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The Evolution of the Teachers' Institute. thousand institutes, in no one of which have I ever seen even an approx
imation to the state of things given by Mr. Brown, in the August BY CHAS. H. ALLEN.
JOURNAL, shall make some suggestions about institute work, based
upon wide observations and considerable experience. As soon as the fact became well recogpized that teachers are made, not born, and that there is a science of oducation and an art of teaching, thoughtful educational men like Horace Mann, Henry Barnard
The Need of Hospitality in the School. and D. P. Page, together with many others less widely known, set about finding ways and means for giving to those engaged in, or about
Extract from an Address by Jennie L. Havice, San Diego, Cal. to engage in teaching, some special training for their work. The most ready means that suggested itself as available was the teachers' insti I shall relate a little incident that came to my notice, not in a tute. It was, of course, understood that as these sessions must neces- fault-finding way, but hoping to bring about a little more "Hospitaiity sarily be of short duration, no great amount of training could be given in the schools." A timid girl of tender years was transferred
from a inspire those who came together with a love for the work and an ambio small school, where she had been a favorite, to a larger one. Finding tion to excel.
no one to play or speak with she frequently went home and with tears At that time there were few trained teachers. The best qualified bogged to be allowed to stay at home. One day she made bold to go were usually selected as teachers; many times, in the same schools in up to another
girl and slippod her hand timidly in hers. But the girl
, which they had been pupils. The only guidance these young teachers who should have been taught at home and in school to be polite to had was the remembrance of how the last, or possibly the best-liked" strangers, said: "Oh, go away; I don't want to play with you!" toacher had managed the school, and taught them. And as it usually Result: A child's heart broken (as hearts break), and more tears when happened that the better the teacher the better he was liked, the she reached mamma's circling arms. Then, too, there is much jeering schools were not so bad, as a whole, as we should now think they would have been. There were, however, ruts, and very deep ones, too. Now
and too much jesting after repeated jeers. I heard some girls call, "Oh, and again a student from some academy, or an under-graduate from come on; we are only funning,” but I knew the iron had entered that some college was employed, but few of these found their way into the little soul and there would be no more happy-hearted play that day. rural schools. Until the era of the institute dawned, the school, all In Mrs. Clark's series of books for children we find such remarks as plodded along in the same old way, and did the same old work. The teacher put in his six hours hearing lessons (from a text-book
these: "She had better go back to the ark and tell Mrs. Noah," and in hand, of course), the only diversion being
the necessary work of dis
"Oh, that little Mother Hubbard," or, "She's a grandmother cut ciplining the schools. In New England, where my early school days down." You have all heard like remarks made about new scholars and were passed, this was not an easy task. I became well acquainted with I know them to be considerably worse in some schools. Miss Jerusha the fool's-cap and dunce block, the ferule and the rod; and the acquaint- Runnel, about whom they were made, came from "Shy Corner," and ance was often a very personal one. With the first institute there came a change. It was largely
she came out all right, but there was one girl in that school whose brought about by giving to those attending, a new ideal; an ideal
mother was what we, as mothers, should be, and she remembered that school toward which to work. We were made to see clearly that schools mamma says: “We must always be polite to strangers." could be bettered, and at the same time we were inspired to try to bet. So you see there is need of hospitality in the schools. In the home ter our own schools. We were given instruction in methods of discipline and in methods of teaching. As must always be the case, some of
what grace is like unto it? How we admire the woman who opens wide these methods were good, and some were indifferent; some we could
her door and says "Come in," and what insight do you get of the comprehend and possibly use, and some we could not. But most of us woman who opens the door a little way and peers out to see who or made the attempt. The best result accomplished was that it set us to what you are. It is all right to draw the line, but don't do it with the thinking-made us unsatisfied, often dissatisfied with our present work.
one who knocks timidly at your door. Open it wide and let her in, When this happens, advancement is not slow to follow. We referred again and again to our note books, compared notes with each other,
even tho later you do have to kick her out. visited each other's schools, in short, became interested in our work. Do not be too much concerned about your children making friends Threo educational works came into use: Abbot's Teacher, Hugh Miller's with "little nobodys." Teach them rather true politeness, which is "My School and School Masters," and later Page's "Theory and Practice of Teaching." The teaching-world moved.
