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there would be at the recruiting office. One of them, speaking at ficult matter to step with them into the subject of geography, and the reception, said she had never before seen the time when she easily illustrate errosion, evaporation, and inany other pheregretted being a woman, but now she longed to enlist and fight for "Old Glory.” She was applauded to the echo, and the ova The recent outline of the plan for botany was intensely intion to her was as generous as any given the recruits on the plat- teresting, and plans the work upon the basis, that every tree or form.
plant is a living entity, tliat with each goes on the struggle for The weekly seminar of the Faculty is doing much valuable existence as in animals. It brings plant-life nearer and closer to work for the unification of all the varied interests of the Normal. The children, in this way, get a personal interest in the little All school men are at work on a course of study. Investigation life as it springs up from mother earth. They will talk to it,love shows that those of former years were made more with the plan of it, and have a deeper abiding interest in its development; it beintroducing all the subjects than for any psychological basis, or comes, in a sense, a personal matter. An animated discussion special reference to the development of the faculties of the child. grew out of this view, and inquiry was made, whether this perIn later years the demand for a greater number of subjects has in- sonal element in the life of the plant was to reach on thru all the creased the difficulties of program makers. The Seminar is years of school life. A little inquiry showed that it not only bestudying this subject from a purely scientific stand-point. What longed to children but also clung to the adult in perhaps a modidoes psychology teach, and what does the child require? It is fied form. Myths are the very life of the child, but as he comes not merely what the teacher demands, but the interest of the to maturity, the spirit of personality of the earlier years has cryschild must be regarded.
tallized into some form of habit or action for the benefit of the The plan lays out in general from the number of minutes each adult.. week assigned to the main lines of work, language or literature, Thus the discussion goes on every Wednesday afternoon and mathematics, science, and the formal subjects in a course. Dis- gradually our professional department is collecting data, which cussion is being held upon these varied topics, the various sug will be used in the proposed course of study. gestions as to the best adaptation are carefully considered, the ex Our Senior class of about eighty members will graduate on perience of the Faculty in their work in the school-room, and June 23rd.
June 23rd. It is the first of the four-years course. The wisdom their observation upon working plans are given due weight. Step of adding a year to the course is clearly manifest, for this class by step the work goes on, and little by little the course is being goes from us with greater power than any preceding. This must bụilt, not by one person at his desk, but from the results secured be expected, and it is no reflectioä upon former classes. More is by the whole number.
expected at the present time of a graduate than could possibly What shall be the science work in the several years? It is in a have been demanded five years ago. The schools have grown; measure, a new field, and to bring the child, even from the young- the work in psychology has made possible many claims, and so est, in touch with Nature Study is a question of paramount im- the teacher must reach up to meet these greater demands. This portance. It has already been shown how readily the teacher Normal School has kept these things constantly in view, and at may introduce that part, which relates to force, to the attention all times is zealously aiming to develop the best for the work of a class of young pupils by interesting and varied experiments. The increase in the number of students, graduates of High It goes without saying, that these things have a fascination for Schools, is an interesting feature in our School, an account of the child. He loves to see these physical forces, and it is no dif which will be given in a later paper.
More About a Vacation Outing.
most instructive forms. And the more of a crank one is on any of these lines, the more likely will he be to get recreation and health from the
outing. In response to several questions the following additional suggestions planned and reasonably well executed, they will repay many times what
All of these cost a little money, but if the work is judiciously are made in reference to the summer vacation. First it must be under
they cost. The question where to go is the most difficult one to settle. stood that while in the planning recreation will stand foremost. Yet in
There are so many charming places bec koning to us that it is sometimes the execution it must become merely incidental. He who goes out
hard to decide. Bearing in mind, however, that a change is what is merely and solely to seek for health will, in all probability, return
wanted, settles some of the difficulties. A teacher rom the coast should empty-handed. The picture of a systematic health seek r, rising at
go to the mountains, or to some of the elevated inland valleys. One dawn to take his "constitutional," and after an hour's walk, sitting
from the low, warm inland valleys, to the sea shore or the mountains. down on a cold, damp stone, to figure up how much health he has
Seek a place that is the complement of the one where you work, and gained, is not more ludicrous than painful.
you cannot go widely astray. Health Does Not Come That Way.
