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be expected," intemperance in drink" heads | fir-trees or bamboos on the ground before it the list of single causes, with 18,290 cases. is let belong to the proprietors, and the tenOf “moral causes," "domestic trouble," ant is not free to appropriate them. If " adverse circumstances," and "mental | there were no such trees on the ground when anxiety and worry, and overwork,” are col- it was let, and such trees were subsequently lectively held responsible for 25,897 cases. planted by the tenant, they would be at his Of other moral causes,“ religious excite disposal. Separate property in trees is also ment” is credited with 3,769 cases,“ love traceable in India, particularly in Chota affairs ” with 2,224, and “ fright and nery- Nagpore, where Mr. J. F. Hewitt bas freous shock” with 1,933. Of physical causes, quently found that fruit trees growing on "sexual diseases” are credited with 3,447 | land are owned by persons other than the cases, “overexertion” with761, “sun owners or cultivators of the soil. The stroke" with 1,686, “ accident or injury” | mhowa - trees, which are exceedingly valuwith 4,199, “diseases of women” with able, are frequently divided among the in11,315, “old age” with 6,773, “privation habitants of the villages near wbich they and starvation” with 2,607, “fevers ” with grow. This individual property in trees is 880,"puberty” with 582, and “other bodi- not in Turkey confined to Asia Minor, but ly diseases or disorders" with 14,719. prevails as a general law in the empire. Previous attacks had occurred in 22,703 Miss Pauline Inby found it in Bosnia, and cases. Hereditary influence was ascertained bought an interest of the kind in a certain in 28,063, and congenital defect in 5,881. As estate. It seems also to have anciently between the sexes, 66,918 were of the male | existed in the British Islands, and is recog. and 69,560 of the female sex.

nized in the Brehon records of Ireland. But

there, and in most European countries, the Rights on Other Men's Lands.—A paper vestiges of the separate rights have ceased by Mr. Hyde Clarke, on “The Rights of to exist. Property in Trees” on the land of another, relates to a curious custom of primeval Soaping Geysers.—It has been often obtimes which still survives in some lands. | served that throwing soap into the geysers The author first met it as a land judge in of the Yellowstone Park will produce or Asia Minor in 1862, when he was called hasten an outburst. The phenomenon has upon to grant compensation for olive-trees been investigated by Prof. Arnold Hague, belonging to one or more persons on the of the United States Geological Survey, who lands of others, and for honey - trees or finds that two conditions are essential to the hoards of wild honey in state or communal production of an eruption in this way: first, forests. Papers read by the Rev. Dr. Cod- the surface caldron or reservoir should hold ington gave information of the existence of but a small amount of water, exposing only a like system in Melanesia. It likewise a limited area to the atmosphere; and, secprevails, according to Mr. Crocker, of the ond, that the water should stand at or above British North Borneo Company, in Borneo, the boiling-point of water for the altitude of in respect to the katapang, or honey-tree, the geyser basin above sea level. The latter

