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By Jacques W. Redway, F. R. G. S. and Russell Hinman.

By James Baldwin, Ph. D.
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TEACHERS--the latest style is as much to

A WELL MADE (DRESS In be desired as a knowledge of psychology. You can have your dresses made at prices to suit, by

Mrs. H. M. Fraser, DRESSMAKING PARLOR, 131 Post St.,




San Francisco, Take Elevator.

American College


and Public School Directory
20th year. Send for circular
St. Louis, Mo.








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School Trustees will find the articles of Superintendent of Public publisher's Notice.

Instruction, S. T. Black, and Chas. H. Allen, interesting and in

succeeds to the subscription lists, advertising

* *
patronage and good will of the Golden Era,
established in San Francisco In 1852. The last day of school has a deep meaning for teacher and pupil.

Subscription, $1.50 a year.
Single copies, 15 cents.

The sentiment that comes from vacation songs, and the farewells
See our special combination ofter. It will
meet your wants. Remit by check, post on the afternoon are in themselves an education.
office order, Wells, Fargo & Co,, of by
ADVERTISEMENTS-Advertisements of an

* unobjectionable nature will be inserted at the rate of two dollars a month per inch,

Carroll Carrington, the subtle genius who presides over one or more MSS.-Articles on methods, trials of new theories, actual experiences and school

of the editorial departments of the Examiner, glanced thru the news, reports of teachers' meetings, etc., urgently solicited.

Address all communications to THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 723
Market Street, S. F.

May number of this journal, then dropped it with the remark,
Entered at the San Francisco Post Office
as second-class mail matter,

"'It is too serious," and he was right, but then one should not exThe Official Organ of the Department of Public Instruction of pect a journal devoted to education to rival the colored supplethe State of California.

ment. Education is no joke, Our Great Club Offer,

Spain has had to borrow money twice. First, to equip CoThe following offer is good for renewals or for new subscription. It is an extra offer and is good for thirty days only.

lumbus to discover us, and second, to equip a new fleet to whip FOR PROFESSIONAL READING

us, and alas for Spain ! No dauntless Columbus is admiral of her The Psychologic Foundations of Education, by W. T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of new fleet, and alas, for the world there are no more liberty loving Education, and WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION one year for $2.50. Dr. Harris' new book is the greatest work of its kind yet published.

Americas to be discovered. The next Columbus will find FOR CULTURE

“Time's burst of dawn” at his feet. Care and Culture of Men, by David Starr Jordan, and the WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION one year for $2.00.

* FOR INTEREST AND ENTERTAINMENT Quo Vadis-the greatest novel of the year, and the WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Mara L. Pratt who has won thousands of friends by her lectures, one year for $1.75. SCHOOL ROOM HELPS

her books and her personality, is at Cornell this year taking a Author's Birthdays, Fancy Drills and Marches, Banner Days of the Republic, and special course in history with Moses Coit Tyler. Miss Pratt pubHow to Celebrate Thanksgiving and Christmas. Four books and WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION one year, $2.00.


lished recently in the American Teacher a study on “Illustrations Editor WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

for Children Stories.” The study is based on work performed for Notice to Trustees.

her by the children of Napa County, Cal. In order that the official journal may be kept on file, we will furnish a binder for 90

* cents. This binder will hold twelve copies, and will be of great service. You will want to preserve the April JOURNAL on account of Dr. Draper's address, and on account of the decision of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction; you will want to keep the May

"Westward the course of empire takes its way" is no longer issue on account of the report of the Biennial Convention. WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 723 Market Street. true. When Uncle Sam sticks the American flag on the banana

trees of the Phillippine Islands, the course of empire will be on its The Review of Reviews for June, contains many fine articles on

way east. And the land which Columbus sailed to seek and the war with Spain.

which Magellan discovered, becomes a part of the land of Colum

bia. Literature may be enriched by a new epic. The Criterion of May 7tb contained a full page criticism on the poetry of Joaquin Miller.