Taking into consideration all it gives one, the trip t) Yosemit There must be some other leading purpose, one that will keep tho Valley is, perhaps, the best in the State. It is somewhat expensive, mind as vigorously engaged as it does the body. Change of thoughts but one can afford to save up money for some time for such a trip. and feelings is quite as important as are changes of air ard surround When I made the trip in '80, it cost me ten days' time and one hundred ings.
dollars, and although the tax was a severe one I have always felt the Among the things, to be sought, the following may be named: The trip was worth it. The cost now is a little less than half that sum. study of nature in her wider forms, in mountain and valley, rock and Whoever can eke out this sum and take in the grandeur and beauty of stream. One should learn to appreciate, and therefore to enjoy the the valley will never regret it. beautiful, the grand and the sublime in nature. Our own State abounds The trip taking in Lake Tahoe ană surrouddings, Mount Shasta in such scenery. One interested in plant-life may make his leading with its wonderful revelations, the Geysers, or the ever-interesting purpose the collection of rare and ceautiful flowers, fitting his vasculum springs and lakes of Lake County, al, of which are accessible at excurevery day with specimens of nature's fairest handiwork.
sion rates, can be made at a comparatively light expenditure, and either If he fits into one end of his vasculum, as I did, an insect case con one of them will afford the teacher who will use his eyes, material not taining a wide-mouthed cyanide bottle and a few boxes and papers in only for after instruction and enjoyment, but for actual use in the work which to store his specimens, he can enrich his own and many other of the school room. collections with some of our rare butterflies and beetles. A fishing rod Whenever such an outing is ti be planned for, it is best to enter has been my constant companion, and while I have been beguiling the into correspondence with the transportation companies, asking for wily trout from his mountai stream he has beguiled many hours from routes, time tables and rates. All such i quiries will be promptly and me, and together we have beguiled health into making its home with courtoously answered, and much useful information will be gained. The the fisherman,
various folders and illustrated pamphlets issued by the Southern Pacific If one is interested in geological studies, he will find rare opportu. Company are valiable in themselves as a matter of geographical nities to study volcanic action, wave action and glacial action in their education.
Department of Supervision
Items of Interest for Trustees, Parents and Teachers.
State Board of Education. JAMES H. BUDD...... Governor, Sacramento
President of the Board SAM'L T. BLACK, Supt. Pub. Instruction, Sacramento
Secretary of the Board A. H. RANDALL, .....Pres. State Normal School, San Jose E. T. PIERCE.....Pres. State Normal School, Los Angeles C. M. RITTER,...........Pres. State Normal School, Chico MARTIN KELLOGG, Pres. University of Cal., Berkeley ELMER E. BROWN,............ University of Cal., Berkeley
Professor of Pedagogy. The annual census of Los Angeles, just com. pleted by the School Department, shows the number of children under 17 years of age in the city of Los Angeles to be 32,118. The number of children between 5 and 17 is 24,766. The proportion of children to the total popu. lation when the census of 1890 was taken was one to four and one-half. Taking this pro. portion as a basis for reckoning the population in 1898, 111,447 is found to approximate the number of people in Los Angeles. The gain over last year in the number of school children is 1382,
A Word to School Trustees
Section 1629 of the Political Code requires that, "Boards of Trustees must annually, on the first Saturday in July, meet and elect one of their number Clerk of the district." It is to be hoped that the various Boards of Trustees throuout the State will attend promptly to this matter and notify the County Superintendent at once of their action. It is important that Boards select their own clerk and that they select a man (or a woman) capable of performing the clerical duties of the officer which are defined in Section 1650 and 1651 of the Political Code, and are as follows:
1650. It is the duty of the Clerk:
First-To call meetings of the Board at the request of two members, and to act as Clerk of the Board, and keep a record of its proceedings, and an accurate account of the receipts and expenditures of school moneys.
Second-To keep his records and accounts open to the inspection of the electors of the district, in suitable books provided by the Board of School Trustees for that purpose.
Third-To place the monthly journal designated as the official organ of the Department of Pub.ic Instruc. tion in the school district :ibrary each month; and if he fails to receive it regularly, to immediately notify the publishers of such fact.
Fourth-To perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board.
1651. The Clerk of each district must, under the direction of the Board of Trustees, provide all school supplies authorized by this chapter, keep the school house in repair during the time school is taught therein, and exercise a general care and supervision over the schoo premises and school property during the vacations of the school.
The Trustees are required to report annually to the County Superintendent of Schools the receipts and expenditures for the year. This duty, of course, devolves upon the various clerks, and ought to be complied with as soon as practicable after the 30th day of June.
The attention of each clerk is respectfully called to the important duties laid down in Section 1650, and particularly to that clause referring to the care of school property during vacations. Next month I shall give a summary of the more important duties, financial and otherwise, for the guidance of the newly elected school trustees. It is necessary to do this through the official organ this year, as this officer, owing to the failure of the appropriation for the support of the State Printing Office, has no copies of the schooi law for distribution. Trustees going out of office ought to turn over the copies of the law in their possession to their successor in office.
SAMUEL T. BLACK,
Supt. of Public Instruction.