ble bird's-nests. Sir Spencer St. John also and hot springs present the singular pheobserves that in Borneo the land nominally nomena of pools of water heated above the belongs to the state or tribe, but the owner- theoretical boiling - point, and, unless disship is not a private property in land in our turbed, frequently remain so for many days sense of the word. He had observed that without exhibiting any signs of ebullition. certain of the tapang, on which the bees Thermal waters in this condition may be made construct their nests, often belonged to to boil by other artificial means that will disspecial families, and were not touched by turb their equilibrium, as by casting sinter their neighbors. Sir Thomas Wade has | into them, and, in one instance at least, by a found a similar right in China, where, when strong temporary gust of wind. If soap or hill farms or gardens are leased, the tenant lye is thrown into most of the small pools, a will pay the proprietor a yearly rent. All viscous fluid is formed ; and viscosity is, in the opinion of the author, the principal cause quality to the arrow, the bone must be prein hastening geyser-action. It tends to cause pared with certain incantations which add the steam to be retained within the basin, supernatural power. The poison is an addi. and, when the temperature stands at or above tion to the power of the bone. The native the boiling-point, explosive liberation must did not much consider, if at all, the natural follow. All alkaline solutions exhibit, by power to hurt, of either bone or poison. A reason of this viscosity, a tendency to bump dead man's bone made the wound, the power and boil irregularly. Viscosity in the hot of the ghost was brought by incantation to the springs must also tend to the formation of arrow, and therefore the wounded man would bubbles and foam when the steam rises to die. Euphorbia-juice is hot and inflaming; the surface, and this in turn aids to bring it is smeared on the bone with an incantaabout the explosive action, followed by a tion which calls in the power of a dead relief of pressure, and thus to hasten the man's ghost; when the wound is given, the final and more powerful display. The prac-ghost will make it inflame. The cure of the tice of casting in soap is regarded as detri- wounded man is conducted on the same prin. mental to the preservation of the geysers, ciple. If the arrow-head, or a part of it, and as a proper object of restriction,

can be recovered, it is kept in a damp place

or on cool leaves; the inflammation of the The Nature of Poisoned Arrows.—The wound is little, or subsides. Shells are kept word poison, as applied to the poisoned arrows rattling over the house where the man lives, used in the Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz, the to keep off the hostile ghost. In the same Banks Islands, and the New Hebrides, should way the enemy who has inflicted the wound, be understood, according to the Rev. Dr. R. H. and his friends, will drink hot and burning Codington, in a peculiar sense. The practice juices, and chew irritating leaves; pungent of administering poison in food was com.and bitter herbs will be burned to make an mon among the natives, but it was doubtful irritating smoke, and will be tied upon the whether what was used bad much power of bow that sent the arrow; the arrow-head, if doing harm. The deadly effect was expected recovered, will be put into the fire. The to follow from the incantations with which bow will be kept near the fire, and its string the poison was prepared. In the same way kept taut and occasionally pulled, to bring the deadly quality of the poisoned arrows on tension of the nerves and the spasms of was never thought by the natives to be due | tetanus. Prof. Victor Horsley has suggested to poison in our sense of the word, though that the value of the human bone tipping the what was used might be, and was meant to arrow was first made evident by the employ. be, injurious and active in inflaming the ment of a bone from a corpse recently dead, wound. It was the supernatural power that in the decomposing tissues of which the belonged to the human bone of which the septicæmic virus would consequently be flour. arrow-head was made on which they chiefly | ishing. relied, and with that the magical power of the incantations with which it was fastened The Mesozoie Atlantic Coast Region.-In to the shaft. The bone of any dead man his address before the Geological Section of will give efficacy in the native belief to the the American Association, Prof. Charles E. arrow, because any ghost may bave power White, defining the Mesozoic formations of to work on the wounded man; but the bone North America, said that the rocks of the of one who was powerful when alive is more Triassic age are found from Prince Edward valued. In Lepers' Island, a young man, Island to the Carolinas. They rest on forout of affection for his dead brother, took mations, from the Archæan to the Carbonup his bones and made them into arrows. iferous, inclusive. Very few invertebrate He carried these about him, and did not fossils have been found in the Trias of the speak of himself as “T," but as “we two"- | Atlantic coast region, and these are of little his brother and himself--and he was much value for indicating the age of the strata feared; all the supernatural power of the that contained them. Intermediate between dead brother was with the living. Although the Triassic beds and the undisputed Cretait is the human bone that gives the deadly ceous deposits of this region is a series of