The most notable educational convention of the month will * *

be held at Omaha, June 28, 29 and 30th. It is called the TransThere has been a decided and definite effort to increase the salary Mississippi Educational Convention. of school teachers, in Chicago, Minneapolis, Seattle and other A number of notable names appear upon the the program. places.

Pres. Andrews of Brown University, Supt. Soldan of St. Louis,

Hon. W. W. Stetson, State Superintendent of Schools-Maine, The school children of the United States will be given an op Prot. Chas. E. Bessey, University of Nebraska, Dr. W. Wilkinportunity to contribute towards building a monument to the men son of California, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell and many others. who died on the Maine. It is fortunate that there will be no

Superintendent of Public Instruction, Samuel T. Black of Calichance to build a monument to the dead heroes of Manilla. They fornia and Superintendent F. J. Browne of Washington are memare all alive.

bers of the Advisory Board.



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Oregon is at the present time stirred from beyond the Cas- There is something pathetic in the action of the authorities in drivcades to the sea upon the school text-book question. Prof. Acker- ing out of old Independence Hall, Philadelphia, the Universal Peace man the Republican candidate for Superintendent of Public In- Society. Grant knew what war was, and he said, "Let us have struction and Superintendent Lyman, the Democratic and Populist Peace.” If he had uttered these words yesterday in the hall candidate for the same office, have been forced into the fight. The where the Liberty Be!l swings, he would not have been applauded. latter is making the fight in favor of the State publishing its own The Universal Peace Society expressed its horror of war but it text-books.

went too far in sympathy with the Queen of Spain. Its sympathy * *

should have been for the Cubans. Madison Babcock, formerly Superintendent of Schools of San

* Francisco, now the principal of The Franklin Grammar Evening There is no proper place for prizes or medals in a system of public School has issued a postal card addressed to the parents in his district which is timely and suggestive. One of the surprising schools. We have no right to emphasize what may appear to be statements that he makes and which he is in position to verify is superiority in one, while at the same time with the comparison that there are many boys sixteen years of age in San Francisco

that the pupils make themselves, we direct attention to apparent

lacks in the many. Who knows but the student who struggles who cannot read. *

along and graduates at the foot of his class does not deserve more Eva D. Kellogg writes entertainingly of "June” and “The Genius credit than the valedictorian? General Grant was very near to of Vacation” in Primary Education. She emphasises the fact that the foot of his class at West Point, while possibly the ten best it gives one a chance to get acquainted with one's own soul, but have been forgotten. there are lonesome bachelor school teachers here in the far West

* who would like to get acquainted with the other one's own soul.

Hon. W. T. Harris and a committee recommended to the It is not so much the cultivation of your own personality, as it is National Educational Association certain changes in spelling in the personality of some one else, that makes life worth living.

all official documents. This is the first great practical step taken, *

and the editor hereafter will adopt the changes of spelling as recGreater interest has been taken in the National Educațional ormended by the N. E. A. The writers are therefore not resAssociation this year than ever before:

ponsible for the spelling in their contributions. Washington is of great interest at this time and from July 7th The National Educational Association has recommended for to 12th it will be the Mecca of people interested in education. In use in its official documents the following: the State of Washington, Supt. Bingham of Tacoma, is organiz

for though program for programme prolog for prologue ing and getting people interested.

thru through thruout throughout demagog ** demagogue

although thorofare" thoroughfare decalog “decalogue In California, Albert Lyser, principal of John Swett Grammar thoro thorough catalog catalogue pedagog pedagogue School, San Francisco, will head an excursion via the Union

* Pacific. Another excursion will go by way of the Santa Fe.