Refined Bravery. People in the Far East who are ready to credit those of the "Far West” with being of the type known as the "wild and woolly," the men who wear long hair which is never combed, red flannel shirts which are never buttoned at the throat, buck-skin pantaloons forever tucked into the tops of heavy boots from which protrude the ever-present bowieknife, with a brace of revolvers ever strapped around the loins, and a dare-devil sort of bearing generally, are very much surprised on reaching the Pacific Coast to find that the beroes of mythology were just as real as are tbe cut-throats and desperadoes with which vivid imaginations have populated the cities and towns and the interior of California and adjacent States. But, upon careful study of the people found here, the tourist is ever convinced that for a happy combination of inde. pendence and gentleness, retirement and aggression, refinement and bravery, California holds the palm over the world. A beautiful example is found iu the following, related by a gentleman who is acquainted with the lady:
Mrs. W. S. Parks is the wife of W. T. Parks of Napa County, he being a trustee of Park District School. She is a small, slight lady of refinement and culture, rather demure than otherwise. And yet, as an expert with the rifle, and as a fearless hunter, she is possibly witbout a peer among the ladies and gentlemen of equal culture and refinement in the prosaic East. During the last few years, she has killed with her Winchester rifle, seventy deer, one California lion, and one cinnamon bear, besides countless numbers of small game. She eboots birds of prey on the wing with her rifle with as much ease as does the "crack shot” who bags ducks and geese for the market with his shot-gun. If Mrs. Parks has a superior for bravery and marksmanship, let her stand up.
Pro!essor James, who occupies the chair of public administration at Chicago University, delivered the address at the Commencement Exercises at Berke.ey.
Science Work in the Public Schools.
The discussions in The department of Science" in the Southern California Association were intensely interesting. The following are a few extracts from papers presented:
HAVE TEACHERS TIME FOR NATURE-WORK ?
"Most certainly they have," would be my answer. They have time to do anything that will make them less bookish, more practical, less artificial, more real. Too many people come from our schools with the ingrained idea that nothing is of value or dignity or worth that does not come out of books; too many teachers have their mental horizon hounded by the covers of books; too many have as their ideal of the perfect fruit of the public school a slim-legged youth with pie-crust complexion, staggering under a heavy armful of books. The most serious weakness that a wide-minded, patriotic critic can point out in our school system to-day is that it is lopsided-it is driving the intellectual powers with whip and spur; the brains are subjected to the high pressure of every available ounce of steam-no expense is too great, no extra labor two hard, to push them a little further in their studies. But what do we do for the souls ? Almost nothing. And what for the bodies? Almost nothing. A town of a thousand people invests fifteen or twenty thousand dollars upon an educational plant and has a monthly pay roll of four or five hundred dollars-to train and stimulate the children's brains. How much does it invest, how much pay out per month to train their consciences or develop their bodies ?
Now, there is nothing that tends more to correct this lopsidedness, more to get these artificial youngsters out of themselves, out of their bookishness, than this Nature Study, led by a teacher who loves Nature. By it they are brought in contact with old Mother Earth again-they come in touch with the things that must surround them and affect them all the days of their lives—they see the outside world thru new eyes and refresh their souls by finding out the secrets of air and water and bug and tree. They find that there is more in heaven and earth than they had dreamed of in their philosophy.
Hence, I think we have time for Nature Study, even if it should bring upon us the calamity of an 8th grade pupil not being able to complete his grammar, bistory, arithmetic, physiology, word analysis, drawing, music, reading, spelling, English literature, rudiments of geometry and algebra, geography, civil government, penmanship, book keeping, etc., etc., etc., at the mature age of 15 years !
But, as a matter of fact, this Nature Study, carried on in a natural way, costs little or no school time at all. It is so different from the book studies that it is like a bodily exercise in resting rather than otherwise. The walks and rides and excursions that it entails improve the health and elasticity of the pupils' hearts and bodies and brains-in nowise does it diminish the amount of academic work they can do. The most of the Nature Work a skillful teacher will get out of his boys and girls will be during evenings and mornings and Saturdays, entirely « utside of school hours. The very finest Nature Lessons I ever saw or heard of were at half past eight in the morning, where a teacher was surrounded at his desk by a dozen or more boys and girls, eagerly looking at, talking about, inquiring about the things they had found on a picnic trip the day before."
WHAT RESULTS HAVE BEEN OBTAINED ?
"At this time perhaps there is no subject of greater importance to the average student than the study of Natural Science; for "He who knows what sweets and virtues are in the ground, the water, the plants, the heavens, and how to come at these enchantments is the rich and loyal inan.' It is not necessary to contrast the schools of to-day with those of twenty years ago, when reading, writing, arithmetic and spelling were the only studies considered of vital importance, to the primary or grammar grade pupil. Now we find in every county of Southern California, and generally thruout the State, that Nature Study or some form of Elementary Science has been introduced even in the very first year of school life and continued thruout the primary, grammar and high school years. So then it may be truthfully said that "The study of Natural Science is the best camel that can get his nose inside the tent of the public school.
