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is in domestic heating. The open fireplace balance is shown to be decidedly in favor of and several ventilating fireplaces, and the the country, pre-eminently so to those who “ American" store, are mentioned; but most seek quiet, rational enjoyment, with health, space is given to gas heating and cooking who desire leisurely culture without excitestoves. Heating by means of hot air, hot ment, who are willing to live independently water, and steam also receives attention. The of fashion, and who do not attach an exagapplication of fuel to vaporization, i. e., the gerated importance to show. heating of boilers, is next treated; and from this subject the authors pass to the evapora Jonathan EDWARDS. By ALEXANDER V. G. tion of liquids and distillation. The drying

ALLEN, D. D. Boston and New York :

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 401. Price, of wood and malt, baking bread, and firing brick and porcelain, also have a place. Fur-1

This is the first volume of the series of naces for metallurgical and other technologi

| “ American Religious Leaders,” or biogracal operations are next treated, and an im

phies of men who have had great influence portant chapter follows on gas-furnaces, in

on religious thought and life in the United cluding those using the regenerative prin

States, in which it is intended, besides deciple. The closing chapter deals with the

picting great figures in American religious practical effect of fuel. A series of tables

history, to indicate the leading charactergiring analyses of coals follows. Through.

istics of that history, the progress and proout the book exact information in regard to

o cess of religious philosophy in America, the the several divisions of the subject is fur.

various types of theology which have shaped nished in tables and diagrams. The volume

or been shaped by the various churches, and contains seven plates and six hundred and

the relation of these to the life and thought seven other illustrations, and is provided

of the nation. The present volume relates with an adequate index.

to the earliest and probably the greatest of

those leaders—the thinker who, along with LIBERTY AND A Living. By Philip G. Hu. Benjamin Franklin, American and foreign BERT, Jr. New York and London: G. P.

critics agree in naming as representative of Putnam's Sons. Pp. 239.

American intellectual activity in the eightThis book is described in its sub-title as eenth century. Prof. Allen's aim in this bithe record of an attempt to secure bread and ograpby has been “to reproduce Edwards butter, sunshine and content, by gardening, from his books, making his treatises, in their fishing, and hunting. One of its mottoes is, chronological order, contribute to his por" The royal peace of a rural home.” The traiture as a man and as a theologian.” Someauthor, a writer on New York newspapers, thing more than a mere relation of facts wearied with the monotony and drudgery seemed to be demanded in order to justify of city life, sought a way in which he could the endeavor to rewrite his life. What we spend his time in the outdoor season prof- most desire to know is, what he thought, itably in the open air, and without giving and how he came to think as he did. “Edap the winter residence in the city which wards is always and everywhere interesting, his profession demanded. He found a place whatever we may think of his theology. On on the sea-coast of Long Island which af literary and historical grounds alone no one forded a home, garden, wood-lot, access to can fail to be impressed with his imposing figthe water for boating and fishing, and hunt- ure as he moves through the wilds of the New ing privileges. The book describes his life World.” Edwards's life is full of dramatic there, and the moral and practical lessons incident, and his writings furnish ground derived from it. The transcript of the for fruitful study-a study which he that diary of a week gives a realistic picture of would understand the significance of New the average life. The home and its arrange- England thought in the last century, and unments, the garden-work and its returns, the der its later aspects as well, will find indisfishing, the bee-raising, the advantages de pensable. The summation of the result of rived from the possession of a wood-lot, and Edwards's work is concluded with the asserthe balance of advantages and disadvantages, tion that “all who accept the truth that are described in successive chapters. The divine things are known to be divine be

VOL. XXXVII.-10

cause humanity is endowed with the gift of pointed out, and the purposes indicated to direct vision into divinity, are accepting which they are applied. This is followed by what Edwards proclaimed, what constitutes a tabular exhibit of the qualities of the va. the positive feature of his theology. There rious kinds of wood. A few words are given are those who have made the transition from to the relations of wood and iron, and the the old Calvinism, through the mediation of wood-working trades are mentioned, and car. this principle, to a larger theology as if by a pentry and joinery defined. A description of natural process. Among these typical think parasitic plants or fungi injurious to living ers were Thomas Erskine, McLeod Camp-trees and lumber follows; an account of inbell, and Bishop Ewing in Scotland, or the jurious insects, prepared expressly for the late Mr. Maurice in England. These and book by Mr. Bashford Dean, and directions such as these, in whom the God-conscious-concerning the preservation of wood are given. ness is supreme, are the true continuators of The second part contains the exercises, prethe work of Jonathan Edwards."