The poets are the great teachers. Here is a lesson if proTeachers intending to go should address Raymond A. Pear- perly learned will add more to one's life than will the knowledge son, Chairman of Hotel and Public Comfort Committee, Washing that if a fish and a half cost one cent and a half, six fishes ton, D. C. for accommodations.

would cost $

If I were a cobbler, it would be my pride From every quarter of the State, from every quarter of the

The best of all cobblers to be; Coast, inquiries are sent in to men who are known to the teachers

If I were a tinker, no other tinker beside of the State and Coast as being in touch with and informed

Would mend an old kettle like me. upon the movements in higher educational circles in preparation

It ain't no use to grumble and complain of accomodations for those teachers from the interior who wish to

Its just as cheap and easy to rejoice; tāke summer work in their respective lines. Just such

When God sorts out the weather and sends rain,

Why rains my choice. opportunity now presents itself in the Pacific Grove Sum

-James Whitcomb Riley. mer School to be conducted by a faculty of fourteen men

* from the two universities (Berkeley and Stanford) one from New York, and others. Such are the plans, such the course of study, Wilson Hobart, a patriotic boy, handed to Miss Kirk, a such the faculty, such the natural and acquired advantages, that teacher in one of the public schools of Topeka, the lines written the long-wished-for opportunity now presents itself to those who by Eugene F. Ware, the war poet of Kansas, on receipt of the wish to pursue higber work whether specific or general. Teachers news of the American victory in Manila Bay. Young Hobart having the means at hand to defray the pecessary expenses, or so wanted to recite them before the school. They are as follows: far as that is concerued tho they have to embarrass themselves a

O dewey was the morning little by so doing, can ill afford to miss this opportunity. It pre

Upon the first of May, sents itself at such time as many of the teachers of the State are

And Dewey was the Admiral not in the school-room, at such time as teachers are at liberty and

Down in Manila Bay. enabled to do just what they insist upon wishing for during times

And dewey were the Regents eyes, of employment. Let them avail themselves now of the oppor

Them orbs of Royal blue;

And dewey feel discouraged ? tunity for acquiring a degree of culture, of scholarship, of profes

I dew not think we dew. sional growth which will, yes, must go far towards strengthening them for a better work during the coming and subsequent

When Miss Kirk read the verses, it is said that she rebuked years and for a higher rank among their fellow teachers. The

the pupil and said: opportunity is at hand. Let him who fails to grasp it, blame

"Do you suppose I would allow you to recite that thing?" himself alone for the loss, for loss it shall be to him who fails, tho

There was talk of calling the attention of the Topeka School a gain unto the wise.

Board to Miss Kirk's remark.


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From the Report of the Commissioners of Education for 1895 So long as this is true, (and when will it cease to be so ?) so -6, we learn that in the United States there were, at the latter long teachers need, and normal instruction should give, full lines date 329 Normal Schools in operation. Of these 160 are public of method work. Method work based on broad philosophic prinand 169 private schools. Add to this the fact that 27 colleges ciples,-methods given quite as much to illustrate and impress and universities have regularly organized departments of peda- the philosophy of the work, as for specific use in the school room. gogy, while about 200 more colleges and uriversities offer special Admitted that a method not based on a good philosophy, yes, teachers' courses, and that there are more than 15,000 teachers that a method given without the underlying philosophy, is usetaking normal instruction in public and private high schools: in less, often worse than useless, because it may be dangerously all 84,400 teachers, taking special training for their work, and we misleading. can form some idea of the magnitude of what is called normal work. Before entering upon the discussion of what should be the

It is perhaps, unfortunate that ideas of what constitutes this work of a normal school, and which will be taken up in an article work are so vague and so varied. By a kind of common consent or two, to follow this, something should be said of the work of sothe term normal is applied to all special work designed to fit called normal classes and normal departments, carried on by priteachers for their vocation. In reference, however, to wbat vate enterprise. As the diplomas of these schools are not recogthis work should be, both theory and practice vary very widely. nized, their graduates having to stand an examination, and as the