The work if properly conducted is not a fad, for if it be a fad then the very foundation of our educational system, even from the kindergarten to the University, is a fad. For, said Froebel, the object of the kindergarten is that "It shall give the children employment suited to their nature, strengthen their bodies, exercise their senses, employ the waking mind, make them acquainted judiciously with Nature and society, cultivate especially the heart and tempei,and lead them to the foundation of all living-to unity with themselves."
Moreover the best prose and poetry in the English language is on the same footing. It is said that one of the great American poets, Mr. Bryant, composed that grand poem, Thanatopsis, even while walking in the forests over fallen trees and dry leaves. Not only has the best prose and poetry been written under the spell of Nature, but the most beautiful : nd sublime paintings are out of door scenes, and the very highest degree of excellence in all art has been achieved by those who have been most susceptible to the influence of Nature. Hence it seems that not a day should pass without the quickening of every child's mind to some of the beauties and wonders of Nature, the plants, the animals, the minerals, the clouds, the stars are all inexhaustible subjects. The chief aim in every year of early school liie should be to inspire the pupil to higher work, to develop a taste for more extensive and minute study of Nature and also to cultivate the power of expression and the habit of close observation. It is surprising after one has taken up a special study of natural objects, to find how common they are. The scales of ignorance are removed from our eyes, and we soon find out objects when we have learned to take an interest in them, for the art of "taking an interest in any. thing is half the battle.”
Nature's realm is so very large and the objects of special interest in each locality so varied that it is almost useless to specify a particular, systematized course of study. We do not need text-books, courses of study, supplementary readers etc., as much as true professional teachers who will sacrifice time and self for the benefit of those who are placed in their keeping. However the teacher should not try to cover too much ground; a little careful observation is worth far more than much scattered work. The teacher who presents these Nature lessons from day to day to her class must herself be an earnest student of Nature, else the work will be a burden and detriment to the pupils, rather than a benefit. The objects must be seen by the pupils or they will have only a vague idea of the work. The days of reading about such objects and presenting only the dry bones of science, as it were, wrapped up in a beautiful little story, have passed away—“Seeing is bejieving" and it would be an absolute waste of time to tell pupils about the cells 'n animal and plant life, the blood corpuscle, striated muscles, Haversiau canals, he structure and use of compound eyes of certain irsects or the scales from but.
terflies' wings and mosquitoes' feet, without showing the objects just as they are in Nature.
As a result of suoh well directed, careful work, children who will not enter the high school will be far better prepared for the duties of life, while those who enter the high school and Universities will have developed an early taste for the Natural sciences and will be the Edisons of the first half of the coming century. While the teachers themselves, as a class will have learned the ways of observation and in due time will be thoroly skilled science teachers; for surely if we as teachers become thoroly interested in every line of our work, there will be no difficulty in having our pupils become interested; then we can truthfully say with the great poet
"And this, our life, exempt from public haunt,
Sermons in stones, and good in everything."
"Before taking up the minerals themselves, I gave two or three preliminary lessons on color, lustre, structure, hardness, weight, and cleavage, illustrating these by means of objects familiar to every child.
I will mention only a few illustrations as examples:--porous structure was represented by rope: compact by iron, slates, lead; metallic lustre by door knobs, bell, gold, and silver: glassy lustre bý window panes: and many others which i have not space to mention.
Each pupil was provided with a note-book and pencil, a piece of glass, and a small piece of iron or betier still, a small file. The glass, being number five or about the middle of the scale of hardness, was used to test the hardness of the minerals: The iron, to scrape off particles in order to tell the streak or color of the powder; and the notebook to keep a record of everything found out.
As an example of the way in which the lessons were given, I will give a brief description of a lesson on coarse granite, one of the commonest minerals of Southern California.
Spcimens of coarse granite containing quartz, feldspar and mica were distributed among the pupils, and they were allowed five minutes in which to examine the specimens closely, determine the number of minerals they contained, and find out all they could about the structure, lustre. hardness, and streak of each by comparing them with the objects already studied in the preliminary lessons.
After the five minutes were up, I had them describe the specimens fully: bringing out obscure points by questioning. After this was done, if they did not already know the name, it was told them; but after they became somewhat accustomed to the work they generally knew the name of the specimen by the time we were ready for it.
Last of all, after naming the specimen, name its uses: for instance, coarse granite is used for monuments, curbstones, houses, steps, pillars, hitching posts, supports for bridges, etc.
After all this was done, each pupil made a systematic record of the lesson in his note book; the hard words beivg used in language and spelling lessons in order that the pupils might become familiar with them.
Knowing that glass was number five; and that chalk, or anything that could be scratched with the finger nail was number one in the scale of hardness; we soon worked out a list of minerals making a complete scale from one to seven.
We also worked out lists of minerals illustrating the different structures and these lists we used as a basis with which to compare each new mineral that we took up, in order to decide where it belonged in the scale of hardness, lustre, structure, etc.