the same as culture and refinement. Give them the best education pos At the institute held by Page in Chautauqua County, New York, he
sible, and in the end, as water seeks its level, they will seek their gave us evening lectures, or talks on hygiene and on the rules that friends, tho they do have to go over some rough grounds to find them. should be observed in social intercourse, both of which were sadly The rocks and pebbles over which water flows help to make it bright needed. He was a man who could talk plain English plainly, and yet and sparkling, so contact with other natures will help the child in a so delicately as neitiier to hurt aor offend. One of his suggestions was 80 pointed, and as many years' observations have convinced me, so
way we otherwise cannot. Let your house be open to their little necessary, that I venture to repeat it: “When making an evening
schoolmates and playmates. The doors to evil you know not of, may call,” said he, "at the proper hour to go and do not make it too late), opon and close upon them and their souls be sullied when it should be bid your hostess good night, get your hat and—90,” with an emphasis only the carpets. on the last word that I have never forgotten.
There is need also to emulate the pleasant manners of pleasant Of course, in the beginning it was difficult, often impossible, as it is to-day, to get really well qualified men to do institute work. Given
people we meet. No matter who says it, it is always a compliment to the right kind of a leader and a good institute follows as a matter of
have it said of you, "She is always so pleasant." I once knew a lady course. Where the services of normal school teachers could be had whose smile I shall never forget, but shall try to emulate. She had they were selected, and in default of these, superintendents and neither wealth nor great fame, but she could talk intelligently. (To do teachers of wide and successful experience wore engaged. There was this you must belong to at least one club, presumably a mothers' club.) no "institute fund" for some years, and the work was usually gratuitous, altho those in attendance often made up a purse for the conductor,
She was always hospitably kind, kept herself well informed, and or made some other acknowledgments of their appreciation of his work. remembered items of interest to friends and people she was likely to
Attendance was not obligatory, cut, as for the shorter institutes meet. Do you wonder that everybody loved her ? But she had nothing the teachers were entertained without cost by the citizens of the hamlet to trouble her, you say. She had a world of it, just as you and I have where they met, most unemployed teachers, and young per ons expect- to-day, but she seldom spoke of it. She had enough intelligence to ing to become teachers, attended, and in most cases there was a fairly large assemblage. In recognition of the free entertainments, evening cover it. I remember being in the midst of some tiresome work, ready lectures or programs were provided, of a more general nature, and to drop with despair when I thought how I should like to go to her there was often a generous rivalry, among the villages to see which and then of how ber face would light up with that pleasant expression should have the institute; and institute week was reckoned an event that always met yours. I thought of how she would talk and listen faulty in many respects, yet always earnest, institute work has grown and soon I found that my thoughts were in a healthier vein and that I to enormous proportions. Legislative aid when asked, was readily was thus enabled to finish the work calmly and without complaint. granted, and men who had the interests of the public schools at heart Can you make of yourself such a friend ? began to bring tbem into more systematic, and therefore more productive form. Funds were provided to pay qualified conductors and instructors, and attendance upon them was, in many cases, made
The riches of the commonwealth obligatory.
Are free, strong minds, and hearts of health; Super intendents of Public Instruction in many States arranged series of institutes--one or more in each county, and secured the services
And more to her than gold or grain, of competent persons to give instruction in them. These selections
The cunning hand and cultured brain. were made largely from the faculties of normal schools, and in some of
- Whittier. the States to-day, one member of each faculty is designated "Institute Conductor,'' his duty being to conduct all teachers' institutes hold in
Oh, how I laugh when I think of my vague, indefinite riches. his district. As is usually the case in all such matters, there have been errors and occasional set-backs. In a future article I shall speak of No run on my bank can drain it, for my wealth is not possession, these, and from the standpoint of one who has conducted nearly a but enjoyment.-H. D. Thoreau.
Model Schools of a Model County.
At a recent meeting of the N. E. A. the State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Missouri discribed the typical country schools of the Eastern States.
He spoke of the dilapidated fe ces, the littered yards, the shattered shutters, the leaning chimneys, the outhouses, sentinels of immodesty, and the inside of the school house like the inside of a barn.