ceded by a description of tools. The directions

for the care and use of tools are explicit, and EXERCISES IN WOOD-WORKING; WITH A SHORT

are illustrated by drawings representing the TREATISE ON Wood. By Ivin SICKELS. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 158,

method of handling each tool, and the mark with Plates.

it makes. These exercises are followed by This book is written for manual train- | those concerning the forming and fixing of ing classes in schools and colleges, having the several kinds of joints, gluing, making been prepared in the first instance in manu. boxes, with hinging tops, drawers, and genscript for the students in the College of the erally on uniting several pieces to make a City of New York. The manuscript was complete structure; a series on the details copied for other schools. Many changes and of ordinary house carpentry, whence models additions were made under the suggestions

may be constructed and the building of the of subsequent teaching; and it is now print-various parts making up a wooden dwelling ed and published for all who desire a yol- learned; the use of the frame-saw and methume of the kind. Being the product and ods of bending wood; pattern-work; shapresult of work in teaching, it could hardly

ing (boat model) by the use of templets; and be other than a working book; and a work veneering, with directions for painting and ing book, so far as it reveals itself to a critic's ken, it is. Its scope is the presentation of

The National MEDICAL DICTIONARY. Two the facts which are most essential to the

vols. By John S. BILLINGS, M. D., etc., wood-worker's success and the good execu and Collaborators. Philadelphia : Lea tion of his work, and of directions for the Brothers & Co. Price, $12. use of his tools and for manipulation. These This work aims to define "every medical facts and directions are given in a simple, term in current use in English, French, Gerconcise style, intelligible to any pupil of or-man, and Italian medical literature, including dinary sense. The book deals particularly the Latin medical terminology of all of these with carpentry and joinery, and is divided languages." The pronunciation of English into two parts. The first part treats of the and Latin terms is indicated, and the derivastructure, properties, and kinds of wood ; tion of most English and Anglicized Latin its manufactures and economic relations to words (except names of drugs and plants) is other substances; parasitic plants and in- given. The dictionary does not attempt to sects, and means of preserving wood; under be cyclopedic, but gives simply brief defi. these heads are articles on the structure and nitions of the words and phrases included in composition of wood, branching of stems, its list. Prefixed to the first volume is a age of trees, their decay, the season for number of tables, including a table of doses, cutting, milling, drying, and warping, the of antidotes, of the inch and metre system properties and defects of wood, its measure of numbering spectacle-glasses, of thermo. and values, and the kinds of wood. The metric scales, of the average dimensions of several species used in wood-work, coarse the fætus at different ages, of the average and fine, are named and described; their dimensions of the parts and organs of the value is estimated, their special qualities are adult human body, and of the weights of the organs. Among these tables, also, there is forded the most important material.” The a series, prepared by Prof. W. 0. Atwater, importance of students being well acquaintshowing the percentages of nutrient ingredi-ed with the anatomy and structure of an ani. ents in a large number of food-materials, the mal which plays so prominent a part in their fuel-values in the same, and standards for researches is obvious; and it is this which dietaries for different classes and occupa- | Dr. Ecker, who is Professor of Human and tions. Another table shows the expectation Comparative Anatomy in the University of of life as derived from records of life-insur. Freiberg, and Dr. Haslam, have furnished ance companies, and from the last United in the present book. The original work of States census.

Prof. Ecker was published in 1864. A second

part, embodying, besides the author's work, THE ANATOMY OF THE FROG. By Dr. AL- | fruits of the researches of Prof. Wieders.

EXANDER ECKER. Translated, etc., by heim, appeared in 1881–82. The translaGEORGE HASLAM, M. D. Illustrated. Ox

tion was undertaken by Dr. Haslam at the ford: Clarendon Press; New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 449, with Colored

suggestion of Prof. A. Gamgee, and was acPlates. Price, $5.25.

cepted by the delegates of the Clarendon The frog is aptly designated by the au

Press as one of the series of Foreign Biothor as eminently the physiological domestic

logical Memoirs published by them. But it animal. It is kept in every physiological

soon became evident that a mere translation laboratory, and is daily sacrificed in num

would be unsatisfactory, and that it would bers on the altar of science. The physiolo

be desirable to recast and modify parts of gist bas recourse to it, not only to obtain an.