To say that the pupils were interested and enthusiastic, is putting it mildly indeed."
EFFECT ON CHARACTER.
"Omitting the discussion of what constitutes ideal moral character, I pass at once to the inquiry: To what extent does elementary science contribute to the formation of man's moral being? Broadly speaking, every act that is in harmony with man's environment is essentially moral; the contrary, immoral.
Elementary science opens to the child Nature's inspired volume from whose pages he is to gather unnumbered lessons that make for his mental and moral welfare. But, of more importance than the immediate lessons learned is the habit of mind acquired. During the first eight or ten years of life, the child's chief concern is to exercise and develop his observing powers. He bas a hunger to know the material and animate world about him. Exclude from him natural objects and phenomena, and you deprive him of the food upon which these powers depend for their growth.
If perception be dwarfed in these early years, the mind will be dwarfed in all its activities, since the other faculties of the soul are dependent upon sense percepts for their data, or material. The child will, therefore never be able to make those wider generalizations, which, to the keen observer, become controlling guides to right living, such a degeneration of the moral nature thru lack of exercise, just as the parasitic plant becomes imperfect by refusing to put forth sufficient energy to get an independent living.
Other habits, equally potent, are fixed by nature study. The restless, listless child, even the proverbially bad boy, has had his interest aroused by the skillful presentation of butterflies, quartz crystals, or ferns. Properly pursued, this study combines with mental effort considerable physical exercise, which, of itself, contributes largely to correct conduct. A mind actively engaged in gathering bees and grasshoppers, in observing the phenomenon of evaporation or condensation in comparing stamens and pistils, in finding out the purpose of the nectar in the flower, in short, in thinking God's thoughts after him-such a mind cannot be immoral, because it is in complete harmony with the world above and the natural world below.
Pupils need but little insight into natural phenomena to conclude that every immoral act brings punishment. This just and inevitable law of the universe is taught most effectually by the study of man and nature. Precept falls on unheed. ing ears. How easily the child recognizes why the neglected tree withers and decays. Birds migrate, or suffer and die. He sees how the trap-door spider builds his house and tells readily the reason, or notes an insect's egg, out of its proper environment, shriveled and lifeless. This certainty of penalty brings with it also a sense of justice. How quickly the pupil resents a punishment having the slightest semblance of injustice. But punishments which are the natural consequence of wrong doing(as are all of Nature's penalties) are recognized by the youngest mind as just and right, thereby developing the sense of justice in the child's character."
Miss Sidney Vail said:
The following letter to Superintendent Hyatt is self explana
tory:I think to prove to you that real benefits are derived from science work, I will tell you of a circumstance that occurred in my own school.
Dear Mr. Hyatt:-I received those suggestions on Nature Study. There are Children, in fact I think we all, like something new; but there are enough
just enough of them to make me want some more. I think you are undoubtedly exceptions to prove the rule; and one boy in my school seemed a decided ex
on the right track. I have examined books on the subject until I am convinced ception.
that there is no book published giving a graded course that a teacher can follow He was one of these don't care boys; didn't care if his writing did resemble
with profit. But will you suggest some of the best books on minerals to have on turkey-tracks, didn't care if he had a poor spelling lesson, didn't care if he did
the teacher's desk for reference and classification ? I note the ones you suggest not learn anything. I tried everything I could think of, ancient, medieval and modern, to
on entomology. I would like, too, if it meets your approval, to put six or eight
of our teachers in correspondence with as many of yours who are particularly awake him from the state of semi-torpidity in which he seemed to be living.
successful in teaching the subject of minerals. Will you give me the names and When we commenced the study of mineralogy I noticed a tiny spark of in
addresses of such, representing teachers who have succeeded in the various terest; and as lesson followed lesson and we explored the country around our school-house, this boy became one of the most enthusiastic specimen hunters.
grades and possibly one or more who taught it to all grades?
Have you an extra copy of your county manual for me? He discovered that if he wished to describe any of his beloved minerals he
P. W. KAUFFMAN, Principal, must be acquainted with more words, or for a written description he must be
Ventura, April 20th. able to spell correctly and write plainly. One would hardly
know him as the same boy. He walks straighter, hasan alert, wide-awake look that changes his whole appearance; he has lost his don't care ways and expression and in two years time has done the work of three
A Record of Individual Impressions, years.
Our whole neighborhood has been and is still interested in our science work. Specimens and questions have come in from all quarters. The clerk of my district very kindly made a case for our collection, bear
BY RICHARD D. FAULKNER, ing the expense himself, thus showing his interest. Prospectors near have taken pains to save and send us samples from their
I attended the seventh annual session of the Southern California claims, and an old miner brought us specimens from Lower California, while Teachers' Association more with the object of seeing the country and another miner sent us about twenty specimens of gold, silver and copper obtaining a general impression of the teachers and schools of the southern quartz
part of the state than for the purpose of special attendance at the meetings Mineralogy has helped the children in distinguishing colors and also in of the Association. I, however, was present at most of its general sessions cultivating the imagination.
and at as many of its Round Tables as possible.