The extremes are, possibly these: There are those who merit, and therefore success of the school or class is largely deterclaim that the best way to fit one to teach well is to teach him

mined by the number who succeed in taking certificates, much of well, and that no other special instruction is necessary: that his their energy must of necessity be devoted to preparing their pupils native wit, added to the habit of imitation, will do the rest. This for such examinations. is the doctrine of many of the high school classes, and, unfortu

In state schools, whose diplomas are, or ought to be recognately, of some of our Normal Schools. The other extreme is nized, while they must be sure that no teachers are sent out lackfound with those who hold that there should be nothing in a Nor- ing the necessary qualifications, the main part of the work can mal Course, but professional training; meaning by this that Peda and should be, fitting teachers to do their work well, which means gogy, the history of education and psychology, all, it may be, the presentation and illustration, in class use, of the best known blended in child study, should constitute the entire Normal methods of teaching, governing, and managing a school. Methods School Course. This is largely the college and university doc- of these schools should do honest work in this line, for there is no trine. It was held strongly by Professor Earl Barnes.

temptation in the way of increased tuition fees, or of transient Between these two extremes may be found almost infinite reputation, to lead them to do otherwise. Their reputation rests modification. The result of this state of things is that, even our

upon the final success of the teachers they send out, and their normal schools differ in their work as widely as do the theories graduates should be their only needed recommendation. of those who have them in charge. Their graduates, because of different personalities, differ more widely still. True, they will

PROFESSIONAL WORK IN THE NORMAL SCHOOL AT SAN JOSE. mainly all agree on some broad general principles, but in the applications of these to school work they are sometimes as far apart

The professional work of the school has five phases: Psychoas “the east is from the west."

logy, Pedagogy, History of Education, Methods, and Practice in This is all true with reference to Normal work in California.

Model School. The first includes elementary, child and advanced We have three State Normal Schools, one City Normal School, psychology, ten weeks each. This elementary course comes in and Pedagogic Chairs in two universities, with a few private Nor the second year before any of the other work for teachers is taken mal schools. The State Schools have each the same course of up and presumes to give a foundation in the simpler psychologic study and training prescribed, and each has an adequate practice terms and conceptions which are to be used in the interpretation school connected with it. Yet the work done differs widely. In

and understanding of the succeeding educational instruction. each it is strongly stamped by the personality of the faculty. A

Ladd's Primer of Psychology is the text. In the child-psychocourse of study can mark out certain work to be done, but it is logy with the works of Sully, Barnes, Shinn, Baldwin, Tracy, the teacher in charge who determines what points are to be made Hall, and others as a basis, an effort is made to show the growth prominent and what subordinate Especially is this so in the and development of inental powers from their appearance. Ob

servations made by the students on children, according to the strictly professional work. And so it happens that if a graduate of the school at Los questions, plays, games of children, are also used.

Worcester method i. e. miscellaneously gathered statements, Angeles should engage in a discussion with a graduate of the school at San Jose, on the special, or detailed methods of the servation, imagination, etc. In the senior year James' "Briefer

These serve to illustrate children's reasoning, imitation, obschool room, and they should differ, as they would, and could Course” is studied, when the student is better adapted to its more appeal to a graduate from the school at Chico, the decision would subjective and interpretative discussions. probably be that both were essentially wrong in some part of their

The Pedagogy considers first the physical child, such as inwork, and thus the breach would be made wider.

dications of defects of the eyes, ears, the nervous system, and Should these, to close the breach, appeal to a graduate from tests for same; rhythm, posture, growth at various periods, motor the pedagogic department of our universities, the reply would in abilities. Then other subjects as drawings, pictures, plays, stories all probability be couched in some such language as this; "If reading, content of mind on entering school, collections, rights of you understand the nature of the child and observe the psycholo- childhood, lies, superstitions, interests. Here the work done by gical laws of mental growth and development, you will follow leaders of Child Study, together with reminiscent and outside your own method, and do not need to be tied down to any special work by the students--gives the subject matter. Two texts are plan.” This may be true, but where can you find one who can then used in succession. McMurry's General Method and fulfil either one of the required conditions ?