strata of littoral and estuary origin, to which the fruits cease to give the oil by them-
the name Potomac formation has been ap- selves, they are pressed with small millstones,
plied. These deposits are only a few hun- yielding an oil which is also clear and has a
dred feet thick, and, though frequently cov pleasant taste. The olives, still rich in oil,
ered from sight, seem to be continuous from are next put in sacks, boiling water is poured
New Jersey to Mississippi. Invertebrate fos. over them, and they are pressed once more.
sils are rare, but large collections of fos- The oil gained by this process is yellowish-
sil plants have been found in the Potomac green, and has a sharp taste and an unpleas-
region. The best authorities recognize sev ant smell. At Marseilles the olive oils are
eral of these fossils as Jurassic. Briefly, I classed into manufacturing oils for burning,
then, the Mesozoic of the Atlantic coast greasing machinery, and soap-making; re-
region consists of a probable representation fined oil; oil from the pulp or husks, and
of the Upper Trias of Europe, a possible one table or edible oil. The last is superfine,
of the Upper Jura, a probable slight one of fine, half fine, and ordinary. The table oil
the Middle Cretaceous, and a practically is refined by allowing it to run through lay.
certain representation of a large part of the ers of thin sheets of wadding into tin perfo.
Upper Cretaceous, with a hiatus between the | rated boxes. The wadding absorbs all the
latter and the Eocene. The speaker advo thick particles, and leaves the oil clear and
cated a system of classification more suited tasteless. The olive crop is variable and un-
to this country than the European one. The certain, and is seldom profitable more than
time has come when North American geolo- once in six or eight years.
gists can and ought to hold a commanding
position in this matter.

Avogadro.--According to a sketch pub.

lished by Prof. Hugo Schiff, of Florence, in Ollves and their 011.—The olive has the “ Chemiker Zeitung,” Amadeo Count been cultivated in the regions of the Medi. Avogadro, son of the magistrate Filippo terranean coasts from time immemorial. 01. Vercellone, was born in Turin, August 9, ive-oil there takes the place of butter. Spain 1776. He studied jurisprudence at the Tuhas about 3,000,000 acres in olives, Italy rin University, became Doctor of Laws on 2,250,000, and France about 330,000 acres. March 16, 1796, and then held a position Forty-five varieties of the fruit are described. under the Government till 1806, when he The tree occasionally grows to be sixty feet began his scientific career. In physics he high, and twelve feet in circumference of was self-taught, and obtained a subordinate trunk. The varieties differ in the nature of position in the Collegio delle Provincie in the wood, the foliage, and the quality and | Turin, which was then and still is a richly shape of the fruit. The fruit is mild, or endowed department of the Turin Universi. sharp, or bitter; and the oils differ like- ty. On November 7, 1809, he became Prowise; so that a pure olive-oil may be unfit fessor of Physics at the Gymnasium in Verfor purposes of food, and only fit for greas-celli. In 1820 he was elected Professor of ing machinery and making soap. The green, Mathematical Physics at the Turin Univer. unripe olives, having bad the bitter taste sity. Later this chair of instruction was extracted with salt, are preserved in vinegar abolished, and Avogadro resumed the prac. with spices. The ripe olives are gathered in tice of law. He was, however, reinstated in the fall, when they are as large as common his chair through the influence of Charles plums. They are of dark-green color, and the Albert, and remained at the university till pit, now become a hard stone, contains a 1850, when he retired on account of old age savory kernel. The flesh is spongy, and its and ill health. He died at Turin, July 9, little cells are filled with the mild oil, which 1856, at the age of eighty years. Avogadro runs out at the least pressure. The finest was but little known in Italy and unknown oil is the virgin oil which is made by col. in foreign countries. He shared with Charles lecting the freshly gathered olives in little Gerhard, who died in the same year, August heaps, and letting them press the oil out by 19, 1856, the same fate. It was only after their own weight. It is clear, and has a deli- death that their great and important contricate, nutty taste, with little or no odor. When | butions to science found recognition.