I left San Francisco on Tuesday, March 29th, and reached Los Angeles Miss Alma Patterson said:-
the following afternoon. As soon as I had located myself I went to the
High School where I found the Los Angeles City Institute in session. I "In one California school where entomology is, just now, the chief theme for was there in time to hear the closing remarks of Superintendent J. A. Nature Study, the subject was begun in this way. The teacher and pupils, on one of their excursions, found on the evergreen trees, a number of fuzzy black and
Foshay and to see all of the teachers. They were a fine body of men and yellow caterpillars. A quantity of these were collected. Each child brought a
women. I was glad to see among them so many men. It was my first jelly glass and a piece of thin cloth to tie over it. Then each was given a cater
impression that the women were handsomer than our teachers, but on pillar for his very own, to care for and to study. The glasses were marked with closer observation I changed my opinirn. Perhaps my being in San the owner's name and the date at which the specimen was obtained and all were Francisco now has something to do with my judgment in the matter. placed upon a convenient table. When lessons were learned in less than usual The opening session of the Association was held the following morn. time, the children were permitted to take their pets to their desks and watch ing at the First Congregational Church. The church was admirably them. The little students are delighted to observe and to describe in words or, so far as possible, by drawings, the caterpillar's mode of moving, clinging, eating
adapted for the purpose of the meeting except that it was not quite large and breathing. And many are the experiments devised to see what the little
enough, although having a seating capacity of between a thousand and creature will do under varied conditions. When a caterpillar lies still, refusing
fifteen hundred. It was literally filled to overflowing. The most disto eat, then breaks open his old skin and crawls out of it, his hairy covering wet tinctive feature of the opening exercises was the singing of "America" by and standing out in points like the down on a newly hatched chicken, great is the entire audience. I am certain that I never heard a national hymn the delight of the children.
rendered by so large a body, not previously trained together, before. I On another excursion the class will find out for themselves why these cater was standing near the platform where I could see over the entire audience pillars live in the little bunches on the tops of the trees, looking so much like the and it seemed to me that I could not see a single person who was not singcones in color and shape that they could scarcely be noticed, did not the bare branches reveal their presence. They will see how the hairy covering serves to
ing. The unanimity and the spirit with which our national anthem was break the fall of the unfortunates shaken off by the wind.
sung impressed me very much, as well as many others. State Superin. They will learn why the region is not over-run by that kind of caterpillars tendent Black spoke to me about it at the time. when they discover the infesting parasites. But the climax of wonder and delight In my opinion Superintendent J. P. Greeley of Orange County, Presi. will come when the larva forms his cocoon, and after many days of apparent dent of the Association, presided with dignity, firmness and fairness sleep, emerges a beautiful moth.
thru the various sessions. And so lessons on the whole life history of insects are learned without much
I formed a most favorable opinion of Dr. C. C. Van Liew of the Los absorption of time and with what gain to the little learners ? In another school, teacher and pupils have set to work to find out what is
Angeles State Normal School. I heard him before the general session as happening in the world about them. Once a week the time for morning exercises
well as in the History Round Table. is devoted to reports. A book of “Nature Notes" is kept containing the weather
The address of Professor C. A. Dunniway, who spoke before the genrecord; notes on the budding, leafing, blossoming and fruiting of trees, on common eral session upon the subject of American History in the Public Schools, plants, how they scatter their seeds, how the seeds germinate, the plants develop was well received, as was also his address in the History Round Table on Rower and fruit; on birds, their nests, eggs, food, habits; on the life history of in the subject of American History in Secondary Schools. No one who heard sects; and on any other natural phenomena that may attract the children's notice. Professor Dunniway could fail to feel that he not only has a broad grasp of
Now and then questions from the teacher lead thought into new channels. The query, "How is a bird fitted for its life? How is a fish? A bee?” led to
bis subject but that he is a real teacher. I should say that the teachers earnest research.
who listened to him went away strengthened in their work. In response to the suggestion, "Look for something beautiful in the nature
I should like to see the thought advanced by Professor Bernard world” came animated descriptions of the rosy sunset glow on the snowy
Moses in his address—The Neglected Half of American History-presented mountains, the rainbow coloring on an ant's wing, the delicate tracery on a bird's to the readers of THE JOURNAL in some future issue. Professor Moses was egg, the exquisite beauty of a Rower petai. All were eager to tell of beauty one of the profound thinkers present at the meeting. recognized and enjoyed. Here is the place for correlated literature. The children will appreciate the
I attended the History Round Table. It was well conducted and will poet's description of what their own eyes have seen, and be led by his interpreta
no doubt prove of great value to those present. It was one of the largest tion to finer insight and fuller enjoyment.