the book, and to give descriptions of the swers to new questions, but for the sake of

minute structure of the several organs. The demonstrating easily and quickly the most

translator has included the results of recent important known facts of the science. It

researches, and has added facts derived from bas furnished the means through which many

his own observations. most important discoveries in physiology have

| THE ELEMENTS OF ASTRONOMY. WITA AN been made. It has" afforded almost the only

URANOGRAPHY. By Prof. CHARLES A. material for the investigation of the excita YOUNG. Boston: Ginn & Co. Pp. 470. bility of nerves and its associated electro Price, $1.56. motive changes, and also no inconsiderable Prof. YOUNG has prepared this text-book part of the remaining nerve and muscle for use in high schools and academies, using physiology." Much of our knowledge of the in it much of the material and many of the functions of the spinal cord is derived from illustrations of his larger work, General Asexperiment upon it. Its muscles have served tronomy. The author has tried to avoid for the investigation of the phenomena and going to an extreme in cutting down and the conditions of contraction. But for the simplifying, while giving a clear treatment web of its foot and the gills and tail of its of every subject. From the number of tadpole, “ we should not perhaps for a long pages in the book it may be inferred that he time have arrived at a satisfactory knowl. has provided abundant material for a highedge of the existence and the conditions of school course in astronomy. He has paid the capillary circulation. Acquaintance with special attention to making all statements the constituents of the blood directly con- correct as far as they go, though many of cerned in nutrition; important facts in the them, on account of the elementary characphysiology of the blood and lymph; and in- ter of the book, are necessarily incomplete. sight into the laws of the heart's action, No mathematics higher than elementary have all been obtained by observations and algebra and geometry is introduced into the experiments on the frog. To it, also, in his text. In an appendix of some seventy pages, tology, we owe much of our knowledge of methods of making certain calculations and the structure of nerve-fibers, their origin the construction of astronomical instruments and termination, their relations within the are described. The Uranography comprises ganglia, and the structure of muscular fiber; a brief description of the constellations visand for the study of reproduction and devel. | ible in the United States, with four maps, opment the frog has, next to the chick, af- from which the principal stars may be identified; also a list of such telescopic objects between the habits of the orb-wearers and in each constellation as are easily found, and other spiders. To the general reader, who lie within the power of a small telescope. sees no important difference between any The volume is illustrated with one hundred two common wheel-shaped spider- webs, the and fifty-eight cuts.

distinct varieties of orb-weavers' snares de

scribed by Dr. McCook will be a revelation. AMERICAN SPIDERS AND THEIR SPINNING-WORK.

Artists, too, who are supposed to be careful Vol. I. By HENRY C. McCook, D. D. Published by the Author: Academy of

about the correct shapes of the things they Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Pp. 372. draw, seem to have looked only carelessly at Price $30 (set of three volumes). spiders' webs, for our author states that he

The naturalist who takes dried or alco has never seen but one in art work or book bolic specimens as the subjects of his study illustrations that gave proof of having been can prosecute his researches at all times and drawn from a natural web, by one who knew seasons, and independently of the will of the its characteristics. In three chapters the creatures that he is studying. But this ad- general features, the mode of constructing vantage is offset by the limitation that the in detail, and the armature of orb-webs habits of the creatures, the kind of places are presented. Passing to varieties of they live in, the sort of structures they make, the orb, Dr. McCook describes the web the way they move about, obtain their food, with its center of closely woven silk tis. and rear their young, are a sealed book to sue and a zigzag ribbon extending upward him. The observations of the field natural and downward, which is made by Argiope, a ist, on the other hand, are attended by many spider whose large size and beautiful markmore difficulties than those of the laboratory | ings make it conspicuous in our autumn student. He must go to his specimens in- fields. The round vertical webs made by stead of having them brought to him. Per. Epeïra and other spiders are then touched baps they are not to be found at all seasons, upon. An account is given of the composite and, when they are accessible, many hours snares, which consist of a wheel-shaped web must be spent in watching familiar actions combined with a maze of intersecting lines; in order not to miss a chance of seeing a also of the sectoral orb, in which there is new operation. He has the compensation, always one division of the wheel that is not however, that he studies the creatures alive; crossed by the concentric rings. hence the things which are hidden from the Among the other peculiar features in webs laboratory naturalist are revealed to him, that the author describes are the domed orb and the knowledge that he gains arouses the of the basilica spider, the ribbon decorations widest interest and wins the greatest appre- of the feather-foot, the triangle or part of a ciation. The results which Dr. McCook lays circle constructed by the triangle spider, and before us in the present volume belong the somewhat irregularly radiating snare of mainly in the latter class. They relate to the ray spider. A chapter on the engineerthe spinning-work of spiders, as performed | ing skill of spiders gives instances of their in the making of webs and dens. With this using weights to hold their webs taut, their is naturally connected some account of the placing of stay-lines in the best position almethods of procuring food and the nesting. lowed by circumstances, using unfamiliar habits of these creatures, and the intelli. substances for building a nest, etc. Espegence that they display in adapting their cially interesting is a chapter on the me. operations to particular circumstances. In chanical strength of webs and the physical order to give the reader a correct idea of power of spiders, in which cases are prea how spiders form their threads, a fully illus. of spiders capturing and hoisting from trated chapter on the structure of the spin- ground animals many times as large as t '