As a strong contrast to this
Amount paid for teachers' salaries..... than that of providing the child Amount paid for contingent expenses....
ren with pleasant surroundings. Amount paid for sites, furniture, &c.... SUPT. GEO. L. SACKETT. Ventura County has valued this. Amount paid for books.......
A Study of the following sta Amount paid for apparatus...... tistics, as typical of our California Schools, should be of interest to all.
9,914.31 4,595.67 802.71 32.00
Total valuation of lots, school houses and furniture.......... $159, 486 00
10,537.00 Number of departments employing one teacher each......... 81 Total valuation of apparatus.......
6,019.00 Number of grammar departments....
45 Total valuation of grammar and primary property. $176,042 00 Number of primary departments...... 36 Total number of volumes in school libraries....
20,140 Number of boys enrolled in primary and grammar schools.... 1669 Bonded or other indebtedness........
$33,866.66 Number of girls enrolled in primary and grammar schools. 1524 Total number of school houses 39. Average monthly salary paid to Total enrollment................
3193 male teachers, $75.00; female teachers, $63.36. Number of normal Average number belonging...........
2264 school graduates, 42. Rate of school tax, 374 conts. Privato schools in Average daily attendance......
2238 the county, 2; number of private school teachers, 10; number of private Percentage of attendance on average number belonging..
98 school pupils, 52. Number of districts supplied with the "American Number of School visits made by school superintendent.
141 Flag” 38; number not supplied, 15. Number of school visits made by school trustees....
152 Number high schools, 2; male teachers, 5; female teachers, 5; malo Number of visits made by other persons......
1597 pupils, 117; female pupils, 203. Total valuation of high school property, Average number of months school was maintained.
9.07 $22,886.00; teachers' salaries, $8.750.00; contingent expenses, $5,908.28. Length of time in months the same teacher has taught school....... 20
Average monthly salary, male, $113.75; female, $83.00. Male teachers in primary and grammar grades.........
Geo. L. SACKETT, School Sup't. Number of female teachers in primary and grammar grades........ 63 Average salary paid....
[The readers of the JOURNAL will be interested in knowing the claims of the candidates for Superintendent of Public Instruction. For this reason we present their pictures and a brief biography of each.]
Thos. J. Kirk has been an active citizen and educator. The follow Christian Runckel, the fusion candidate for Superintendent of ing bare statement of facts connected with his career will give a better Public Instruction, is a native of California. He was born at Dutch idea than any flourish of rhetoric, or the usual campaign praise can Flat, Placer County, and is of German descent. He attended the pubpossibly do.
lic schools of that county, and afterward took the normal course in the
Sierra Normal College at Auburn. He began teaching at the age of 18, Thos. J. Kirk, Republican candidate for Superintendent of Public
and at 20 years of age was chosen Principal of the Forest Hill School in Instruction, was born near Richmond, Ray County, Missouri, Septem
Placer County. For the past eight years he has been Principal of the ber 9, 1852. Lived on his father's farm in Sullivan County, Missouri,
Dutch Flat Grammar School. He has had several years' experience as and attended the public schools and some private schools of that State
a member of the Placer County Board of Education, of which he is now until sixteen years of age, when he entered the Normal Scbool at
a member. Mr. Runckel has twice declined to be a candidate for Kirksvilie, and there was under the tuition of Dr. Joseph Baldwin,
County Superintendent. His nomination for State Superintendent by Prof. J. M. Greenwood and other celebrated educators.
the Populiet Convention was made without his solicitation or knowlMr. Kirk taught his first school in the fall of 1870, in a suburban
edge. The first intimation Mr. Runckel had of his nomination came district of the City of Kirksville. He alternated teaching and study at
thru the daily papers. Mr. Runckel holds a life diploma, is a progresKirksville Normal for about four years.
sive, conscientious teacher, understands the needs of the public schools He came to California in February, 1873, and at once engaged in
and' has the courage to fight for any measure that will benefit or teaching in Colusa County. To become better acquainted with Cali
improve the public school system of the State. fornia school methods, he entered the State Normal School at San Jose
In addition to his school work, Mr. Runckel has had three years' and was a member of the senior class of 1874-5.