Round Tables. The principal speakers were Dr. A. E. Winship, Professor
Dunniway, Dr. Van Liew and Professor Moses. The local teachers who "Flower in the crannied wall,
took part in the meeting appeared to be exceptionally able, I pluck you out of the crannies,
I attended the grade section of the Science Round Table. As I underAnd hold you here root and all in my hand,
stand there will be a full report of this department in THE JOURNAL, I will Little flower-but, if I could understand
not make any detailed remarks upon it. I am satisfied from my balf day What you are, and all and all in all,
in this Round Table that some portions of Southern California are doing
exceptionally fine work in science, notably Riverside County under the I should know what God and man is."
enthusiastic leadership of Superintendent Edw. O. Hyatt.
After the close of the Association I visited the schools of Santa Ana, Since the above was written, the following was said by one San Bernardino, Riverside and Los Angeles, as also the Los Angeles 'who attended:
Dr. Gregory, City Superintendent of Santa Ana, is sustaining the high Riverside County had great good luck at the late meeting of the Southern
reputation of the schools of that thriving young city. Departmental work Association at Los Angeles. In the Nature Study round table half a dozen of
seems to be a success there. I spent an hour in one of the sixth grades in her teachers were on duty to describe their experiences in teaching insects
that city. The children read and talked well. I also heard a very interand minerals during the past two years. Among them were J. C. Boyce,
esting lesson in English history, Homer Wilson, Alma Patterson, Stella M. Atwood, Sidney Vail. They made
In San Bernardino I met Superintendent N. A. Richardson and visited a most bright and spicy exercise of it, one that gave them plenty to do in an the F Street School of which F. W. Conrad is principal. I heard a sixth swering the questions of the other counties and plenty to do in replying to the grade class read in that school. They read exceptionally well. I spent letters that were provoked by the discussion. Then in Round Table of Superintendence, Riverside County was publicly
sbort time in the eighth grade in the same school, taught by the principal. complimented by State Superintendent Black for its original and vigorous
I found the class exceedingly bright. methods of work; and he requested Superintendent Hyatt to send to every
City Superintendent P. L. i ord of Riverside was exceedingly courteous county in the State copies of the different outlines and guides that were used
to me. I saw a good many of his classes. All appeared to be doing good to shape the Riverside work. It is needless to say that appreciation from such
work. Mr. J. C. Boyd, a member of the County Board of Education, is a source was highly gratifying and that the Orange-Growing Teachers went doing excellent work in the Riverside schools. 'I spent some time in a home happy.
class which he was instructing in history.
1 spent a half day with Superintendent Foshay and Principal E. T. to think of some other way to get over the difficulty.” She never asks Pierce in the Los Angeles State Normal School. I have not had the oppor. a child a thing if she has reason to believe that he will lie. She may tunity In recent years to observe in detail the workings of a modern not be responsible for that lie before the Almighty Judge, but she finds Normal School. I was, therefore, extremely interested in what I saw. I she often can prevent his sin by taking some other way. should say that the kindergarten in connection with the schools was as Prudence says, "Prevent unpleasantness, but do not stop there." near perfect as could be, and that the two ladies in charge of it-ont, I With many dispositions, imperfections, faults, with the embryo tramps, understand, furnished by the State and the other by the city-were capa burglars, forgers, swindlers, the teacher must get along peaceably beble and efficient. The work of the school in geography interested me very fore she can successfully accomplish much along the line of intellectual much, as also the drawing. I am satisfied from what I saw tbat the training. This is the only way she can do it. I have noticed that instruction in drawing is such as will give the students not only the there is a way of securing moral development which is far richer in ability to draw; but ability to teach the subject and to carry out any results than punishment for preventable wrong-doing. reasonable system of drawing. The inanual training that the students are
MARY E. COLLINS. receiving will in time solve this question in so far as Southern California is concerned. Without going into detail or attempting to speak of any other important feature of the school, I will say that no one can spend even so brief a time as I did in this school and not feel that it is in the hands of a man of fine organizing ability, and that its teaching force is excellent and the quality of its work first-class in every detail. It is a great, inspiring and uplifting institution.
I spent a day with Superintendent Foshay in the Los Angeles City Schools. I should say in the beginning that Superintendent Foshay_knows his schools. He is a superintendent in fact as well as in name. In Deputy Superintendent C. L. Ennis he has an able assistant.
I will not attempt to mention the names of the schools that I visited but I will mention some of the things that impressed me in particular.
The kindergartens in Los Angeles are a part of the public school system. In all the schools I saw a kindergarten class. It was invariably in a pleasant room and in charge of first-class teachers. A piano was in each of these rooms. I was interested in the pianos as they were the first school pianos I had ever seen that were in tune. I should say from my observation that the kindergartens were a success.