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Atmospherie Nitrogen as Food for begins. This is done by hand, and generPlants.--The results of experiments at the ally very carelessly. The berries are washed, agricultural stations at Middletown and dried, and put through various processes of Mansfield, Conn., are in favor of the value cleaning for the market; what is called of atmospheric nitrogen as a food for plants. “washed” coffee is put through a different The conclusions are deduced from them by process, in which much of the treatment is Prof. Atwater that many, if not most, of given under water, the leguminous plants are able to and do acquire large quantities of nitrogen from the Object-Studies in Botany.-Prof. Bessey air during their period of growth; and that some time ago urged teachers of botany to there is some connection, not yet defined, give a more intelligent direction to the col. between root - tubercles and the acquisition lections which their pupils will make during of this aliment. The cereals with which ex- | the season of study. The usual course is to periments have been completed have not gather a surplus of the showy flowers which manifested the same power, and they do not are the most easily studied, and neglect the have such tubercles as are formed on the others, of which less is known. The teacher roots of the legumes. The addition of soil in should take special pains to point out the fusions did not seem necessary for the pro | features of interest in the funguses, etc., duction of root-tubercles. The size and vigor which the student may bring in. Let him of the plants, and their gain of nitrogen from direct attention to the pores, on the walls of the air, seemed to be proportional to the abun. which the spores are developed — to the dance of root-tubercles in the experiment.closely interwoven threads of the body of Losses of nitrogen sometimes occurred, but the fungus. When a spotted strawberry. always in cases where there were no root-tu- leaf is brought in, let him tell something, bercles. The ability of legumes to gather if it be but little, about the cause of the nitrogen from the air helps to explain the spots; and let the pupil be taught to look for usefulness of certain members of the family similar spots on other plants, and to study as renovating crops, and enforces the im- them. Do so with lichens, with pond-scums, portance of using them to restore fertility to with green slimes, with mosses, with liver. exhausted soils. Conversely, the loss of ni-worts in fact, with whatever is brought in trogen suffered by some other crops, such as by the sharp-eyed young collector. “He oats, suggests a possible reason why they must be a poor teacher indeed who can not should appear to be “exhausting" crops. suggest something to his pupil about a toad.

stool or a puff-ball. It is not necessary to Coffee in Brazil.-The cultivation of cof- know the species or even the genus to which fee has been greatly extended in Brazil dur a plant has been assigned in order to be able ing recent years, chiefly in the southern to make valuable suggestions to one's pu. provinces. The planting is done on freshly pils.” cleared ground after a single crop of Indian corn has been raised from it, either by sow Contributions to the Geology of Staten ing the seed directly or often by transplant- Island.-Dr. N. L. Britton has reported to ing from slips grown in nursery rows. Dur- the Natural Science Association of Staten ing the earlier years corn, beans, and occa- Island concerning observations that lead him sionally sugar-corn are grown between the to consider that the serpentine and talcose rows. The coffee-plant usually begins to rocks forming the main ridge of the island bear at the fourth year from the nursery, or were derived from magnesian limestone and the fifth or sixth year from the seed. The hornblende or tremolite strata. The rocks tree is supposed to reach its prime at ten were doubtless originally deposited in a conyears old, becomes practically sterile at twen- formable sequence, but the serpentines were ty, and may by care be kept in bearing for left on top in the folding of the strata. The forty years. The extremes of the flowering hypothesis of a southwestward extension of season are from August to January. The the crystalline rocks across New Jersey has berry begins to form in November, and to been confirmed in a well-boring at Perth Amripen in April or May, when the barvesting boy. Considerable additions to the fossil flora have been obtained by Mr. Hallick from to endure the low temperature of 45° F., the ferruginous sandstone on the shore at with storm and wet for ten consecutive days. Tottenville. The occurrence of copper, de

The proportion of satiné or satin-like cocoons

| was extraordinary-fifty to two hundred and rived from the decomposition of pyrites, in

ninety-four in all. A somewhat similar trial the limonite ore beds at Todt Hill is men made in India some years ago was success. tioned. Several well-defined nearly driftless ful experimentally but not financially. In

this case the worms, under calico screens, areas north and west of the terminal mo

ate along the hedge at their will, new relays raine illustrate an interesting feature of gla

taking the place of the old ones as the parts ciation.

of the hedge over which they had eaten recovered their leaves.