experience as a newspaper man. The Colfax Sentinel, during his proIn July, of 1875 he came to Fresno County and taught a term of
prietorship, was a strong and fearless advocate of the mining interests, eleven consecutive months and then made a visit to Edina, Missouri,
and led the fight against the usurpation of mineral lands by the where in August, 1876, he married Miss Julia Bryant. Returned to
Southern Pacific. During these three years Mr. Runckel was also Fresno County and taught two years. During the school year of 1879
Secretary of the Placer County Miners' Association. The active interest 80, he, as principal, and his wife as assistant, taught the school at
and support of Placer County at the time did much to bring about the Warm Springs, Alameda County. Elected principal of Fresno City
present satisfactory conditions of mining legislation, both Federal and
An Estimate of His Charactor by a Well Known Educator. 1882 to 1884 was engaged in the boot and shoe business in Fresno.
Christian Runckel, the Populist and Democratic nominee for State In March, 1884, joined h s brother in manufacturing business at Superintendent of Public Instruction, was born in the famous mining Peoria, Illinois; returned to Fresno in 1888. Member and secretary of town of Dutch Flat, Placer County, on the 27th day of July, 1868. City Board 1888 to 1890. Elected County Superintendent 1890; re Sprung from hardy, industrious, liberty-loving German stock, like his elected 1894. President State Teachers' Association 1893.
ancestors, Chris. Runckel, all thru the years of his man hood has openly An Estimate of His Character and Ability.
and persistently fought the agents of oppression and greed. His love
of liberty and independence, his respect for the rights of others, and Supt. Kirk achieved a State reputation as a worker in 1892, when his native manliness, have been nurtured and strengthened by the subhe secured the California Teachers' Association for Fresno. As Presi lime scenery af the Sierras and by the free, generous spirits of the men dent of the Association in 1893, he was a model presiding officer, who have learned the secrets of the mountains and given their wealth impartial, energetic, and commanded the respect of the assembly. As to the world. an organizer and conductor of his teachers' institutes he is without a Born of poor parents, fourth son of a family of nine children, his peer in the State.
life has been a struggle. When about to enter the State University at As a Superintendent of Schools he has made an excellent record as the age of 18, he discovered the fact that his father was hopelessly in an executive officer; applying strict business methods to the detail work debt. In fact was about to be declared insolvent. When young Runckel of the office. In educational work, as an inspector of schools, he is found this condition, he sacrificed the dream of his life, a university critical, just, and kind. The course of study is on the newest lines of education, on the altar of his family name. He took charge of his educational progress. His public addresses are always carefully pre father's affairs, and for over seven years, every spare cent he earned in pared and touch upon vital questions connected with school work. He teaching went to pay his parent's debts. Notwithstanding these adverse is very unassuming as a speaker and depends large y upon what he says circumstances, he has succeeded wheru more favored sons have failed. rather than how he says it.
His native ability, integrity and industry have been the elements of his Supt. Kirk's personality is very agreeable, modest, approachable, success. The word fail is not found in his dictiouary. Tolerant of the with excellent command of himself and his time. He seldom gives one opinions of others, Mr. Runckel has ever believed and has always acted the impression of being in a hurry, and yet is a man who gets a great up to his belief that every man should be allowed the free and full exerdeal of work behind him. Mr. Kirk has a delightful home, a charm cise of his political and religious opinions. ing wife, two beautiful daughters and a son.
O. F. SEAVY.
have a frost, and we learn, even in California, that a frost is often very destructive.
A frost occurs, then, when it is so cold that the moisture in the air (and you will remember
that the air contains moisture, sometimes a EDITED BY CHAS. H. ALLEN.
large quantity of it) is frozen. I have already told you about the congelation of the moisture in plants, which will happen if the thermome
ter goes much below 32 degrees. TALKS ABOUT WATER-NO. V.
