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leaving as an exit further south a narrow and grave-like tunnel. In the sloping roof of the gallery running upward from north to south, at a somewhat greater inclination than the floor, are thirty-six overlappings, corresponding to the number of decades in the orbit of the Egyptian year. And on the side wall of the daïs (at the upper end of the gallery) are five cusps, one above another, marking the birthdays of the five deities which terminated the orbit, while the crowning Jubilee of the Leap Year is masonified in the throne to which the whole ascent leads up immediately above the Chamber of New Birth. Finally (though there are other correspondences of a similar character, upon which it would be too long to enter), along the sloping walls are seven overlappings, one above another, arching over to the summit, and in the position corresponding to that occupied by our own globe among the planets runs a deep groove, or orbit, along its entire length. Thus we are confronted with a startling connection between the “Orbit” or “Passage of the Sun,” which plays so prominent a part in the Ritual, and the “Chamber of the Seven Rayed,” mentioned in the same sacred writings; the Chamber, that is, of the “seven great spirits in the service of their Lord, the Creator, who," the same books tell us,“ protect the coffin of Osiris,"—the Hall of the Orbit crowned by the seven-fold radiance of supreme Intelligences who overarch the splendour of creation.
A burst of triumph greets the adept as, mounting the Ascent of Justification, he accomplishes the Passage of the Sun (CXXVI.) and approaches the Chamber of the Orbit, the Hall of Illumination. deceased," we read (CXXVII.), "passes through the Gate of the Gateway. Prepare ye his hall when he comes. Justify his words against the
There is given to him the food of the gods of the Gate. There has been inade for him the crown which belongs to him as the dweller in the Secret Place.” In another place the Justified himself exclaims, “I have opened the gate of Heaven and earth” (at the junction of the Passages of Orbit and of Equinox). “The soul of Osiris rests there. I cross through the halls. No defect or evil is found in me." And once more the deceased prays that he may pass this hall. · Place me before thee, O Lord of Eternity. Hail, dweller of the West, goed Being, Lord of Abydos. Let me pass the roads of darkness; let me follow thy servants in the gate."
A similar note of exultation marks the passage in the Sai-an-Sinsir where we read of the great Tribunal and the House of Light. "Thou comest into the House of God with much purity,” exclaim the mourners,
addressing the Departed. “The gods have abundantly purified thee in the great tribunal. Thou art not shut out of Heaven: thy body is renewed in the presence of Osiris. Thou hast not been shut out from the house of Glory. Thou seest the path of beauty, completing every transformation which thou desirest." And the ancient coffin o Amamu bore on the outside this inscription, full of desire and hope, “ An act of homage to Anup, who passes the deceased over the distant paths, the fairest of the Karneter—" that is, the land of the holy dead. "Thine
• eyes,” say our own sacred writings, "shall see the King in his beauty; they shall behold the land that is very far off.”
Shortly beyond the Hall of the Orbit the structure changes its material to granite, forming as it were a house of itself within the Pyramid—the House of Light within the House of Osiris, entered by the grave-like passage behind the throne. This is the House of Glory described on the coffin so often quoted, the house to which the illuminated soul approaches after passing the tribunal of Osiris. Here is the "gate of the pure spirits,” which they alone can enter who are washed in the waters of Life, and radiant with the splendours of the Orbit. And here apparently takes place the solemn address described in the Sai-an-Sinsin of the gods in the House of Osiris (called in the Ritual the gods of the Horizon), followed by the response of the gods in the House of Glory. And straight on the Illuminate passes through the low channel, first into the beautiful ante-chamber or “ Flace of Preparation,” and then onward by the same low passage—each portion of which has a distinctive festival enumerated in the Book of the Dead-to the goal of his migration, the Seventh Hall in the House of Osiris, with its four portcullises and its open sarcophagus. Awake, awake, Osiris," so sing the mourners to the beloved Departed, now glorious in the House of Light, and united indissolubly with the divine Being, “awake; see what thy son Horus hath done for thee. See what thy father Seb hath done for thee. Raised is the Osiris." Again, in the final chapter of the Ritual (that of the Orientation) allusion is made both to the portcuilises and to the sarcophagus or coffer. “I have opened the doors,” says the Osiris-soul, “ I have opened the doors.
Well is the Great One who is in the Coffer. For all the dead shall have passages made to him through their embalming." “Now he is a god," the same chapter continues. “ His place is protected from the millions of fires. O Ammon-Ammon, the Ammon who art in Heaven. Give thy face to the body of thy son. Make him well in Hades. It is finished.”