RIVER water was substituted for spring NOTES.

water in one of the quarters of Paris sev.

eral times last summer. In every instance, Prof. D. S. MARTIN'S Geological Map of

according to the “Semaine Médicale," an in. New York City and its Environs is the only

crease of typhoid fever was observed. The map giving in detail the geology of the en

quantity of spring water brought to Paris tire region (fifty-five by sixty-eight miles)

being insufficient for the demand, the Counsurrounding the metropolis; it is compiled

cil of Public Hygiene and Health has deter. with great care from separate sources, some

mined to expedite the labors for the new of which are not easily accessible, and some

supply from springs recently bought by the are unpublished; it exhibits the relations of

city, and to insist that the use of the present many geological systems and series east of

spring waters be limited to food purposes. the Alleghanies; and shows striking features connected with the Glacial age, the terininal! HENRY Holt & Co. will publish soon, Inmoraine, and the ancient (now submerged) troduction to Systematic Botany. By Charles channel of the Hudson River. A pamphlet E. Bessey, professor in the University of of explanations accompanies every copy. A Nebraska, and author of Bessey's Botanies few copies of the second edition of the map | in the American Science Series. still reman for disposal at ten dollars each.

M. DE MALARCE recently informed the No more are likely to be published. Address

French Academy of Sciences that the use of Prof. Martin, at Rutgers Female College, West

the metric system had in 1887 become comFifty-fifth Street, New York.

pulsory in countries having an aggregate popMR. C. R. Orcutt remarks, in the West ulation of 302,000,000, being an increase of American Scientist, on the prominence of the 53,000,000 persons obliged to use it in ten great variety in rock-lichens in producing a years; use was optional in countries having pleasing effect in the scenery of Lower Cali- nearly 97,000,000 inhabitants; and was lefornia. Red, yellow, gray, and white are the gally admitted and partially applied in counprevailing colors, and the whole side of a cliff tries having an aggregate population of 395,is often covered by lichens of the same tint. 000,000. The systems of Japan, China, and Quartz, however, is not a favorite rock with Mexico are decimal but not metric. Hence the lichens, and consequently is seldom con- the metric system is legally recognized by cealed. The lichens frequently imitate, in | 794,000,000 people and decimal systems by coloring, the natural hue of the rocks on about 474,000,000 others. which they are found.

By the Hungarian trade law of 1884, A BOOK by Mr. George F. Kunz, the dis every commune in which there are fifty or tinguished mineralogical expert of the house more apprentices must provide for their ed. of Tiffany & Co., on the Gems and Precious ucation, and afford special courses of inStones of North America, is announced for struction. The apprentice schools in Budapublication by the Scientific Publishing Pesth contain a preparatory class, provide a Company, New York. It will be a popular course of three years, and are chiefly dedescription of the occurrence, value, history, signed to educate apprentices for the higher and archæology of precious stones in Amer- trade schools. Each district of the town ica, and of the collections in which they ex. must have at least one apprentice school. ist, with a chapter on pearls. The several No class is to have more than fifty or at species and varieties are described system most sixty pupils. Deserving pupils are proatically. The work will be sold at ten dol. moted at the end of each year. In the oth. lars a copy.

er towns and counties of the kingdom there MR. JOHN GRIFFITT, of Smyrna, has re

are 229 apprentice schools, with 1,237 teachported favorably on the results of a sea

ers and 38,081 pupils. son's experiments in rearing silk-worms on The Swedish Oyster-culture Society is try. mulberry-trees, under muslin screens, in the ing to acclimatize American oysters from open air, using the regenerated Bournabat Connecticut on the coast of the province of graine. They show that the regeneration was Bahus. The young oysters seem to thrive thorough and complete, enabling the worms well.

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