The moisture in the air, as it congeals, is deposited on the
surface of the earth, and as the tiny crystals are fine they appear I should tell you about some other forms of water as a solid, white. This makes the white or hoar frost. When there is but for they are very interesting, and many of the children in Califor little moisture in the stratum of air next the earth, and the thernia are but little acquainted with them.
mometer goes below 32 degrees, it freezes, all the same, but the Snow.
white crystals are not deposited. This is what is called a "black"
frost-altho it is not black. When the particles of water that, at a higher temperature Farmers, and especially fruit growers, say that a black frost would fall as rain, pass through currents of air at 32 degrees or be- is the most destructive, and this is true. Study it up and see if low, they are frozen and fall as snow.
you can see why; if not, ask your teacher to tell you. The reasons This freezing, you already know, crystallizes the water, some have all been given in these talks. times in forms more beautiful than the finest fretwork of ivory. Frost is the sprite, the fairy, the veritable Puck of the weather Look at the following pictures of snow-flakes and votice their bureau. I had it in mind to give you a description of his pranks, beauty and symmetry.
but find them so well told in a poem that we used to sing, years It is not often, in most latitudes, that these flakes reach the
ago, that I will give that instead. earth in their perfect form. You will notice that they are very I can assure you that the pictures are not overdrawn. I refine, and ice is fragile-easily broken.
cognize them all, for as a boy I enjoyed intensely the study of So it happens, if the wind blows, the fakes are broken by the delicate tracery of his chilly fingers, even if at times he did coming in contact one with another; or, if in falling they pass nip my nose, or paint my ears an alabaster white. thru å stratum of warm air, as they often do, the fine points of the crystals are melted off.
The frost looked forth one still, clear night It now and then happens on a cold still day that it snows, And whispered, "Now I shall be out of sight, and then you can catch the crystals on a piece of black cloth and So thru the valley and over the hight examine them. They are more
In silence I'll take my way: beautiful than any pictures of them
I will not go on like that blustering that I have ever seen.
The wind and the snow, the bail In this process of congelation re
and the rain, member there is an expansion, that
Who make so much bustle and is, the snow occupies far more space
noise in vain, than the water would from wbich it
But I'll be as busy as they." is made; even when snow is quite solid it takes several inches of it to
Then he flew to the mountain and make an inch of water.
powdered its crest, Snow being very porous-con
He lit on the trees, and their boughs
he dressed taining a large quantity of air
SNOWFLAKES among its particles, and confined
In diamond beads, and over the air being a very poor conductor of heat, it is a warm covering for
breast the earth, and the snow huts of the Esquimos are, so far as tem
Of the quivering lake he spread perature is concerned, quite comfortable.
A coat of mail, that it need not fear As with ice, so with snow, a great quantity of heat disap The downward point of many a spear, pears in melting it, and when it falls to any depth it takes a long That he hung on the margin far and near, time for it to “go off,” even if the weather is warm.
Where a rock could rear its head. In the high Sierras even as late as June or July I have
He went to the windows of those who slept walked for hours on the snow banks, when it was so warm that I
And over each pane like a fairy crept; was constantly wiping the perspiration from my face and hands,
Wherever he breathed, wherever he stepped, and I have many times plucked flowers with one hand, near the
By the light of the moon were seen nose of a drift, with the other hand on the snow.
Most beautiful things; there were flowers and trees,
There were bevies of birds and swarms of bees,
There were cities and temples and towers, and these
All pictured in silvery sheen.
But he did one thing that was hardly fair;
"Now just to set them a thinking, Usually with hail there is a strong wind, and it is not un I'll bite this basket of fruit,” said he, common for windows to be broken, crops broken down, trees "This costly pitcher I'll burst in three, stripped of their leaves and even animals killed by severe hail And the glass of water they've left for me, storms,
Shall 'tchick' to tell them I'm drinking." Hailstones are generally made up of layers, somewhat like the layers or scales of an onion. I will not take time now to talk with you about how these are formed, for it would make this
Teacher: You should not say, "we shall get the best of paper too long. It is very curious, and perhaps your teacher will Spain.” Say, “we shall get the better of Spain. Commodore:
But we ought to get the best of everything. - Puck. tell you about it. Frost.
Irate Teacher: What you need, young man, is a sound When the thermometer goes down to 32 degrees, or below, thrashing. Delinquent: Well, in Sunday School I was told that altho there may be no rain to be converted into snow or hail, we the Lord will supply our needs, and I don't mind waiting.
The Real Hero.
"The only composition I knew anything about was that bottle in the cupboard, and I wondered what he could want of that.
