, after some years of study in Germany. He served for many years under Prof. S. P. Langley before coming to the Lick, and while working with that distinguished scientist came to Mr. Whitney in 1881 to make bolometer observations of the sun at high altitudes. He was married in 1890 to Miss Matthews, a ward of the late Captain R. S. Floyd.

A lack of interest in educational circles is quite apparent. The two county associations of this county are receiving a very meagre support, and with great effort are keeping their organizations in tact. Interesting programs are the order in each; but the teachers are already so wise that they cannot learn more, or so selfish that they care not to give of their wisdom to others. Apparently, many feel that there is no more to learn, that all knowledge is stored up with them. It is certainly to be regretted that our teachers are so wise (?) that they can learn nothing from association with others of their own profession. Yet there are many teachers who have no excuse for absenting themselves, who are continually absent. We can but believe that if not a'crime, it is certainly unprofessional conduct, and deserves censure, if not more severe treatment. There are nearly 150 teachers in this county and probably two-thirds of them are within reach of the association meetings, and yet a paltry 25 or 30 are all that have a pride in their profession. The County Board of Education and the Boards of School Trustees should observe and make a note of such absences.Public School Reporter, San Luis Obispo Co.

Earnest Appoal to Teachers, J. S. McPhaill has sent out to the teachers of Tulare County from his office the following circular letter:

"VISALIA. California, February 5, 1898– To the teachers of Tulare County: Again I wish to call your attention to the importance of securing the best possible attendance in your schools. This is the season when your earnest efforts in this direction are most needed. Persistent and continuous work will surely do a great deal of good.

In two years we have reduced the absences by 6963 days We should reduce it as much more this year. Last year there were over 24,000 absent days reported to this office. This should be reduced to 10,000 or less. Will we do it? That depends entirely upon the efforts of each individual teacher.

If your school averages one absence per pupil per month your attendance is poor and you should spare no effort till you get better results. The increased attendance during the past two years saved the country several thousand dollars, and this year we should do better and save more. Individual districts will have much more money if the average

Resign ation of Francis A. Parmeter. For some time Miss Parmeter had been feeling that the failing health of her only brother demanded that she go to him and render a sister's service to a dear one; so, as letters continued to come telling that the dread disease, consumption, was 'surely and rapidly taking away every hope, her duty was made plain to her, and, near the close of January, she tendered her “resignation and went to minister to him.' As a mark of appreciation of her services and of regret at her departure, President Ritter called the Faculty together, and they unamimously passed and signed the following resolutions.

"After seven years of service our associate teacher, Miss Francis A. Parmeter," Preceptress, 'resigns her "position that she 'may minister to the wants of her invalid brother, therefore, be it

"Resolved, That, in Miss Parmeter's with drawal, we lose å worthy associatė,' the school a superior teacher," and the students a warm and sympathizing friend; and be it further

"Resolved, That with our knowledge of Miss Parmeter's qualifications, ability and worth, we feel it a duty we owe to ourselves, to her, and to the cause of education, to say that she excels as teacher, and that her every act as Preceptress is worthy of imita. tion. (Signed.) C, M, RITTER 'WINIFRED S. BANGS M. L. SEYMOUR GRACE A. LOVE W. S. T. SMITH EMMA J. FULLER E. N. HENDERSON ELIZABETH ROGERS E. M. WILSON CLARA M. MCQUADE HELEN BALLARD EMMA A. WILSON MAXWELL ADAMS MAY KIMBALL. Faculty of the State Normal School at Chico California.

Twelve Success Maxims.

The President of the London Chamber of Commerce gives twelve maximis for success, which he says he has tried through five years of business experience:

1. Have a definite aim.
2. Go straight for it.
3. Master all details..

4. Always know more than you are expected to know.

5. Remember that difficulties are only made to overcome.

6. Treat failures as stepping-stones to further effort.

7. Never put your hand out farther than you can draw it back.

8. At times be bold ; always prudent.

9. The minority often beats the majority in the end. 10. Make good use of other men's brains,

11. Listen well; answer cautiously: decide promptly. 12. Preserve, by all means in your power; a sound mind in a sound body."

The waste of life is greater than its accumulation, Mark Hopkins.

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