White's School Management. He first considers the aim of eduIn speaking of this we are confronted by a condition, not a cation, relative value of the subject, culture epochs, apperception, theory. That condition is that a large number of those preparing etc. During this period effort is used to make the student acto teach are both immature, and, in a measure, uncultured. Nor quainted with educational men and matters, to awaken an interest can there be excluded from this charge even those who come in educational books, magazines, institutions, people. This, of from universities. To understand, so as to use them well, the course, is done incidently to the other work, however, reports are psychological principles that apply to teaching, especially to com- made from time to time, on new educational literature. Growing bine with this knowledge the yet crude knowledge we have of out of the work, subjects of investigation are assigned to which child nature, requires a ripeness and culture that can come only ten weeks or more are given on working up. White's School after a long experience,

Management tells its own story.

Naturally then comes the special consideration of method. perception, as an effective means for bridging the gap between the Ten weeks each are given to the methods of teaching drawing, home and the school, and as an organic, and hence necessrry part arithmetic and geography. In addition there is a twenty weeks of a correct system of education. course in the ways of teaching the reading, arithmetic, nature The step the children make from the kindergarten to the Pristudy, etc., in the primary grades. The power to apply all this mary Department is smooth and gradual, and the little minds is determined in the practice teaching in which the students en that have been awakened and sharpened in the kindergarten open gage in the Training school. McMurry's special methods in the to the more advanced and more abstract subjects of the Primary various elementary subjects are used as a basis for the work. Department in a simple, easy manner.

In addition there is a period of ten weeks given to the general The Primary Department consists of the first, second, third, problems of the new teacher, as, program making, school laws, and fourth year pupils of the Training School. relation to community, school reports, professional relations, etc. This department contains three airy well lighted rooms conTo give the whole a relation to people and time, a history of edu- nected by folding doors. These doors when throwu back expose cation, or civilization is studied, in its educational aspects, with a beautiful assembly room with a seating capacity for ninety-three special reference to the typical factors in the development of the pupils. social ideas which have been directive of the life of tbe nation Here the child finds the elementary school-arts, speech, and the typical features of the existing system of educational reading, drawing, compositior, and the elements of arithmetic. practice and theory.

Much attention is given to the reading in this department. The

faculty of observation and its expression in language cau best be The Training School of the State Normal at Chico.

trained thru the reading lesson as a means of thought getting, and

in Primary classes we recognize the principle of thought getting MISS MAY KIMBALL.

from the start. It is the key in solving all mathematical problems, The trai ning School of the State Normal at Chico consists of it paves the way to the historical and geographical events of the the Kindergarten, the Primary and the Grammar Departments. higher grades, and it opens the doors in the walls of the child's The principal objects of the training school is to give the narrow life, and causes him to see and love the good and the

beautiful students of the normal classes opportunities for observation and practice.

Nature study with its beautiful impersonations is emphasized. They first observe the wosk of the school subject matter

Writing and drawing is looked upon as a necessity, and the taken up, lessons presented, and discipline maintained by able and number work is made plain and delightful by illustrations and experienced teachers. The students are thus given a back ground practical devices. The teacher in charge of this department is so to speak, against which they may place their own first efforts

Miss Elizabeth Rogers. She is assisted for the entire time by towards translating educational methods and principles into edu

Miss May Kimball, and for three recitations in the day by Miss cational practice.