pated, ning.organs has been introduced. The whole selves. Other topics that are fully trel work will be confined to the orb-weaving but which can be only mentioned here spiders of the United States, but a vast feeding habits, uses of poison, and do amount of material relating to other tribes, making habits. In a concluding chapte which the author has collected, has been the genesis of snares, the author traces drawn upon in order to make comparisons relations which exist between the va 30

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forms of spinning-work treated in the fore. | tution during the year, of accessions to the going pages. The volume contains three museum and to the library, and of internahundred and fifty-four illustrations, the au- tional exchanges. thor being convinced that a drawing is bet- A great many facts which chemists conter to communicate some facts than pages stantly need to refer to are put into handy of words. The pictures, moreover, are of shape in the little pamphlet which Prof. artistic quality, and the mechanical work of John H. Appleton has published now for the volume is of a high grade, making the eight years, called the Laboratory Year-Book book a remarkably handsome one. In the (G. Roscoe and Co., Providence, 12 cents). second volume of this work the author will This publication contains a calendar, notes treat the habits and industry associated with on the chemical work done in the preceding mating and maternal instincts, life of the year, a list of new elements announced since young, etc. The third volume will be a sys- | 1877, a table based on the latest revision of ternatic presentation of the orb-weavers of atomic and molecular weights, tables of the United States, the descriptions being ac-weights, measures, and thermometer scales companied by a number of lithographic and equivalents, the C. G. S. system of units, plates colored by hand. The work, aside pronunciations of words used in chemistry, from its scientific value and its popular in- logarithms, postal regulations, etc. terest, will be a treasure to the library of The Meteorological Observations made on any one who secures a copy. The author's the Summit of Pike's Peak, January, 1874, edition " is limited to two hundred and fifty to June, 1888, are published in the Annals numbered copies, which are issued in cloth of Harvard College Observatory, Vol. XXII. with uncut edges. A large part of the edi. The observations were made and were pretion had been subscribed for before publi.pared for the press by the United States cation.

Signal Service, and the expense of publica

tion has been borne by the Boyden fund. The Report of S. P. Langley, Secretary The observations occupy four hundred and of the Smithsonian Institution, for 1889, | fifty-eight quarto pages, and are introduced states that the income of the Smithsonian and supplemented by a few pages of text. fund is becoming less and less adequate for The Observations of the New England the work of the Institution with each year | Meteorological Society for 1888, published in of the country's growth. This fund is now the Annals of the Harvard College Observa$703,000, of which only $1,500 bave been tory, contains tables in which the work of received in bequests since the original Smith the society for the year is summarized. In son legacy. The secretary calls attention a general account of the weather of the year to the Institution as a suitable trustee for it is stated that nine months were colder moneys intended for the advancement of and three warmer than the average in New knowledge. Additional space is needed England. The total precipitation exceeded for exhibition purposes for the National | the usual annual fall by twenty-five per cent. Museum. The appropriation allowed for Among the papers that have appeared in making the foreign exchanges required recent numbers of The Modern Science Es. by Government does not cover what this sayist (James H. West, Boston; 10 cents a service costs the Institution, even though number) is one on The Scope and Principles free transportation is given by many steam of the Evolution Philosophy, by Lewis G. ship companies. The library received 17,- Janes, the first lecture of the Brooklyn Ethi. 354 accessions in the course of the year, and cal Association's second season. Dr. Janes the collection is so large that much of it is represents evolution as a universal method, inaccessible from lack of room. The collec- explaining the processes of all activity. He tion of living animals, which numbers over states the agnostic position in regard to the three hundred, has outgrown its accommoda- | Unknowable Cause, and denies that the evotions, and a scheme for creating a zoölogi- | lutionist is a materialist. In his closing cal park on Rock Creek, in the District of | paragraphs he points out the kind of aid Columbia, is being agitated. The report in that evolutionary philosophy can give to the cludes statistics of publications of the Insti-solution of the problems of society. The

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