I should say that music is a feature of the Los Angeles schools. I do not mean to intimate that it is receiving more than its due share of attention, but that it is receiving the attention that it deserves. While there is a special teacher of music I found the class teachers capable of intelligently seconding her efforts. The children were capable of singing understand. ingly by note. They sang well. They did not screech. They made no attempt at show work.
I was very much interested in examing in an incidental way the drawing which I saw. I did not ask to see any drawing books or ask to have any class attempt any work in this direction for my special benefit, but I observed two eight grade classes at work. I was interested in the drawing for the reason that it is the only city that I have ever had the opportunity of visiting in which the pupils of the highest grammar grades had pursued substantially the same course of instruction and under the same direction from the beginning of their school couree. I examined the work of the classes somewhat particularly. If the work I saw was a fair sample of the culmination of the drawing in the schools, and I presume it was, it gives me hope that we may accomplish something in this line in San Francisco. Of course we cannot equal the drawing that I saw for some
PROF. BERNARD MOSES-State University, Berkeley. time to come for the reason that we do not continue on any line of work long enough to get any results. In establishing the work in manual training Los Angeles bas re
Patriotism in the Public Schools. cognized the fact that the manual training teacher should not only possess professional ability equal to that of a grade teacher, but he should possess technical skill acquired with the idea of its professional presentation. In other words, there are no carpenters pretending to teach manual training in
In a recent addrees Prof. Moses made the following vigorous and causLos Angeles. The classes in manual training are taught by young ladies tic comment on patriotiem in our schools: combining both professional and technical skill and supervised by Mr. "You may float the flag from every schoolhouse in the land and send Chas. A. Kunou, who is widely known for his special preparation and ability for manual training work. Mr. Kunou teaches some classes him.
eloquent and patriotic lecturers to every teachers' convention that meets self. Manual training so organized must of necessity be a success.
between the oceans, but if at the same time trustees traffic in positions of Tho my visit to the high school was necessarily brief, I trust, and your school boards are filled with rottenness, your hopes of could easily perceive that Principal W. H. Housh had his school
youth are vain, your emotional converts to patriotism will become back. well in hand. I was present at a time wben I was able to eee a large number of the twelve or thirteen hundred pupils in attendance, and
sliders and will grow to maturity either in diegust with the society around could not help but notice that they were a fine body of young men and them or determined to have some part in the illegitimate spoils of their women. I saw enough of the department of science to satisfy me that the elders. school was particularly strong in that direction.
Unless the teaching of history wbich comes to the great body of the The Successful Teacher. .
American people in broadened and more careful of the truth, the bulk of the nation will be likely to fall into a certain social bigotry, scarcely less
belittling than that bigotry which has sometimes attended the advocacy We meet her. The young teacher watches her with an almost
of religion. envious admiration, and longs to follow in her footsteps. Feeling the immensity of the charge laid on her shoulders, human souls intrusted
It is high time that we should stop telling lies about our own history to her care, she asks herself, “What is the magic power by which for the sake of patriotic results. If we tell the truth and the whole truth, Miss — works out her wonders ?”
in its clear and healthy form, patriotism will take care of itself. There is I have noticed that the successful teacher, from the popular stand
enough that is good an, strong and uplifting in the history of our country point is the one who gets along with the least fuss and passes the greatest number of pupils on examination. This does not seem to me to conflict
to develop a broad, intelligent patriotism, even if we know somewhat of with a pedagogical success but is rather a sign of the latter. "Getting other nations. along with little trouble" should not be construed to mean without As the years go by there appears to be no disposition to let the fires any fuss, but it means that the teacher is to do all in her power to prevent
go out that have been lighted on the altar of our conntry. We have no unpleasantness. For instance: The pupils in a certain school caused a disturbance
need of the patriotic lies of text-book makers, nor the distortions of overby going into the belfry. One teacher forbids the children to go up careful teachers. We have no need, moreover, of the extraordinary means there and at the same time leaves the door unlocked to develop their employed to develop patriotic emotions in the pupils of our schools." moral power." A child of Adam goes up (rather in that spirit of joke by which more sin is committed than from pure wickedness )and must be punished. Another teacber prevents this unpleasantness by keeping the door locked and giving no order. One teacher considers that as Teacher in Seattle-"Charlie, why are you eating that rubthe children help to dirty the floor, they should take their turn sweep ber band ?" ing. Another sees that it is disagreeable to the children and so does it
Charlie—“'Cause." herself. A very successful, well beloved teacher often says that she gives as
Teacher-"What part of your body do you think that will few orders as possible, so the children are not often tempted; though, build up ?”' when given, woe to the unfortunate urchin who does disobey | "I try Charlie-"Rubber-neck."