At the close of school I went to him and asked if it was 'hot drops' By CHAS. H. ALLEN.
he wanted. He laughed a little, coughed, as I now know, to Your navy may be iron-clad,
keep from laughing more, and said 'Yes, the hotter the better.' Its missiles weigh a ton,
"The cough particularly attracted my attention, and I These count but little when compared
thought-poor man, he wants it to cure his cough. So home I With
went, determined to bring a large bottle, larger than anyone else. The man
I had an older brother and I thought he knew everything, so I behind
told him about it, and asked him to get the bottle ready. the gun.
"We had a fine cut-glass decanter, on the top shelf. This he
took down and putting into it a little from the hot drops, or comThe swiftest cruiser comes to grief
position bottle, filled it nearly half-full of water. Not satisfied, I And has to turn and run,
filled it up, putting in a little more of the medicine, so it should If he lacks the right material
be strong enough. In
"When Monday morning came I hid this under my shawl The man behind
and marched to school, priding myself not a little on the fact that the gun.
probably my bottle was the largest one there would be.
"Soon he called one after another up to the table, for their The Admiral in blue and gold,
compositions. To my great surprise they came forward and Resplendent as the sun,
handed him a folded piece of paper. We had been obliged to If a true man, takes off his hat
bring in written excuses, and I supposed that these others were To
simply handing in an excuse, probably saying the family were The man
out of 'composition. I wondered at this, but was all the more behind
glad that I had so good a supply. the gun.
"At last my name came, and taking the decanter out from In the hour of fiercest combat
under my shawl, I marched No danger can he shun,
up and proudly set it on bis But standing steadfast at his post
table. There was a moment's Is
silence and then, as it dawned The man
on him and the school what behind
a simpleton I was, all burst the gun.
into laughter “Utterly be
wildered, I knew not what to Ii honors are to be bestowed
do, but finally rushed out of Count heroes, one by one,
the school room, not stopping Pray don't forget the grimy face
until I reached home, where in Of
my mother's lap, with many The man
tears, I told the whole story. behind
It was many years before I the gun.
heard the last of my 'composi
tion.'' And when sweet peace shall come
again When victory has been won,
Men can be as original now Let praises peai from every throat
as ever, if they had but the For
courage, even the insight. The man
Heroic souls in old times had behind
no more opportunities than we the gun.
THE TRAVELER.SE have; but they used them. A NEW PHASE OF CHILD STUDY.
There were daring deeds to be
done then-are there none My First “Composition.”
now? Sacrifices to be made--are there none now? Wrongs to
be redrest-- are there none now ?-Charles Kingsley. A few days ago while I was dining with an elderly lady, Publisher's Assistant: This grammar is evidently a failure ! somewhat of an invalid, she related the following incident, and Publisher: Double the testimonials in our circulars. —Puck. while I have no hope of giving it in the quaint and curious manner which was its chief charm, a manner that was in itself a guarantee that it was both truthful and unembelished, yet it may
Dentists in Germany are using false teeth made of paper, prove of some interest to those who have had, at one time or instead of porcelain or mineral composition. These paper teeth another, similar experiences.
are said to be very satisfactory, as they do not break or chip; are We were discussing the old-fashioned medicine closet, speak; moisture of the mouth, and, from their peculiar composition, they
not sensitive to heat or cold, and are not susceptible to the ing of the family remedies well known in all New England
are very cheap. homes. The "Hot Drops," "Number Six" or "Composition” bottle was referred to, together with the fact that it was always in great demand about green-apple-time.
Human beings have six muscles to each eye, that they may “Yes,” said she, “I have reasons to remember this remedy move it on either side; but horses, cows, sheep and other quadvery distinctly, because of an occurrence that took place in my rupeds, which habitually incline their heads to the earth in search early school life.
of food, have a muscle by which their eyelids are suspended and We had a new teacher, a collegiate, who was teaching his supported, and which we do not need. way thru college. On the first day of school he asked all those who could write to raise a hand. Proud of my feeble “Let me kiss your Dewey lips," urged the youth in the paraccomplishment, my hand went up. We were then informed that lor. "Young man,” roared a voice from above, "the bombardall of us were to bring a composition to school on the following inent will open as soon as I can get down stairs.” Then the Monday; that he was going to invite the people in then, and again hapless youngster organized himself into a flying squadron and the last week of school, to see how much we had improved. made a fleet disappearance -Ex.