Aimee Jones. In addition to the foregoing, with regard to the Training the Primary Grades. These teachers are given as broad a field

Miss Rogers has charge of the student teachers who teach in School itself, and the pupils thereof, the object is to thoroly train the pupils in expression—to teach them pure spelling, clear pen- as possible to work in, and they are aided and directed by Miss manship, simple grammatical constructions, and business-like Rogers, who each day gives them careful instructions upon the execution in all of their work, to lay the foundation of their subjects they are to teach, so that no lesson is ever presented in a future lives strong and impregnable.

haphazard and unconnected way. The kindergarten, Primary, and Grammar Departments are

The transitiou from the Primary to the Grammar Departcorrelated as much as possible in ideas, purpose, and method.

ment is broader, the field of real study is increased, and while the The Kindergarten Department was organized at the begin- old subjects are pursued farther, new ones are introduced. ning of the present school year for the purpose of training kinder

Geography, literature, and history are cultivated more fully

and the mathematics are pushed on to the algebraic elements. garten teachers. All students, other than those intending to become kinder

The Grammar Department is made up of the fifth, sixth, gartners, are given ample opportunity to observe the work of the seventh, eighth, and ninth year pupils of the Training School. kindergarten and to beeome acquainted with Froebel's principles.

The Assembly room of this department has a seating capaThe director ef this department is Mrs. Clara M. McQuade.

city of eighty-eight pupils. Two rooms have been set apart for the kindergarten. The

The course of study is so arranged in the nine grades that the room used for the play circle and most of the seat work is large, completion of it gives the pupil a good English education. well lighted, and admirably adapted for its purpose—having an

The regular teachers of this department consists of the eastern exposure, and commanding a fine view of the gardens.

teacher in charge Miss E. J. Fuller, an assistant for the entire The second room has a western exposure and is used for sand

time Miss Emma Wilson, and a second assistant for four recitatable and clay modeling exercises.

tions in the day Miss Aimee Jones. Provision has been made for twenty children, and the age for

The teacher in charge of the department has charge also of admission is from four to six years,

the student teachers who are teaching in the Grammar Grades. The work of this department is carried on strictly according teachers in their work in the Grammar Department. Work in

As wide an experience as possible is given to the student to Froebelian principles, tho the practice in some instances is modified in order to meet modern and scientific criticism.

Language including science work, Reading, Arithmetic and GeoUnlike many kindergartens this department has unbounded graphy are given to each. wealth in its advantages for Nature work. The conditions in

Believing that teachers are born and not wholly made there this field are ideal. Within a stone's throw of the building the is no attempt to fit them all to the same mould. Great freedom children are able to watch "The Fish in the Brook," nest build

is allowed them to exercise their own individuality in their practiing, ants and bees at work, the metamorphosis of animals agd in

cal teaching, the critic's aim being to so guide and direct that sects, as well as the growth of plants.

they fall into no grave errors, and gain much in strength to conThey have common and individual flower plots, a wheat trol and instruct. Thus acting and interacting the Training field, and a vegetable garden which they cultivate with assiduous

School of the State Normal at Chico is justly regarded not only care; and since Froebel believed that thru "nature culture and

as a means of strength to both pupils and student teachers, but a nature nurture the child could best gain ideas appropriate to its power in the community in which it is maintained. stage of development relating to beauty, purity, growth, and evolution to a higher life," we feel that the children of this kinder

The State Normal School at Los Angeles. garten are peculiarly fortunate in this respect.

The State Normal School of this city is not lacking in patrioAside from the course of training provided for kindergarten tic enthusiasm, for volunteers from its roll are now doing duty at teachers, it is expected that the time spent in the kindergarten the Presidio, and ere many weeks elapse, they may be at Manila, by the regular students will give practical returns in their future giving their work in aiding to reap the fruits of Dewey's splendid work with young children—that the knowledge thus gained of victory. Froebel's principles will be of direct benefit in their practice.

The Friday afternoon, prior to their departure from our Moreover it will help these future teachers to a proper con midst, the school held a patriotic reception in the Assembly Hall ception of the kindergarten as an institution for the inculcation of to bid the boys good speed and success. The girls are as patriotic the first elements and instruction of sense and instruction of sense as the boys, and if Uncle Sam would enlist girls, what a swar

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