Thus ends the strange and solemn dirge of ancient Egypt, preserving to the last its correspondence with that primæval building wherein the granite Trinity concealed within its height keeps watch over the " Abode of Flame” far in the subterranean depth below. Once perceived, the intimate connection between the secret doctrine of Egypt's most venerated books and the secret significance of Egypt's most venerable monument seems impossible to dissever. The path of Illumination which is conveyed by description in the Ritual is described masonically in the Grand Pyramid; and each form illustrates and interpenetrates the other. As we peruse the dark utterances and recognise the mystic allusions of the Book, we seem to stand amid the profound darkness enwrapping the whole interior of the building. All around are assembled the spirits and the Powers that make the mystery of the unseen world: the “ Secret Faces at the Gate,” the "gods of the Horizon and of the Orbit.” And dimly before our eyes, age after age, the sacred procession of the Egyptian dead moves silently along, as they pass through the “Gate of the Hill ” to the tribunal of Osiris. In vain do we attempt to trace their footsteps till we enter with them into the Hidden Places, and penetrate the secret of the House of Light.
But no sooner do we approach the passages and tread the chambers of the mysterious Pyramid than the teaching of the Sacred Books seems lit up as with a tongue of flame. The luminous veil itself melts slowly away, disclosing the Path of Illumination and the splendours of the Orbit; the celestial Powers and Intelligences shine forth from beneath their enshrouding symbols; the spirits of the Just grow lustrous with the rays that proceed from the Tribunal. And a glory which is not of earth reveals in its divine unity the full mystery of the Hidden Places, the House of New Birth, the Well of Life, the Lintel of Justice, the Hall of Truth, the Orbit of Illumination, the Throne of Judgment, and the Orient Chamber of the Open Tomb.
W. MARSHAM ADAMS.
LIBERALISM AND SOCIAL REFORM: A WARNING.
ITH the Reform Bill of 1885, so far, at least, as Great Britain is
concerned, the era of political agitation may be said to have ended and the popular mind to have been directed into the comparatively untrodden paths of social reform.
Some years ago, shortly after the Reform Act of 1867, an interesting scries of articles appeared in one of the English reviews under the title of “The Warnings of Cassandra.” In them the author predicted that the concession of predominant political power to the working classes would lead to the demand for reforms of a Socialistic character in the interests of that class, and that in the race for political power the leaders of both parties would sacrifice the principles of political economy and the permanent welfare of the State to the alluring and demoralising policy of panein et circenses.
It is, indeed, by no means remarkable that the industrial and agricultural classes should employ their political power for the advancement of their material interests. As was happily said by M. Laveleye,“ Equality of political rights leads inevitably to the demand for equality of conditions,” and “Equality of rights is proclaimed whilst inequality of facts still remains."
One significant feature is to be observed in the fact that the present movement for social reform springs from above rather than below. The cry for an eight hours bill, for further factory legislation, for improvement of sanitation, for the increase of allotments and small holdings, for the readjustment of the incidence of taxation, for old age pensions, is less the spontaneous demand of the working classes than the tactical inducement of the political strategist. Thus much must, however, be conceded—and the constant strikes of both organised and unorganised labour are in evidence—that the labouring classes are rapidly becoming impressed with the conviction that they do not receive that share of the value of the product of their labour to which they conceive themselves entitled, and that the time has arrived when, to use the somewhat crude phrase of Mr. Chamberlain, they propose “the exaction of ransom ” from the landlord and the capitalist.
It is a curious fact that of the two parties the Liberal was the more tardy in taking up questions of social reform. Great organic changes in the body politic, Home Rule for Ireland, disestablishment of the Welsh and Scotch Churches, the readjustment and amplification of electoral machinery, reform of the Upper Chamber—these were the cardinal features of its legislative programme, and those great social problems which now menacingly confront us were all but absolutely ignored. It is to the Tory initiative that we owe the keen solicitude now manifested by our party leaders and managers for the artisan and the labourer. The Tories joyfully availed themselves of social reform as a set-off against Home Rule, and while Liberal platforms were eloquent with the "wrongs of Ireland” the wrongs of England exercised a not less potent spell over Tory orators.
While it is beyond question that social reforms will among the people of Great Britain "hold the field” against purely political reforms, it is equally obvious that their progress will prove disappointingly slow to the “ Fabian” philosopher and the young men and old men who “ dream dreams” at Spring-gardens. Although both parties in the State are absolutely dependent upon the working-class vote, and the days of setting off the middle-class against the working-class are at an end, yet the control and direction of democracy is with the upper and middle-class. The working man has not yet invaded the field of Parliamentary leadership. Indeed, so far as labour representatives are concerned, with the exception of Mr. Burns and Mr. Keir Hardie, they have not hitherto got beyond the stage of trade union delegation. So long, indeed, as Parliamentary initiative is with the upper and middle classes—and there is no reason to anticipate a speedy change in this respect-so long will progress in social reforms be comparatively gradual. Yet, though this progress will be slow, it will be certain in its operation. Trade unions are ceasing to work as disintegrated units, and are learning the value of consolidation for the protection of the common interests of labour. Again, the application of the powers of organised
. labour to objects other than ordinary trade interests is zealously taught and eagerly learnt, and the present order of labour representative, who protects the narrow and sectional interests of particular trades, is likely to find its successors in those who believe that the wider field of